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ily advanced, Colonel Long taking the lead; drove more than started before the skirmishers became the enemy from all the ridge north of the creek. closely engaged in all the woodland covering the Upon entering the valley, Colonel Long's com- ridge. The advance was steady and rapid, clearmand passed to the right, along the base of the ing the enemy from the ridge as we went. When ridge, to the west. The Eighty-fourth and Sev- my lines had reached the creek at the gorge, and enty-fifth Illinois infantry were moved forward beyond Davis's house in the valley, the skirmishin the valley on the left of the cavalry, covering ers well advanced beyond, a staff-officer rode up the slope of the eastern ridge with skirmishers, and informed me that General Palmer desired me thrown forward and to the left to cover the ridge to have halted on the ridge. I immediately haltand flank of the line. The Twenty-fourth Ohio ed where we were. We remained in this posiwas thrown forward in rear of the cavalry to sup- tion during the afternoon, having heavy skirmishport them. In this form we pressed the enemy ing and artillery practice in the mean time, the to within three hundred yards of the railroad, enemy occupying the ridge and valley south of the command of Colonel Long driving the rebel the creek that I had possession of the day before. infantry out of their camps immediately at the With ten thousand more men on our left, Dalton, road. We continued in this position, skirmish- no doubt, would have fallen an easy prey to our ing in front, for some time, when lines of the en- arms. At night, the object of the reconnoissance emy's infantry commenced an advance upon us. being ended, we were ordered, and, with the diA few well-directed rounds from the section of vision, retired to Dr. Lee's farm, on the west of artillery, with the aid of a heavy skirmish-line, the Tunnel Hill range of ridges, and three miles brought them to a halt and put them under cov- north of that place.
It was now near night, and learning from February 26th. At about nine o'clock A.M., I prisoners that Stewart's rebel division was in our moved my command south-east one mile, on to front, and Stevenson's near by, and not know- the ridge two miles north of the Tunnel, threw ing that it was possible to have any assistance out some skirmishers on the eastern slope, met during the night, at dusk I withdrew the forces, some rebel cavalry that were attempting to folleaving the cavalry and Eightieth Illinois infantry low us, and drove them out of sight and hearing. at Neil's farm, and retired the residue to widow In the evening, moved down south-west into the . Burk's house, reported the facts, and rested for valley at Israel's house; rested until nine o'clock the night.
Was ordered and marched westward to the February 25th. At early day Brigadier-General Stone Church, near Catoosa Platform, and tested Cruft, division commander, promptly came up the balance of the night. with the other two brigades, and by his orders February 27th. Started at twelve o'clock M., all moved forward to Neil's farm, the enemy hav- and marched to Ewing's farm, north nine miles, ing reoccupied the ridge where the road passes and camped for the night. over toward Davis's house, and for near a mile to February 28th. Marched at seven o'clock A.M. the north. Our lines were soon formed, my bri- Arrived in camp at this place at twelve o'clock 4. gade on the ridge to the right, covering the sum- Command in good condition. mit and extending well over the western slope; I can with pleasure refer to the prompt and the Thirtieth Indiana, Seventy-fifth and Eightieth willing coöperation and obedience of the officers Illinois in the front line, from right to left, in the and men of my command during this short camorder I have named them; the Eighty-fourth paign, and I regard myself as truly fortunate, in Illinois, Twenty-fourth Ohio, and Thirty-sixth being surrounded by first-class officers, both of Indiana in the second line. The Second brigade, infantry and artillery, and braver soldiers never Colonel Champion, formed on my left, Colonel went upon a battle-field. Long's cavalry extending his left," the other bri- My staff-officers and non-commissioned staff gade, Colonel Dickerman, in reserve. It was now have alike my kindest regards for their efficient about nine A.M. Major-General Palmer appeared aid and assistance during the dangers and faon the field, and wished to see me. I reported tigues. to him in front on the skirmish-line. After con- The following shows the casualties of the brisultation, the General informed me that we would gade while on the reconnoissance: pot advance until General Baird's division should Colonel J. E. Bennett, Seventy-fifth Illinois.arrive in the valley to my right. About eleven Wounded, one commissioned officer, six enlisted o'clock all was ready and I sounded the forward, men; missing, one commissioned officer; total, and the whole line moved off in splendid order. two commissioned officers, six enlisted men; agI rode with Colonel Bennett, Seventy-fifth Illi- gregate, eight. nois, whose battalion was the battalion of direc- Lieutenant-Colonel W. M. Kilgour, Eightieth tion. Was upon the summit of the ridge, with Illinois. -Wounded, four enlisted men; total, good opportunities to observe well the movements four enlisted men; aggregate, four. and grandeur of the scene, to the right and left Colonel L. H. Waters, Eighty-fourth Illinois.-of the long blue lines moving to battle. A more Wounded, three enlisted men; total, three engrand sight my eye has never beheld. The di- listed men; aggregate, three. rection was left oblique, to keep the bearing of Lieutenant-Colonel 0. D. Hurd, Thirtieth Inthe ridge, my artillery following the lines closely, diana. — Missing, three enlisted men ; total, three and bearing past at every halt. We had not enlisted men; aggregate, three.
Lieutenant-Colonel 0. H. P. Casey, Thirty- the west into the Tennessee River. I immedisixth Indiana.—Killed, one enlisted man; wound- ately went forward in advance of the troops, to ed, two enlisted men; total, three enlisted men; make observations and learn the position, and aggregate, three.
found the enemy's pickets on the east bank and Lieutenant-Colonel T. M. Cockerill, Twenty- ours on the west, within thirty paces of each fourth Ohio.—Wounded, twelve enlisted men; other, enjoying a friendship which was soon total, twelve enlisted men ; aggregate, twelve. after broken and turned into wrath upon the
Lieutenant William II. Hulman, battery H, approach of my forces. Fourth artillery.-Wounded, one enlisted man ;
I discovered soon that the creek was more total, one enlisted man; aggregate, one.
swollen than was expected, and the only means Total.-Killed, one enlisted man; wounded, of passage was to repair a place in the centre of one commissioned officer, twenty-eight enlisted the bridge, of about fifteen feet, which was strongmen ; missing, one commissioned officer, three ly covered by the enemy from their rifle-pits on enlisted men; total, two commissioned officers, the opposite side and from the railroad embankthirty-two enlisted men; aggregate, thirty-four. ment, which gave them complete protection. I
My sincere condolence and high appreciation ordered up the Eighty-fourth Illinois, supported of the merits of these braves attend them. by the Seventy-fifth Illinois. The former, in line
Major Watson, Seventy-fifth Illinois, wounded with proper skirmishers, advanced through a by a falling tree-effects of artillery firing-de- bayou or pond, in some places up to their waists, serves notice as a noble officer. Hope he may drove the enemy under cover, and soon occupied
the west bank of the creek ; and Captain ChamFor more detailed accounts, I refer to the ac- bers, of the Thirty-sixth Indiana, with a detail, companying reports of the regimental and battery was sent forward to do the work, but it was commanders. Exhibit A, herewith, gives the to- found impracticable without too great a loss. In pography of the ground in the vicinity of the the mean time Captain Bacon, with the Twentycontest. All of which is respectfully submitted. fourth Ohio, had moved upon the left of the two
I have the honor to be, Major, your humble Illinois regiments, and was briskly skirmishing servant,
W. GROSE, with the enemy along the creek. General Hook-
ticability of the crossing, and desired to see me.
On reporting to the General, he directed me to Doc. 141.
take the other four regiments not thus in posi
tion and proceed to the creek a mile above and BATTLE OF MISSION RIDGE.* to the right, where General Woods's brigade, of
General Osterhaus's division, was constructing a
pole-bridge, which was nearly completed. When HEADQUARTERS THIRD BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, I arrived at the crossing point, I met General FOURTH ARMY CORPS, WHITESIDE, TENN.,
Woods there. He had some skirmishers over December 4, 1963. Lieutenant J. A. Wright, A. A. A.G.:
the creek and a regiment ready to follow, and as Sır: In accordance with duty, I have the honor soon as that regiment passed over, the General to report the part my brigade took in the recent kindly gave me the use of the bridge. I at once battles before Chattanooga. On the twenty-third crossed over the four regiments, and prolonged of November ultimo, under orders, and the com- the line of battle on his right. Í formed in doumand of Brigadier-General Cruft, I marched from ble lines, the Thirty-sixth Indiana and Fifty-ninth this place with part of my command, Eighty- Illinois in front line, the right of my lines confourth Illinois, Colonel Waters ; Ninth Indiana, necting with the left of the brigade of General Colonel Suman ; Seventy-fifth'Illinois, Colonel Whittaker and of General Geary, still to my Bennett; Thirty-sixth Indiana, Major Trusler; right, who had advanced from a crossing stiil Fifty-ninth Illinois, Major Hale; Twenty-fourth farther to the right and higher up the creek. The Ohio, Captain Bacon. Effective force, officers line was thus formed, obliquely up the slope of and men, one thousand six hundred and ninety- the mountain, and the grand forward move was three. We marched that day to Lookout Valley
soon in motion, moving forward as fast as the and reported to Major-General Hooker, where we men and officers could climb, (for all were on foot.) rested for the night, and were ready to move at sweeping every thing before them, over rebel daylight on the morning of the twenty-fourth, at camps and rebel rifle-pits. As the lines advanwhich time I was ordered with my command to ced so that the left of General Wood's brigade the front, and informed that General Hooker de- neared the position of the Eighty-fourth and Sevsired to see me in person. I repaired to his quar- enty-fifth Illinois, flanking the rifle-pits of the ters, and received instructions to move with my enemy defending the crossing, the enemy were coinmand and drive the enemy from and effect a
so surprised at the “Yankee trick" that most of crossing of Lookout Creek at a destroyed bridge, them threw down their arms and surrendered. near the railroad crossing over that creek, which These two regiments immediately crossed under courses along the base of Lookout Mountain on command of General Crust, and extended the
main line of battle on the left, covering and ad* See Document 18, ante.
vancing on the main Chattanooga road over the
COLONEL GROSE'S REPORT.
point of the mountain slope. These two regi- my had evacuated Chattanooga Valley. These ments of Colonels Waters and Bennet, the latter facts being reported, the whole force, under Genin front, with the whole line, only halted when eral Hooker, moved about ten o'clock A.m., to. imperative orders were received to " pursue to ward Rossville, situated at the base of Missionthe crest of Lookout Slope only, and no farther," ary Ridge, five miles distant from Chattanooga, until farther orders. Th Eighty-fourth and at which place the La Fayette road passes through Seventy-fifth Illinois had already been gallantly a gorge in the ridge. Having to rebuild the depressed forward four or five hundred yards in stroyed bridge over Chattanooga Creek, it was advance of the crest, and beyond and to the left after two o'clock P. M. before our advance, General of the White House, and sufficiently far to uncover Osterhaus's division, reached the rebel lines the mouth of Chattanooga Creek and allow troops strongly posted in the gorge. The attack was to pass from the city to our rear. My other re- soon made, however, and the advance division giments were in the line rather above and to the forced the passage, routed the enemy and moved right of the White House, but fully covering the forward through the gorge. As my advance applateau of ground on which it is situated. proached the passage in the ridge, General Crust
There were two regiments of the troops on my directed me to move up the point of the ridge to right that were immediately under the high ledge the left and at right angles with the road.
As of rocks at the top of the mountain that were far- we assumed the point of the ridge, a brisk fire ther advanced than the centre of the line. I was was opened from the suinmit upon some cavalry greatly annoyed with overtures to relieve these escort in our front. They soon found other quartwo regiments with regiments from my command, ters and gave way for our infantry. The Ninth and before nightfall, I sent the Fifty-ninth Illi- Indiana, Colonel Suman, was in advance, and, nois and Ninth Indiana to relieve them, making seemingly by intuition, came into line with skirnow four regiments of mine in the front line, two mishers in front, supported by the Fifty-ninth on the extreme left and two on the right and far Illinois, Major Hale, in double-quick, on the left, in the advance of all other regiments. At the point the Eighty-fourth Illinois and Thirty-sixth Indinow occupied by these two regiments there was ana in the second line, the Seventy-fifth Illinois constant firing kept up on both sides, and about and Twenty-fourth Ohio forming the third line. eight o'clock p.M., Colonel Suman and Major Hale, By the time the rear lines were formed, the adcommanding those two regiments on the right, vance line had charged and driven the enemy from reported their ammunition exhausted, when the two lines of barricades, visiting the enemy with Thirty-sixth Indiana and Twenty-fourth Ohio severe punishment, killing and wounding a large were sent to relieve them, who held the position number and taking all the balance prisoners until about midnight, when the firing ceased on that were behind the barricades. Two regiments both sides, the enemy evidently having retired of General Whittaker's brigade soon came up from our front, and, as afterward appeared, from on the left of my second and third lines on the top of the mountain, but not until these two the slope of the ridge, General Geary's divilatter regiments had also exhausted their ammu- sion advancing still further to the left in the valnition. Thus all my regiments had been in the ley; at the same time General Osterhaus's divifront line during this engagement. The ground sion was advancing to the east side of the ridge in front of the centre of the line, in and about the to my right. White House, I believe, was the common stock We continued the advance, meeting and driving of the skirmishers of all the commands engaged, more of the enemy northward on the ridge. At the and at the house they found in park two pieces same time heavy firing was going on a couple of of the enemy's artillery, (with the limbers) which miles to our front. As we approached, it seemed was not in use upon our advance. Early the to be advancing toward us, which turned out to next morning, the enemy having entirely left the be General Johnson's division, Fourteenth corps, mountain, the Stars and Stripes waved upon the driving the enemy south on the ridge. When his point of rocks on the summit of this grand old lines and ours approached within eight hundred mountain. This was the conclusive evidence to or nine hundred yards of each other, the enemy's observers for many miles around that one of the forces, between us, threw down their arms, and grandest feats of the war had been performed by firing and destruction of life ceased; and it apour soldiers in successfully storming this strong- peared to me that we had more prisoners between hold, and taking most of the enemy, that were than we had men in our own lines. Here we there posted, prisoners. Our advancing lines disposed of prisoners, cared for the wounded, completely enfiladed most of the enemy's works, buried the dead, and rested for the night. Colwhich were poorly adapted to the defence of the onel Suman and Major Hale, with their regiments, position.
deserve favorable mention for daring and gallant Early on the morning of the twenty-fifth No-conduct on this occasion. vember, the Eighty-fourth and Seventy-fifth Illi- On the morning of the twenty-sixth, our forces nois were advanced on the left to make a recon- moved on the Ringgold road in pursuit of the noissance, and captured some rebel guards, camps, routed enemy. Two divisions of Fourteenth baggage, and several boxes of arms, near the road corps, under Major-General Palmer, had the adfrom Chattanooga up the mountain to Summer vance, followed by General Osterhaus's division; Town, and found that the main force of the ene- then came the two brigades of our division, followed by General Geary's division. Delayed at buried yet. All good clothing had been stripped Chickamauga to rebuild bridge, we reached Pea- from the bodies. Such a sight of inhumanity I vine Valley about sunset, and the forces advanc- hope never to witness again. On the second of ed cautiously through its mud and dense under- December, we marched to our old quarters at brush, until the advance reached the La Fayette this post, and thus ended our part of a fruitful road, where it found a battery and train of the campaign. enemy moving. One volley captured all, scatter- My command took prisoners as follows, the ing the men therewith in every direction. Gen- evidence of which is herewith forwarded: eral Palmer's forces there took the Grayville road List of names and rank taken by my provostto the left. Our division moved forward out of marshal, two hundred and forty-five; wounded on the valley, ascended the hill, gathering up many Mission Ridge and prisoners, twenty-one; vouchscattering prisoners, and rested for the night, er of Lieutenant Jaquis, Provost-Marshal of divifour miles from Ringgold.
sion, one hundred and eleven ; with officers, four; At early day on the morning of the twenty- vouchers of Captain Woodbury, of Twenty-ninth seventh, General Osterhaus, taking the advance, Ohio, one hundred and fifty-nine ; vouchers of followed by our division, we moved forward. At Captain Tolby, Twenty-seventh Missouri, thirtyabout eight o'clock we approached the town and seven ; captured by Colonel Suman on Missionary found the enemy in 'force on White Oak Ridge Ridge, and turned over to the regiment on his and in the gorge through which Middle Chicka- right, as he states, which was one of General mauga flows beyond the town.
Wood's regiments, two hundred. Total, seven A severe engagement soon commenced, our hundred and seventy-seven. forces endeavoring to carry the position by a front The conduct of the officers and men of my assault. The action lasted about four hours, with command was highly commendable, and I thank heavy loss to us; at last the place was carried them for a prompt obedience and execution of all and the enemy driven. My brigade had been orders, without regard to danger or fatigue. placed in position in the town, took no part, but I am under obligations to my staff-officers for was under fire, where I lost one man killed. their kind and willing assistance rendered me
Shortly after the enemy had been driven from during the campaign. their position, I received orders to move, with my The following is a table of casualties in the command, in pursuit, and was soon under way. brigade during the campaign, namely : Skirmishing with their rear-guard soon commen- Major G. Trusler, Thirty-sixth Indiana volunced, and destroyed bridges made the pursuit difti- teer infantry : killed, one enlisted man; woundcult and slow. We followed them until night, a dis-ed, ten enlisted men; total, eleven enlisted men ; tance of three miles, and found what appeared to be aggregate, eleven. a division in a well-selected position, and in accord- Colonel J. C. B. Suman, Ninth Indiana volunance with orders, I returned to Ringgold. We teer infantry: killed, two enlisted men ; woundrecaptured two of our wounded men, took two ed, one commissioned officer, twenty-two enlistmore prisoners, found broken caissons, wagons, ed men ; total, one commissioned officer, twentyambulances, dead and dying men of the enemy four enlisted men; aggregate, twenty-five. strewn along the way to a horrible extent.
Major C. Hale, Fisty-ninth Illinois volunteer inWe remained at Ringgold until the evening of fantry: killed, one enlisted man; wounded, four the thirtieth November, when I received orders commissioned officers, thirteen enlisted men; toto return to Whiteside via the Chickamauga bat- tal, four commissioned officers, fourteen enlisted tle-field. We marched to Reed's farm, on west men ; aggregate, eighteen. Chickamauga, six miles, and camped for the night. Colonel J. E. Bennett, Seventy-fifth Illinois On the first day of December, we crossed the volunteer infantry: wounded, two enlisted men; creek, proceeded two miles to the memorable bat- total, two enlisted men; aggregate, two. tle-field of the nineteenth and twentieth of Sep- Colonel L. H. Waters, Eighty-fourth Illinois tember, 1863. We buried the remains of about volunteer infantry: wounded, four enlisted men; four hundred of our brave fallen comrades that total, four enlisted men ; aggregate, four. had been the prey of animals for two and a half Captain G. M. Bacon, Twenty-fourth Ohio volmonths. On the left of our line, the dead of the unteer infantry: wounded, four enlisted men; enemy over a portion of the ground had been total, four enlisted men; aggregate, four. well buried, and ours tolerably well covered, but Killed, four enlisted men ; wounded, five comtoward the centre and right but few of ours were missioned officers, fifty-five enlisted men ; total, attempted to be buried or covered at all. The five commissioned officers, fifty-nine enlisted men; heads and feet of those on that part of the field aggregate, sixty-four. that had been slightly covered, were mostly un- Knowing that I filled every post of danger recovered, and frequently found separated and some quired of me, I rejoice that so few of my men distance from the bodies. On the west of the have fallen, compared with former battles. Lists road from Gordon and Lee's Mills to Rossville, of the casualties accompanying the reports of tho and on our centre and right, and as far as I went regimental commanders respectively, which for to the south, but few burials had been attempted further particulars are herewith forwarded. of either party.
I have the honor to be your obedient servant, We had not time to explore the entire field,
W. GROSE, and no doubt many of our soldiers remain un
Third Congress of the Confederate States of MESSAGE OF JEFFERSON DAVIS.
America. The provisional government was form
ed, its congress held four sessions, lived its apDELIVERED MAY 2, 1864.
pointed term, and passed away. The permanent
government was then organized, its different To the Senate and House of Representatives of departments established, a Congress elected, the Confederate States of America :
which also held four sessions, served its full conYou are assembled under circumstances of deep stitutional term, and expired. You, the second interest to your country; and it is fortunate that, Congress under the permanent government, are coming as you do, newly elected by the people, now assembled at the time and place appointed and familiar with the condition of the various by law for commencing your session. All these localities, you will be better able to devise mea- events have passed into history, notwithstandsures adapted to meet the wants of the public ing the threat of our prompt subjugation, made service without imposing unnecessary burdens three years ago, by a people that presume to on the citizen. The brief period which has assert å title to govern States whose separate and elapsed since the last adjournment of Congress independent sovereignty was recognized by treaty has not afforded sufficient opportunity to test with France and Great Britain in the last century, the efficacy of the most important laws then en- and remained unquestioned- for nearly three genacted, nor have the events occurring in the inter- erations. Yet these very governments, in disval been such as materially to change the state regard of duty and treaty obligations, which bind of the country.
them to recognize as independent Virginia and The unjust war commenced against us, in other confederate States, persist in countenancviolation of the rights of the States, and in ing, hy moral influence, if not in aiding by un. usurpation of power not delegated to the govern- fair and partial action, the claim set up by the ment of the United States, is still characterized executive of a foreign government to exercise by the barbarism with which it has heretofore despotic sway over the States thus recognized, been conducted by the enemy. Aged men, help- and treat the invasion of them by their former less women and children, appeal in vain to the limited and special agent as though it were the humanity which should be inspired by their attempt of a sovereign to suppress a rebellion condition, for immunity from arrest, incarcera- against lawful authority. Ungenerous advantion, or banishment from their homes. Plunder tage has been taken of our present condition, and devastation of the property of non-combat- and our rights have been violated, our vessels ants, destruction of private dwellings, and even of war detained in ports in which they had been of edifices devoted to the worship of God, expe- invited by proclamations of neutrality, and in ditions organized for the sole purpose of sacking one instance our flag also insulted where the sacities, consigning them to the flames, killing the cred right of asylum was supposed to be secure; unarmed inhabitants, and inflicting horrible ont. while one of these governments has contented rages on women and children, are some of the itself with simply deprecating, by deferential constantly recurring atrocities of the invader. representations, the conduct of our enemy in the It cannot reasonably be pretended that such acts constantly recurring instances of his contemptuconduce to any end which their authors dare ous disregard of neutral rights and flagrant vioavow before the civilized world, and sooner or lations of public law. It may be that foreign later Christendom must mete out to them the governments, like our enemies, have mistaken condemnation which such brutality deserves. our desire of peace, unreservedly expressed, for The sufferings thus ruthlessly inflicted upon the cvidence of exhaustion, and have thenee inferred people of the invaded districts have served but the probability of success in the efforts to subto illustrate their patriotism. Entire unanimity jugate or exterminate the millions of human and zeal for their country's cause have been pre- beings who, in these States, prefer any fate to eminently conspicuous among those whose sacri- submission to their savage assailants. fices have been greatest. So the army which I see no prospect of an early change in the has borne the trials and dangers of the war, course heretofore pursued by these governments; which has been subjected to privations and dis- but when this delusion shall have been dispellod, appointments, (tests of manly fortitude far more and when our independence, by the valor and severe than the brief fatigues and perils of actual fortitude of our people, shall have been won combat,) has been the centre of cheerfulness and against all the hostile influences combined against hope. From the camp comes the voice of the us, and can no longer be ignored by open foes or soldier-patriot, invoking cach who is at home, in professed neutrals, this war will have left, with the sphere he best may fill, to devote his whole' its proud memories, a record of many wrongs, energies to the support of a cause, in the success which it may not misbecome us to forgive-some of which their confidence has never faltered. for which we may not properly forbear from deThey, the veterans of many a hard-fought field, manding redress. In the mean time, it is enough tender to their country, without limit of time, à for us to know that every avenue of negotiation ser ice of priceless value to us, one which pos. is closed against us; that our enemy is making terity will hold in grateful remembrance. renewed and strenuous efforts for our destruc
In considering the state of the country, the tion, and that the sole resource for us, as a peoreflection is naturally suggested that this is the ple secure in the justice of our cause, and hold