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Minister of Education, Ontario, Principal E. H. Oliver, Saskatoon, Dean Pakenham, W. S. Wallace, Esq. and Professor Innis; the last three of the University of Toronto.

To H. S. Perris, Esq., M.A., Director of the Anglo-American Society, I am deeply indebted for unfailing courtesy and helpfulness.


September 3, 1925


Importance of Atlantic Fisheries-Bank and in-shore fishing-

Interpretation of treaties—Hague judgment—Present state of

affairs—Pursuit of the fur-seal in Behring Sea-Award of Treaty

of 1892-Industry in recent years


Chapter IV


Quebec and the United States—War of 1812–4–Annexation out-

break in 1849—Effect of Civil War on Confederation-Decline

in United States of idea of annexation-Dominion Status and

Monroe Doctrine Canada a self-determining nation within

British Commonwealth



Common Elements of Population MERICANS of Anglo-Saxon origin and EnglishAM

speaking Canadians are more alike than any other separate peoples. Not even among the associated nations of the British Commonwealth does there exist such a substantial community of ideals and manners. The estranging ocean has kept Australia and New Zealand from intimacy with Canada, and of South Africa even less is known in the northern Dominion. But the older American is a genuine neighbour to the Canadian. Without much effort each finds himself reasonably comfortable in the home of the other, though each has managed his own household in the way he deemed of most advantage to himself.

The term “American" is given to citizens of the United States on the assumption that there is a common national life within the borders of this vast Republic, that the people of all the states that constitute it respond to similar political and social ideals, and that they are devoted to the flag which is an emblem of their principles and their common security. In Canada or in Europe the American is known at once, whether he comes from Maine or

from California, from Wisconsin or from Georgia. So also the term “Canadian” is employed as expressive of a unified national sentiment among the provinces of the Dominion. That such a sentiment exists is obvious to any one who has lived long enough in the different provinces to understand the life of their several communities. Halifax is more like Victoria than the former is like Portland, Maine, or the latter like Portland, Oregon. Toronto resembles Winnipeg more than the former resembles Buffalo or the latter Minneapolis. And in spite of difference of language and social and religious institutions the province of Quebec is closer in spirit to the Maritime provinces or to Ontario than to any of the United States.

But within these two comprehensive national units there are well-defined groups or regions, with characteristics and interests of their own. Professor Turner' has recently stated that the Americans are in reality a federation of sections rather than of states, and that these sections fall geographically into such groups as New England, the middle-eastern Atlantic states, the north-central, the north-western, the south-eastern, the south-western and those on the Pacific coast, each pursuing a path of its own in industry, politics and culture. Within Canada

1 Prof. F. J. Turner, “Sections and Nation,” Yale Review,

Oct. 1922.

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