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1493. America discovered, and supposed to be connected with Asia


1495. Treaty of Partition between Spain and Portugal


1499. First voyage from Europe to India, by Gama, around Africa


1500. Discovery of the Strait of Anian (probably Hudson's Strait) by Cortereal 39

1513. Discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Balboa

1517. Discovery of Mexico by Grijalva


1520. Voyage of Magellan from Europe to India, westward across the Pacific


1523. Conquest of Mexico completed by Cortes, who explores the adjacent coasts in

search of rich countries and passages for ships between the Atlantic and the



1532. Voyages of Hurtado Mendoza, Grijalva, and Becerra in the north Pacific, by

order of Cortes


1534. Becerra discovers the southern extremity of California


1535. Voyage of Cortes in the Gulf of California


1536. Cabeza Vaca completes his journey across the continent, from Florida to the
Californian Gulf


1539. Voyage of Ulloa, who discovers the west coast of California to the 30th degree

of latitude


Journey of Friar Marcos de Niza, who pretends to have discovered a rich

country, called Cibola, northwest of Mexico


1540-P3. Expeditions of Alarcon and Coronado in search of Cibola


Voyage of Cabrillo and Ferrelo, who discover the west coast to the 43d degree


Expedition of Villalobos from Mexico to India, and discovery of the Philippine



1547. Death of Cortes

1564. Expedition of Legaspi from Mexico to India; conquest of the Philippine Islands,

and discovery of the mode of navigating the Pacific from west to east, by Ur-


Establishment of the Spanish trade between America and India


Prohibitory measures of the Spaniards against the trade or settlement of other

nations in America


1578.80. Voyage of Francis Drake, who visits the northwest coast

30, 201

1580. Voyage of Gali from China to Mexico, in which he sails along the northwest


1587. Voyage of Cavendish around the world


42, 207

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Page. 1587. Attempts of the English to discover passages for ships between the Atlantic and

the Pacific Oceans, causing great uneasiness to the Spanish Government 39 1588. Pretended northern voyage of Maldonado from the Atlantic to the Pacific

40, 205 1592. Voyage of Juan de Fuca along the northwest coast 1594. Voyage of Cermenon, who is wrecked on the Bay of San Francisco

44 Spanish Government orders colonies to be established in California

44 1596. Voyage of Vizcaino in the Gulf of California

44 1602. Survey of the west coast to the 43d degree of latitude by Vizcaino

44 1603. Supposed discovery of a great river, near the 43d degree, by Aguilar, in one of Vizcaino's vessels

46 1610. Discovery of Hudson's Bay by Hudson

47 1616. Discovery of the navigation around Cape Horn, by Lemaire and Van Schouten 47 1640. Supposed northern voyage of Fonte from the Pacific to the Atlantic

41 1643. Voyage of De Vries in the Pacific, north of Japan

58 1669. Charler given to the Hudson's Bay Company by King Charles II. of England 75 Unsuccessful attempts of the Spaniards to plani colonies in California

48 1697. The Jesuits undertake the reduction of California for the King of Spain

48 The Russians conquer Kamschatka

58 1700. Father Kuhn, a Jesuit, ascertains that California is connected with the American continent

59 1711. Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, forms plans for exploring the seas east of Kamschatka, and for extending his dominion to America

150 1712. Louis XIV., King of France, grants Louisiana to Crozat

150 Supposed extent of Louisiana at that time

150 1714. Treaty of Utrecht between Great Britain and France, no boundary-line established in America agreeably to its provisions

150, 216 1728. Voyage of Beering, by order of the Empress Catherine of Russia, from Kamschatka into the Arctic Sea

The sea east of Kamschatka
ascertained to be a part of the Pacific

60 1741. Voyage of Beering and Tschirikof to America

60 Beering discovers the American continent near Mount Saint Elias

61 Beering is wrecked on one of the Aleutian Islands, where he dies

63 Tschirikof discovers America near the 56th degree of latitude, and returns to Kamschatka

63 . 1742. The survivors of Beering's crew return to Kamschatka, and begin the fur trade between that country and the islands eastward of it

64 1762. France cedes Louisiana to Spain

75 1763. France cedes Canada to England

149 General peace; British and French voyages of discovery

51 1766. Voyage of Synd

66 1766-'8. Journey of Carver through the country west of Lake Superior

76 1768. Voyage of Krenitzin and Levashef from Kamschalka

66 Expulsion of the Jesuits from America

50 1769. Establishment of the first colonies on the west coast of North America by the Spaniards

52 1769-'72. Journeys of Hearne, west and northwest from Hudson's Bay, to the Arctic Sea 75 1770. Dispute between Great Britain and Spain about the Falkland Islands

54 1771. First voyage from Kamschatka to China, by a party of Polish exiles, under Count Benyowsky

66 1774. Voyage of the Spaniards, under Perez, along the northwest coast to the 53d de

69 1775. Voyage of the Spaniards

, under Heceta, Bodega, and Maurelle, to the 58th de-
gree of latitude

Heceta discovers the mouth of a river, named by him San Roque, now called
the Columbia

1776. Captain Cook sails from England for the Pacific, in search of a northern pas.
sage from that sea to the Ailantic

78 1778. Cook examines the northwest coast of America to the 70th degree

79 1779. Death of Cook and of his successor Clerke

The English, under Gore, on their way to England, carry to Canton the firsi
furs which entered that place by sea

Voyage of the Spaniards under Arteaga, Bodega, and Maurelle, to Prince Wil.
liam's Sound

84 1783. Association of merchants in Siberia for carrying on the sur trade

88 Expedition under Shellikof, who establishes settlements on the Island of Kodiak 88 -1784 Publication of the Journals of Cook's Voyage

86 Preparations begun in many countries for carrying on the fur trade between Northwest America and China


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Year. 1786. 1787.


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Page. Voyage of the French, under La Pérouse, from Mount Saint Elias to Monterey 88 Berkely discovers the Strai of Fuca

91 Voyages of Porilock and Dixon

92 Sept. 30. The ship Columbia, Capt. Kendrick, and sloop Washington, Captain Gray, sail togeiher from Boston for the north Pacific

89 Formation of the Northwest Fur trading Company of Montreal

139 Captains Kendrick and Gray arrive at Nootka, where they spend the following winter

90 Voyages of Meares and Douglas from Macao to the northwest coast

100 Meares attempts to find the River San Roque, and pronounces that none such exists

93 Voyage of the Spaniards, under Martinez and Haro, to observe the progress of the Russians on the north Pacific coasts

96 Attempt cf Ledyard lo pass, through Russia and America, from Paris to the United States

94 Martinez and Haro sent by the Viceroy of Mexico to occupy Nootka

97 Complaints addressed by the Spanish Government to that of Russia against the encroachments of Russians in America

97 The Spaniards occupy Nootka, and seize vessels which are said to be the property of British subjects

104, 212 Captain Gray first sails around Queen Charlotte's Island, to which he gives the name of Washington Island

92 The Spaniards quit Nootka; which they, however, reoccupy in the following

117 The owners of the vessels seized at Nootka complain to the British Government, which demands satisfaction from that of Spain

111 The King of Spain asks aid from Louis XVI. of France to resist the demand, which is refused by the National Assembly of France

113 Spain promises satisfaction to Great Britain

114 Oct. 28. A convention is signed between those Powers, respecting the naviga.

tion of the Pacific and the right of occupying its vacant American coasts 114 Remarks maite on that convention in the British Parliament

115 The Spaniards from Nootka endeavor to explore the northwest coasts

118 Voyages of Fidalgo and Quimper

118 Voyage of the Russians, under Billings, from Kamschatka

122 Observations on the nature and duration of the engagements entered into be

tween Great Britain and Spain by the convention of October 28
Captain Vancouver sent from England with two ships to explore the northwest

coasts of America, and as commissioner to receive the lands and buildings at Nootka, to be restored by the Spaniards according to the convention of 1790 118 Voyages of the Spaniards under Malaspira and Elisa

118 Voyage of Marchand in the French ship Solide

119 Seven vessels arrive from the United Slates in the north Pacific, to be employed in the fur trade

119 Captain Ingraham, in the Hope, from Boston, discovers the Washington Islands 119 Captain Gray, in the Columbia, from Boston, discovers the mouth of the great river seen by Heceta in 1775, but cannot enter it

120 Captain Kendrick, in the Washington, írom Boston, discovers a new passage

from Nootka Sound to the sea, and purchases lands near Nootka from the

121 He commences the trade in sandal-wood

122 Unsuccessful voyage of the Russians from Kamschatka, under Hall and Saretschef

122 Voyages of the Spaniards under Caamano, and Galiano and Valdes

122 The Spaniards endeavor, unsuccessfully, to establish a new settlement on the Strait of Fuca

123 Queen Charlotte's, or Washington Island, explored and frequented by the

American fur-traders
Captain Quadra arrives at Nootka as commissioner on the part of Spain to exe-
cute the convention of 1790

Vancouver arrives on the American coast
, near Cape Mendocino

123 He examines the coast northward to the Strait of Fuca, and pronounces that there is no large river or inlet there

125 Gray, in the Columbia, on his way to examine the river which he had found in

the preceding year, meets Vancouver near the Strait of Fuca, and informs him
of the discovery, which Vancouver doubts

125 Gray discovers Pulfinci's Harbor, and enters the great river, (May 11,) which he names after his ship, the Columbia





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92, 123

Year. 1792.

Page. Observations on this discovery

129 Vancouver surveys the Strait of Fuca, partly in company with the Spanish vessels Sulil and Mexicana, under Galiano and Valdes

131 Observations on the Journal of the Voyage of the Sutil and Mexicana

132 Vancouver and Quadra meet at Nootka

132 Letter addressed to Quadra by Gray and Ingraham, (August 3,) detailing the

occurrences at Nootka in the summer of 1789 Vancouver's false synopsis of that letter

134 Negotiations between Vancouver and Quadra, 'as related by Howel

134 The commissioners agree to wait for orders from their Governments

134 Quadra communicates accounts and charts of Gray's disroveries to Vancouver 135



132, 212

Survey of the Columbia by Lieutenant Broughton, who attempts to appropriate


1794. 1795. 1796.




1804. 1805. 1806.

to himself the merit of first entering the great river

136 Vancouver winters at the Sandwich Islands; his proceedings there

137 Expedition of Rodman and a pariy of Americans from the mouth of the Missouri across the continent, to the Pacific.

140 Vancouver surveys the north west Archipelago

137 He winters at the Sandwich Islands, the sovereignty of one of which is ceded to Great Britain by Tamahamaha

138 Death of Quadra

138 Alava appointed Spanish commissioner in place of Quadra

138 Expeditions of Mackenzie across the continent to the Pacific, which he reaches near the 53d degree of latitude

140 Vancouver completes his surveys of the northwest coast, and sails for England 141 The Spaniards abandon Nootka

141 Broughton arrives as British commissioner at Nootka, which he finds occupied only by the savages

141 Spain declares war against Great Britain

143 Death of Vancouver, and publication of his Journals

139 Observations on his Journals

139 Whole of the direct trade in furs from the northwest coast to China carried on by Americans, from 1796 to 1814

143 Formation of the Russian-American Company, which receives a charter (1799) from the Emperor Paul

145 Foundation of Sitca, or New Archangel

, by the Russians, under Baranof 145 Louisiana ceded by Spain to France, which (1803) cedes it to the United States 149 Observations on the extent of Louisiana

150 Voyage of Krusenstern and Lisiansky from St. Petersburgh to the north Pacific 146 Desiruction of the ship Boston, of Boston, by the savages at Nootka Sound 142 Lewis and Clarke begin their expedition across the continent

152 They reach the mouih of the Columbia

152 And return to the United States

153 Frazer, and others in the employ of the Northwest Trading Company, cross the

Rocky Mountains, and form the first British establishment in that part of
America on Frazer's Lake

155 Krusenstern and Lisiansky complete their voyage of circunınavigation

147 Convention signed at London between the plenipotentiaries of Great Britain and

the United States, for the settleinent of boundaries in America, but not con-

154 Missouri Fur Company at Saint Louis

156 Henry establishes a trading post on the Lewis River

156 Russian Government complains to that of the United States of the misconduct of American fur-traders in supplying the natives on the north west coasts with

147 Negotiations on that subject ineffectual

148 Formation of the Pacific Fur Company at New York, by J. J. Astor

156 Parties sent by sea from New York, and by land from Saint Louis, to establish factories on the Columbia

157 Foundation of Astoria, near the mouth of that river

157 Adventurous journey of the land party under Hunt

158 Destruction of the ship Tonquin, which had carried out the other party, and her crew, by the savages near Nootka

158 War declared by the United States against Great Britain

158 The Russians establish themselves in California near Port San Francisco 148 Property of the Americans on the Columbia sold to the Northwest Company 160 Astoria taken by a British ship of war, and its name changed to Fort George 161 Peace of Ghent between Greai Britain and the United States


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