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From page 1 to page 163 was written and printed during the heat of the American struggle, in fact, soon after the war begun. The arguments concern the particular question of American Unity, and the universal question of Democracy. The first is still considered an open question, whilst the last has to be explored by the light of this its first real precedent. That the mere tense, as to events now recent, is in the pages indicated, in the future instead of the past, will doubtless be considered a blemish by some, whilst others will consider that success establishes argument.

The author can only state the fact, and submit the matter to the reader's judgment.

A volume “ on Democracy,” arose out of the present work, and is published concurrently with it.

“ Nation is a moral essence."--Burke. “The Republicans are the nation."--Jefferson. "A People cannot rise but by a principle or a man.

Mazzini. "Future History approaches. Historical effigy will no longer be the man-king; it will be the Man-People. True History benceforth charged with the education of the royal infant, the

People, will study the successive movements of Humanity. In that (ordinary) History there is everything except History. The lamp, which smokes on the opaque frontage of royal accessions, hides the starry reflection that the creators of civilization throw over ages.”Hugo.

“There is nothing in the world so sound as American Society. America has left behind it the cerements of the feudal system, hereditary aristocracy, primogeniture, entails, and the established Church.”—Goldwin Smith.

“Individuality will be a term of greater comprehension, and nations free and enlightened, will hereafter become one complex Individual, as single men now are.”Volney.

“ To realise these grades, of Individual National Genius, is the boundless impulse of the world-spirit, the goal of its irresistible urging.”-Hegel.

“Another good expedient would be to settle colonies in two or three parts of such a (conquered) State; because if that is not done, it will be necessary to maintain a standing arıny there. Colonies, though nothing like so expensive, are more to be depended on and much less disgustful." -Machiavel. (The Prince.)

“ We have done much, but still much remains. Time and time's influences are with us. We could almost afford to sit still and let these influences work."--Sherman to Grant, 1864.

“ If Europe leaves America to Republicanism-well. If she interferes, we interfere, and the right hand of our resistance is clasped in brotherhood with the Radicals of Europe to upset every throne on the Continent.”-Wendell Phillips.

THREE mighty problems, in which all Peoples and systems are concerned, are now, in the fulness of time, nearly worked out upon the American continent. The making of the American Nation. The making of the American Democracy.

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The making of the first Federal Republicani Empire.

A Nation is made of material Bases, Individuality and Organic Functions. By the first it exists; by the second it exists as a nation; and by the third it thinks, administrates, and acts.

A Democracy is made of a fourfold Freedom;-of School, Press, Church, and Assembly.

A Federation is made and preserved by an adjustment of relations between the parts and the whole.

Due and full consideration therefore of the American Federal Republic, has to do

1st. With the material Bases of that nation, or its Territory, Labor, and Population.

2nd. With its national Individuality or Oneness of Ideas and Interests, of Institution, Race, Language, Boundary, and Religion.

3rd. With the completeness of its Organic Functions, that is, of its Legislature and Executive.

4th. With the origin and power of its Democratic Equality, in School, Press, Assembly, and Church.

5th. With the result,—Material, Political, and Religious Development.

6th. With the result of that, namely, powers of Association, which compel political Equality.

7th. With the conflict of State Rights and the principle of Inequality, with the national bases, functions, and unity.

And lastly, With the final casting out of oligarchy secured by the recent war.

THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC has been made by and depends upon the complete development and due adjustment of the rights and properties of the Individual, State, and Nation.

THE NATION has been made by the (approximate) completion of the universality of its basis, in Education and the Suffrage,-by the adjustment of its relations with the “States,” and by the revindication of the national Sovereignty, after fifty years of abeyance.

The DEMOCRACY is being made by the completion of Individual Right,-even to the negro. By universal educational Development, which secures association, which everywhere and always produces Equality, the completion of Freedom.

The REPUBLICAN EMPIRE is established by a settlement of the Principle of Federation on natural and indefeasible grounds. It is this principle of such vast and almost boundless applicability in the future, which suggests a possibility of combination and Unity on a scale never before supposed to be practicable.

Thus it appears that “Nation,” “Democracy," and “Federation,” fulfil and complement each other To a given nationality are confided by the Supreme the destinies of a certain portion of the Human race. Gradually a mental, moral, and religious Freedom, develops an intensest "individuality” into a universal Statesmanship, makes nation and Government one, and as a Democracy, gives to the People entire Freedom, and to

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