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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

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Preliminary Observations, 43 — Efforts of the Spaniards to discover Western Passages to

India - Successive Discoveries of the West Indies, the North American Continent, the

Eastern Passage to India, Brazil, and the Pacific Ocean, 44 - Search for a navigable Pas-
sage connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans - Supposed Discovery of such a Pas-
sage, called the Strait of Anian, 45 - Discovery of Magellan's Strait and the Western
Passage to India, 46 - Conquest' of Mexico by Cortés, who endeavors to discover new
Countries farther north-west, 48 - Voyages of Maldonado, Hurtado de Mendoza, Grijalva,
and Becerra, 52 - Discovery of California Expedition of Cortés to California, 53 — Pre-

tended Discoveries of Friar Marcos de Niza, 57 - Voyages of Ulloa, Alarcon, and Cabrillo,

58 – Expeditions of Coronado and Soto, 59 — The Spaniards desist from their Efforts to

explore the North-West Coasts of America, 63.

between Asia and America, 64 Measures of the Spanish Government to prevent other

European Nations from settling or trading in America, 66 - These Measures resisted by

the English, the French, and the Dutch – Free Traders and Freebooters infest the West

Indies, 68 — First Voyages of the English in the Pacific, 70 - Voyages of Drake and Cav-

endish, 71 - Endeavors of the English to discover a North-West Passage from the Atlan.

tic to the Pacific, 76 - False Reports of the Discovery of such Passages, 78 — Supposed

Voyages of Urdaneta, Maldonado, and Fonté, 77 — Voyage of Juan de Fuca, 84 - Espedi-

tions of Sebastian Vizcaino, 88 — Supposed Discovery of a great River in North West

America, 91.

CHAPTER III.

1608 to 1768.

The North-West Coasts of North America remain nearly neglected during the whole of this

Period, 93 - Efforts of the English and the Dutch to find new Passages into the Pacific -

Discovery of Hudson's Bay, Baffin's Bay, and the Passage around the Cape of Good Hope,

94- Establishment of British and French Colonies in America - Charter of the Hudson's

Bay Company Endeavors of the Spaniards to settle California unsuccessful, 95 - The

Jesuits undertake the Reduction of California, 96 — Their Success, 97 — American Treaty

between Great Britain and Spain; confirmed by Treaty of Utrecht, 99 — Discovery and

Settlement of Louisiana by the French, 100 — Limits of Louisiana, 101 – Expulsion of

the Jesuits from the Spanish Dominions, 106.

CHAPTER IV.

1769 TO 1779.

First Establishments on the West Coast of California founded by the Spaniards, 108 — Dis-

pute between Spain and Great Britain respecting the Falkland Islands, 111 — Exploring

Voyages of the Spaniards under Perez, 114– Heceta and Bodega, 117, and Arteaga and Bo-

dega, 125 - Discovery of Nootka Sound, Norfolk Sound, and the Mouth of the Columbia

River. 120 — Importance of these Discoveries, 124.

sippi, 141 – First Mention of the Oregon River, 142 - Inaccuracy of Carver's Statements,

144 – Journeys of Hearne through the Regions west of Hudson's Bay, 145 — Voyage of

Captain Cook to the North Pacific, 147 — His important Discoveries in that Quarter, and

Death, 157 Return of his Ships to Europe; Occurrences at Canton during their Stay in

that Port, 158.

CHAPTER VII.

1780 to 1789.

Commercial Results of Cook's Discoveries, 160 - Settlements of the Russians in America,

161 - Scheme of Ledyard for the Trade of the North Pacific, 162— Voyage of La Pérouse,

163 – Direct Trade between the American Coasts and Canton commenced, 165 — Voyages

of the English Fur Traders — Re-discovery of the Strait of Fuca, 171 — Voyage of

Meares, who endeavors to find a great River described by the Spaniards, 175 — First

Voyages from the United States to the South Pacific, and to Canton, 179— Voyage of the

Columbia and Washington, under Kendrick and Gray, from Boston to the North Pa-

cific, 180.

CHAPTER VIII.

1788 AND 1789.

Uneasiness of the Spanish Government at the Proceedings of the Fur Traders in the North

Pacific, 183 — Voyages of Observation by Martinez and Haro to the Russian American

Settlements, 185 — Remonstrances of the Court of Madrid to that of St. Petersburg,

against the alleged Encroachments of the latter Power, 186 – Martinez and Haro sent by the

Viceroy of Mexico to take Possession of Nootka Sound, 187 — Claims of Spain examined,

188 – Seizure of British and other Vessels at Nootka by Martinez, 191 —- Captain Gray,

in the Washington, explores the East Coast of Queen Charlotte's Ísland, and enters the

Strait of Fuca, 199 - Kendrick, in the Washington, passes through the Strait of Fuca –

Return of the Columbia to the United States, 200.

CHAPTER 1X.

1790.

Controversy between Great Britain and Spain respecting the North-West Coasts of America

and the Navigation of the Pacific, 202 - The Owners of the Vessels seized at Nootka

apply for Redress to the British Government, which demands Satisfaction for the alleged

Outrages, 203 - Spain resists the Demand, and calls on France for Aid, agreeably to the

Family Compact, 207 — Proceedings in the National Assembly of France on the Subject,
208 Spain engages to indemnify the British for the Property seized, 205 — Further De-
mands of Great Britain - Designs of Pitt against Spanish America, 206 — Secret Mediation
of France, through which the Dispute is settled, 209 - Convention of October, 1790,
called the Nootka Treaty, 210— Proceedings in Parliament, and Reflections on this Cons
vention, 211.

Cession of Louisiana by France to the United States, 276 - Inquiries as to the truc Extent

of Louisiana, 277 - Erroneous Supposition that its Limits towards the North had been
fixed by Commissaries agreeably to the 'Treaty of Utrecht, 281 – President Jellerson sends
Lewis and Clarke to examine the Missouri and Columbia, 284 - Account of their Expedi.
tion from the Mississippi to the Pacific, 285.

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