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papers, than it is in the intellectual circles and among those who devote themselves to society. There are too few rich Canadians to make much display in the centres of American wealth. As for the literary groups of America, exclusive of the university circles, they have never come into direct touch with Canada. Of course, until recently her cities were small and were regarded as too provincial to produce literature that would be worth attention. Canadians were not branded as profane; they were regarded simply as farmers on distant clearings, fishermen on wintry seas, small shopkeepers and artizans none of whom would think of approaching the precincts of the Muses. Americans turned their eyes to and wrote for their own environment, the regions of Philadelphia and New York, Boston, and of late the West in some measure. It was an intelligent but exclusive society that felt a peculiar possession in Washington Irving and Hawthorne, in Emerson, Longfellow, Parkman, Holmes, Lowell, Howells, James and Cable. Channing, Brooks and Beecher, who would have graced any company, belonged to cultivated America; and John Hay, Choate and Mr Root, though citizens of the world, were at home in New York and Washington. But that whole society knew nothing of Canada, though it cannot be said that educated Canadians knew nothing of them. Their works were read, as also they were in England, north of the

border, and their fame had extended widely. Longfellow was always popular in Canada, and so were Lowell and Whittier. Parkman, of course, had his large following. Irving, Hawthorne, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Howells, James and Cable were enjoyed, and many took Emerson as a guide. When the New York Nation was edited by Godkin it was accepted in Canada as a literary criterion, and the monthly magazines of the eastern states have always had a good circulation in the Dominion. Nevertheless, Canadian readers have not immersed themselves in American literature. The older generation preferred simple things in line with their puritan tone of life, and the cultivated circles had catholic tastes, many of those who lived in the capitals of the provinces and in university towns having had the advantage of a good education in England. They were therefore naturally guided in their reading by what was current there. It was Tennyson and Browning, Dickens and Thackeray, Trollope and Jane Austen, Carlyle and Ruskin that were on their tables; and in some quarters Blackwood and the English magazines. Though the number of readers was not large it was of good quality. Even until to-day among the educated classes the standard has been set by the critical English judgment.

More recently Canadians are taking interest in their own literature. Here again, as in everything else, there are the two streams, French and English


—the former showing the patriotism, the simplicity and the idealism of the old French stock, from which a few poets of fine quality have sprung, one of them, Fréchette, having been crowned by the French Academy. There are also historians who have found the story of their people a rich theme for their imagination. Recently books have appeared which belong to the soil itself, portraitures of the life of the peasant in its variety of homely experiences.

English Canadian literature appeals to a wider constituency. Haliburton, the creator of The Clockmaker, was in a sense the father of American humour, and he has not been without successors. More recently such poets as have won recognition have owed their inspiration to Canadian life and scenery and their form to universal classical principles. Story writers and novelists, of whom there have been not a few, have found their themes in their own homeland and have done much to interpret Canada to the English-speaking world; though unfortunately some of the best writers have had to leave Canada to make their living. It may be said with confidence that the literature of Canada, which is by no means meagre or common-place, draws its inspiration mainly from her own history, her own people and her own scenery. The same is true of promising younger groups of painters who are endeavouring to realize their ideals at home in schools which show individuality and

accomplishment. In music, Canadian standards have been little influenced by the compositions of the American schools, but are indebted instead for their rapid recent development to European ideals; though especially in choral and organ music English tradition and practice have been predominant. Of course, New York, which is visited by all the leading artists of the world, has become one of the great cosmopolitan centres, and Canada is within her orbit.

In general, it may be affirmed that the United States has not been a primary source of influence on Canada in respect of literature and the fine arts; but the attractive power of the City of New York has been and will continue to be felt among the

younger men of letters and of art in the Dominion, especially as with her wealth she has accumulated so much of the best work of the world, and is also the headquarters of the leading publishing houses of America.


Canada as Interpreter

A the


REVIEW of the history of the relations between

the United States and Canada affords encouragement to those who believe that a better day will come for the world when all branches of the Englishspeaking peoples work in sympathy with one another. During the twentieth century these relations have steadily improved. There would, indeed, be little hope for humanity if two such neighbours as these nations could not dwell side by side in growing friendliness. By contrast how sad is the plight of Europe: country set against country, race against race, frontiers watched by suspicious guardians, enclaves and fragments of peoples only tolerated of necessity. But North America is comparatively happy. Fear of force is unknown, vessels of war are not seen on the lakes nor fortifications on the frontier, and such rivalries as exist spring not from incompatible racial ambitions but from legitimate trade between two peoples of mutual affinity and respect. It has been said that “borderers are seldom friends," and it is but human nature not to be content with the pleasant places in which one's lines have been cast; but after grievances have been periodically magnified

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