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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, AND GENERAL LITERATURE

Ninth Edition-Popular Reprint

VOLUME XV

NEW YORK

HENRY G. ALLEN AND COMPANY

PUBLISHERS
1888.

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

ARGYLE PRESS, PRINTING AND BOOKBINDING, 265 & 267 CHERRY ST., N. Y.

VOL. XV.-LOO-MEM).

Total number of Articles, 677.

PRINCIPAL

LOO. HENRY JONES, author of "Card Essays" LORRAINE. REINHOLD PAULI, LL.D., late Professor in Gottingen University.

LOTTERIES. W. C. SMITH, LL.B.
LOTZE. J. THEODORE MERZ.

LOUISIANA. HENRY GANNETT, Washington.
LUBRICANTS. Prof. R. H. SMITH, Birmingham.
LUCAN. RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D.

LUCERNE. JOHN BALL, M.A., F.R.S., Author of "Alpine Guide."

LUCIAN. F. A. PALEY, LL.D., editor of "Eschylus" and "Euripides."

LUCRETIUS. W. Y. SELLAR, LL D., Professor of
Humanity, University of Edinburgh.
LUKE. Rev. EDWIN HATCH, D. D., Vice-Principal of
St Mary Hall, and Grinfield Lecturer, Oxford.
LULLY. Rev. EDWIN WALLACE, M. A., Vice-Provost,

Worcestor College, Oxford.
LUTHER AND LUTHERANS.

Rev. Prof. T. M.

LINDSAY, D.D.

LYCANTHROPY. J. F. M'LENNAN, LL.B.
LYCIA. E. H. BUNBURY, author of "Ilistory of Ancient
Geography."

LYCURGUS. Rev. W. J. BRODRibe, M.A.

LYDIA. Rev. A. H. SAYCE, M. A., Deputy Professor
of Comparative Philology, University of Oxford.
LYLY. Mis HUMPHRY WARD.
LYRE. A. J. HIPKINS.

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MACHINE TOOLS. C. P. B. SHELLEY, Lecturer on
Machinery, King's College, London.
MACKEREL A. GÜNTHER, M. D., F. R.S.
MACLAURIN. BENJAMIN WILLIAMSON, F.R.S., Trin-
ity College, Dublin.

MACLEOD. Rev. WALTER C. SMITH, D.D., author of "Olrig Grange."

MADAGASCAR. Rev. J. SIBREE, Jun., author of
"The Great African Island."
MADEIRA. J. Y. JOHNSON, author of "Handbook to
Madeira."

MADRAS. W. W. HUNTER, LL.D., Director-General
of Statistics to the Government of India.
MAGIC. E. B. TYLOR, D.C.L., LL. D., F.R.S.
MAGIC, WHITE. J. ALGERNON CLARKE.
MAGIC LANTERN. Prof. JAMES BLYTH, M. A.
MAGIC SQUARE. Rev. A. H. FROST, M. A.
MAGNESIUM. Prof. DITTMAR, F.R: S.
MAGNETISM. GEORGE CHRYSTAL, M. A., Professor of
Mathematics, University of Edinburgh.
MAGNETISM, ÁNIMAL. J. G. M'KENDRICK, M. D.,
LL.D., Professor of the Institutes of Medicine,
University of Glasgow.
MAHMUD. Gen. R. MACLAGAN, R. E.
MAHRATTAS. Sir RICHARD TEMPLE, Bart., D.C.L.
MAIMONIDES. S. M. SCHILLER-SZINESSY, Ph.D.,
Reader in Talmudic Literature, University of Cam-
bridge.
MAINE JOSHUA L. CHAMBERLAIN, President of Bow.
doin College, Brunswick, Maine.

MAIZE. Rev. GEORGE HENSLOW, M. A., author of

"Floral Dissections."

MALACHI. Prof. W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL. D. MALARIA. CHAS. CREIGHTON, M.A., M. D.

CONTENTS.

MALAY PENINSULA AND MALAYS. Prof. KEANI and REINHOLD ROST, Ph.D.

MALDIVE ISLANDS. Col. HENRY YULE, C. B.
MALTA. Miss L. TOULMIN SMITH.
MALTHUS. THOMAS KIRKUP, M. A.
MAMMALIA. W. H. FLOWER, LL.D., F.R.S., Pro-
fessor of Comparative Anatomy, Royal College of
Surgeons, and Surgeon-Major DOBSON, F.R. S.
MAMMOTH CAVE. Rev. H. C. HOVEY.
MANCHESTER. W. E. A. AXON.
MANCHURIA. Prof. R. K. DOUGLAS.
MANDEANS. Prof. K. KESSLER, University of Mar.

burg. MANDEVILLE, JEHAN DE. E. B. NICHOLSON, M. A., Bodleian Library, Oxford, and Col. YULE. MANICHEISM. ADOLF HARNACK, Professor of Church History, University of Giessen. MANITOBA. Prof. GEORGE BRYCE, Winnipeg. MANURE. A. VOELCKER, F. R. S., Professor of Chemistry to the Royal Agricultural Society of England. MAP. SOPHUS RUGE, Ph.D. MARAT. H. MORSE STEPHENS. MARBLE. F. W. RUDLER, Curator of Museum of

Practical Geology, London. MARCANTONIO. SIDNEY COLVIN, M.A., Slade Professor of Fine Art, University of Cambridgo. MARINES. Captain C. C. KING, Professor of Tactics, &c., Royal Military College, Sandhurst. MARK. Rev. Prof. HATCH. MARLBOROUGH. W. P. COURTNEY. MARLOWE. ALGERNON C. SWINBURNE... MARMOT. OLDFIELD THOMAS, British Museum. MAROT. GEORGE SAINTSBURY, M.A. MARRIAGE. EDMUND ROBERTSON, M. A., Professor of

Roman Law, University College, London. MARSEILLES. GASTON MEISSAS.

MARTIAL. Prof. SELLAR.

MARTINEAU. Miss CLEMENTINA BLACK, author of "Orlando."

MARVELL. OSMUND AIRY, M. A.

MARY (THE VIRGIN). Rev. J. SUTHERLAND BLACK.
MARY (OF ENGLAND). JAMES GAIRDNER, Public
Record Office, London.

MARY (OF SCOTLAND). A. C. SWINBURNE.
MARYLAND. W. T. BRANTLY, Baltimore.
MASANIELLO. G. H. BIANCHI, M. A.
MASSACHUSETTS. JUSTIN WINSOR, Librarian, Har-
vard University, Cambridge, Mass.
MASSINGER. Prof. MINTO.

MATCHES. JAMES PATON, Curator of Corporation
Galleries of Art, Glasgow.

MATHEMATICS. Prof. CHRYSTAL

MATTHEW OF PARIS. J. BASS MULLINGER, M. A. MAURITIUS. Rev. J. SIBREE, Jun.

MAZZINI. Rev. J. S. BLACK.

MEASLES. J. O. AFFLECK, M.D.
MEASUREMENT. R. S. BALL, LL.D., F.R.S., Royal

Astronomer for Ireland.

MECCA. Prof. W. ROBERTSON SMITH.
MECHANICS. P. G. TAIT, M. A., Professor of Natural
Philosophy, University of Edinburgh, and the late
W. J. MACQUORN RANKINE, LL.D., F.R. S.
MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. T. STEVENSON, M.D.,
Lecturer on Chemistry, Guy's Hospital, London.
MEDICI. Prof. P. VILLARI, Royal Institute, Florence,
author of "Savonarola" and "Machiavelli."
MEDICINE. CHARLES CREIGHTON, M.A., M.D., and
J. F. PAYNE, M.D.

MEDINA. Prof. W. ROBERTSON SMITH. MEDITERRANEAN. J. Y. BUCHANAN, late of the "Challenger" Expedition.

MELANCHTHON. Rev. JOHN WILSON, M. A. MELBOURNE. A. SUTHERLAND, M. A., Carlton College, Melbourne.

MEMLING. J. A. Crowe, author of "Painting in Italy."

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