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in twenty yards of the camp. The Fortieth Mas- had never seen artillery keep close up with cavsachusetts mounted infantry were formed in line alry on a march, the feat of Captain Elder on of battle directly in front of Captain Elder's flying Monday night would have astonished him beyond artillery. Colonel Henry and Major Stevens placed measure. No matter where or how fast the caythemselves at the head of the battalion, and at alry went, Captain Elder was sure to be up to the word of command the two buglers blew a the spare horses with his artillery. Through terrific blast, which was instantly followed by ditches, over stumps, turning short corners, walkthe charge of the battalion. In half a minute's ing, trotting, galloping, the artillery never lagged time our cavalry had dashed into the centre of in the rear. Captain Elder is widely known as the camp and surrounded it on all sides. With one of the most successful and dashing officers two or three exceptions, all of the rebels escaped, we have in the artillery service. General Sey. so easy was it for them to just slip into the mour evidently knew his men when he selected woods and conceal themselves under cover of the officers for his raiding party. darkness. The very first note of the bugle gave In order to allow the men and horses a little them the alarm.

rest, and thinking that perhaps the rebels at The capture of four guns at this place, beside Camp Finnigan would be coming down the road, a large quantity of camp and garrison equipage, Colonel Henry concluded to remain at the artilincluding wagons, tents, commissary stores, lery camp, or Ten-Mile Run, as it is called, till officers' baggage, and, in fact, every thing that four A.M. In the mean time, the horses were baitcould be of value to the enemy, were the fruits ed, and the men fell to work to breaking open of this handsome little dash. In another portion trunks and valises, and making a thorough inof this letter I insert a list which comprises some spection of the property the rebels had abandonof the important articles captured at this camp. ed. It so happened on that same day the rebels The guns, two of which were twelve-pounder had received from Lake City a large quantity of rifled, and two six-pounder smooth-bore, belong-clothing, most of it entirely new. Our men, aled respectively to Dunham's and Able's batter-though they did not really need them, took such ies. Every thing that was captured here belong- articles as struck their fancy. The three prisoned to either one or the other battery. Three ers captured were told to help themselves to all prisoners were taken. Captain Dunham, hear- they wanted. They thought it very strange we ing that we were within six miles of his camp, should reject clothing that had cost their people a had deserted his men and gone to Lake City. vast suin of money. We explained to them that Able was also absent. The prisoners said that clothing was not scarce in our country. A conthe men wanted to fight, but Dunham told them traband, formerly Captain Able's servant, was it was of no use, that we were on the way up dumbfounded to see how little we prized a packwith a large force, and the best thing that could age of a dozen shirts that had been sent to a rebe done was to get off as soon as possible. A bel officer. This same contraband gave us much train was expected from Lake City at twelve valuable information relating to the enemy's force o'clock that night to take them away. The tele- and movements, which was subsequently congraph operator, however, had time to send a des- firmed. While the men were engaged in their patch keeping it back. His office was in a house task of inspection, Colonel Henry and a few more just beyond the camp. · Major Stevens walked of us adjourned to the house in which the teleinto the room and seized the fellow by the throat graph operator had been at work, and discussed as he was on the point of sending another mes- the events of the night. A rousing good fire was sage. In a few seconds his instrument was built, and very fortunately a bottle of whisky knocked to pieces and the wire cut.

was discovered in one corner of the room. The The valor of our cavalry not only on this but three prisoners were brought in and examined, other occasions, cannot be too highly extolled. and what they said carefully noted. The family The Independent Massachusetts cavalry battalion, were not disturbed. Two boys came down-stairs with Major Stevens at its head, and for its com- after a while, and entertained us with their views pany officers such men as Captains Richmond, of the war. I judged the family to be milk-andWebster, and Morrell, and Lieutenant Holt, has water Union. At four A. M. “Prepare to mount!" achieved for itself during the past week a high was sounded. Captain Jenkins, of company H, reputation. In this connection I must not omit to Fourtieth Massachusetts, was left with his men mention the eagerness with which Captain Ray, at Ten-Mile Run, to guard the property. It

a Lieutenant in company C, accepted seems the revels at Finnigan did not dare to folthe opportunity to accompany Major Stevens as low us, Colonel Henry proceeded a distance of volunteer aid. He recently received his commis- ten miles, before he met the enemy. In followsion as captain in the Fourth Massachusetts cav- ing the main road, the railroad is crossed several alry, and when the expedition left Hilton Head, times

. Colonel Henry made every effort to capwas on the point of going North to join his regi- ture a train of cars which we had been told would ment. All the distance from Jacksonville, either coine down a certain distance from Lake City, for Captain Ray or Lieutenant Holt led the advance the purpose of taking up supplies. Between Tenguard. The Fortieth Massachusetts mounted in- Mile Run and Barber's Station, two or three rails fantry also performed admirable service, and by were taken up at three different places. This no means lessened the good name they have long would not only prevent the rebels from getting enjoyed for bravery and discipline. 'Io one who I off their supplies, but keep thein from sending





troops to Henry's rear. Every mile that we now the top of a tree, struck the ground between Col travelled, carried us one mile further from the in- onel Henry's feet. Colonel Henry, now familiar fantry. At seven A.m. we dashed into Baldwin, with the enemy's position, disposed his troops aca place of fifteen buildings, the largest of which cordingly. One company of the Fortieth was disis the railroad station. None of the enemy were mounted and sent forward as skirinishers, the

The place boasts one hotel. When we right of the road receiving particular attention, entered the town, the proprietor was asleep, and inasmuch as the conformation of the river exposshortly after came down-stairs, only half-dressed, ed the rebel left to our fire from the right. While to find out what was going on. We captured the Fortieth were engaged skirmishing, the bathere another telegraph operator and three instru- talion dashed down the road to the river, and immonts. We also captured three cars, two of mediately commenced fording, the bridge having which were filled with corn, and the other had been destroyed. The rebels held their ground on it a three-inch rifled gun and caisson. In the till the battalion had nearly crossed, when they railroad dépôt was stored an immense quantity left their horses tied to trees and fled to the of supplies, and in an adjoining building we found / woods. The skirmish lasted half an hour. We cotton, rice, tobacco, pistols, and other property, lost four men killed and thirteen wounded. The valued at half a million of dollars. We took list will be found below. The rebels had two killbreakfast at the hotel, and on settling our bills, ed and three woun:led. The wounded were taken found rebel money more acceptable than our own. to a house, owned by Mr. Barber, where their It so happened that we could give the landlord wounds were dressed by the surgeon who accomwhat he wanted, as one of our number in search- panied the column. The number of rebels that ing the trash in the dépôt came across one hun opposed our crossing, was one hundred and fisty. dred and fifty dollars' worth of confederate notes. One rebel, who was in a dying condition, told me Twenty-seven dollars of this stuff paid for a that he had been forced into the service, and breakfast for nine. At Baldwin, the railroad from when he heard that we were on our way to BarFernandina to Cedar Keys crosses the Florida ber's urged the other rebels to throw down their Central. It will be seen at a glance that it is an arms and give themselves up as prisoners. But important place for us to hold. In the afternoon, they told him we did not number over three hunGeneral Seymour and staff came up from Jack - dred men, and it would be an easy matter to keep sonville, and later in the day, General Gillmore, us from fording the river. We secured here about with a portion of his staff. That same night, the fifty horses, and gathered up a quantity of sabres, three cars were loaded with cotton and other pro-carbines, and pistols. I learn this place is called perty, and drawn by horses to Jacksonville. Since Barber's from the fact that a man named Barber then all the guns and camp-equipage taken at Ten- formerly kept here a sort of hotel. His own Mile Run, also much of the property captured at house, with five or six out-houses, are the only Baldwin, have been sent to Jacksonville. Col- buildings in the vicinity. Barber left the preonel Henry left Baldwin at nine o'clock on the mises on the morning of our advance. He owns morning of the tenth. At a point on the railroad, twenty-five thousand head of cattle, and is refour miles above Baldwin, we came across thir- ported to be the wealthiest man in the State. No teen bales of cotton, and further up, near Bar- one, however, would judge him to be a man of ber's Station, we entered a building by the side wealth after seeing the miserable hovel in which of the railroad, which contained one thousand he dwelt. He is a rebel of the worst sort. At barrels of turpentine, and five hundred pounds of one P. M., we moved forward, and arrived at San. bacon. All this will soon be transported to Jack- derson at six P. M. Sanderson is a village a little sonville. We proceeded slowly up the road and larger than Baldwin, a railroad station, and diskept a good look-out for bushwhackers, but did tant from Jacksonville forty miles. The rebels not get a sight at one. At eleven A.M., we reach-had left the place fifteen minutes before we ared the station called Barber's. Here we halted rived. In the afternoon, the cars had been there to allow the advance-guard to go ahead and see if from Lake City and taken away some govern: the enemy had posted himself in a position so as ment stores. "Three large buildings near the déto defend the South-Fork of the St. Mary's River, pôt were in flames when we arrived. One of the which lay three fourths of a mile beyond. Then buildings bad in it three thousand bushels of followed the skirmish at the South-Fork. Cap. corn, and another two thousand barrels of turtain Elder placed his guns in battery at Barber's, pentine and resin. The remaining building conand the Fortieth Massachusetts regiment form- tained commissary stores. The conflagration coned in line of battle a short distance in advance, tinued all that night and during the following while the Second battalion felt their way cau- day. In the dépôt we found two hundred bags tiously to the river. No sooner had the advance of salt and fifty bushels of oats. guard of four got near the bank, when they re- did not suffer for forage, and as for light to en ceived a volley of bullets from the rebels, who able us to look about the town, the burning buildhad planted themselves behind trees on the north ings afforded sufficient. Sanderson was the censide. At the first volley, Thomas Dean, of com- tre to which all the forage and provisions for the pany C, was killed, and two others wounded. State was forwarded. Captain Webster, of company E, had his horse We remained at Sanderson till two A. M. the shot from under him, and his shoulder-straps shot next morning, and then started for Lake City. away. A plunging bullet, fired from a rebel on We arrived within two miles of that place, with

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out encountering the enemy, at eleven A.M. The evacuation of Lake City by the rebels 17! b

belt of woods, one mile and a half this side of Thursday night shows how badly they were Lake City, General Finnigan had posted his skir- frightened. That they did evacuate the town,

mishers. Captain Elder again placed his guns in we have full assurance. I am told by deserters Exten battery, and the Independent battalion and For- that the rebel General Finnigan was in a fearful

tieth slassachusetts, as skirmishers, went for- state of trepidation, not knowing which way to cum 42" ward on a reconnoissance. The enemy had a turn. He had at Lake City three thousand cavthe rear heavy line of skirmishers one mile in length, and alry and infantry, and yet did not dare to make

although one company of the Fortieth broke the a stand. He threw out a heavy line of skirnisam , left of the enemy's line, it was impossible, in mishers for the purpose of keeping our force

consequence of the paucity of our numbers, to back until he could get the government property

prevent him from throwing forward his right, so on the way to Marlison. He notified the women eli their ar as to get on our left and rear. Under the cir- and children of his intention to evacuate Lake

2 cumstances, Colonel Henry wisely decided to fall City, and offered them the facilities of a railroadait back to a distance of five miles, and await the train to take them away. Every prisoner and di anke arrival of infantry to aid him. The entire com- deserter within our lines, with whom I have con1 Feb mand fell back on a walk, and were covered by versed, agrees in saying that General Finnigan is bis dit the Independent battalion. A dozen rebels fol- the greatest coward in the Confederacy. I have mel toe lowed in the rear, but the moment two or three no doubt of the truth of the remark. Lake City her, shes of our men would make a dash at them, away has a population of three thousand. In a straTIDE they would run toward Lake City. The rebel tegic point of view, it is an important place for us er of ret loss at this place was two killed and several to hold. It is half-way between Jacksonville and models wounded. One of the killed was a signal-officer. Tallahassee. vitet When we crossed the railroad I saw him waving I estimate the amount of rebel government the same his flag. We had three slightly wounded. property captured and destroyed thus far by the

Following is a complete list of our casualties raid into Florida, will reach the value of one milthroad from the time we left Jacksonville:

lion and a half dollars. I will give a list of the Sergeant C. C. Conkling, Co. A, Fortieth Mas- most important items : er over sachusetts, killed ; Thomas F. C. Dean, Co. A, Two twelve-pounder rifled-guns, two six-pound

FOZ Ind. battery, killed ; Thomas Cahill, Co. B, Ind. er guns, one three-inch gun, two other guns, five sure beste battery, killed; Captain A. W. Bartlett, Co. A, caissons, a large quantity of ammunition, an impartir Ind. battery, since dead; Richard Burns, Co. C, mense supply of camp and garrison equipage, his price Ind. battery, since dead'; E. Pasho, Co. C, Ind. four railroad-cars, one hundred and thirteen bales 1. madde battery, arm; Geo. W. Hankins, Co. C, Ind. bat- of cotton, four army-wagons, one hundred and

tery, hand; Geo. Hutchinson, Co. C, Ind. batte- five horses and mules, a large stock of saddlery, ry, arm; Geo. E. Fernand, Co. B, Ind. battery, tanning machinery, three thousand and eightythigh; Sergeant F. Blaisdell, Co. B, Ind. battery, three barrels of turpentine, six thousand bushels

scalp; F. P. Howland, Co. Å, Ind. battery, arm; of corn, three large warehouses destroyed. catele a Charles Pierson, Co. A, Fortieth Massachusetts, In the above list I have not enumerated the

C. E. Lee, Co. D, Fortieth Massachusetts, cattle we have slaughtered, nor the railroad-track

Johnson, Co. D, Ind. battery, neck; we have destroyed, nor the officers' baggage capWormwood, Co. D, Ind. battery.

tpred, nor a thousand things which would amply The bivouac of Henry's command Thursday warrant my estimate. night was any thing but pleasant. It com

We have taken altogether, including those who menced raining in the afternoon, with every pros- have been obliged to leave the woods and bushes pect of continuing to rain through the night. and give themselves up, over seventy-five prisonThe men were weary and hungry, and there was ers. Many of them have taken the oath of allenothing in the shape of provisions in the vicin- giance. They are constantly coming in our lines

, Eshed bounity. The horses, too, were very much jaded. and, with few exceptions, say they have no heart

We succeeded in getting some forage at a farm-to fight against the Union cause.
house not far off. This the poor animals dispos- fellow, who lived in Jacksonville before the war,

At night, Colonel Henry and who, on account of poor eyesight, is obliged sent a message to General Seymour, who was to wear glasses, said that did not avail against now at Sanderson, asking for further orders. his conscription. He protested against the seHe was firm in his belief that with one regiment verity of the authorities, and after having been

of infantry added to his own force he could go released once, was, six months later, put again Tiro Bed from the infantry, and the difficulty was in get- we have is Lieutenant-Colonel Ponce, who was ing the last into Lake City. He was thirty-four miles away into the ranks. The most prominent prisoner ting a regiment up in season to accomplish the in front of Lake City, looking at the skirmishers, Another drawback was in get- in the garb of a civilian.

We also have a capting provisions to the troops. At Sanderson the tain of cavalry, who fought Colonel Ilenry's force troops were forty miles away from their base, at the South-Fork. and all the supplies had to be transmitted in I have given, at some length, the work accom. wagons. It was finally resolved that llenry plished by the cavalry. It so happened the inshould fall back to Sanderson.

To that point fantry did not have a chance to show its metal. several regiments of infantry had advanced. If infantry ever wanted to get into a fight, this

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infantry on the Florida expedition did, without vor. Captain Webster complied with the redoubt. The men were constantly murmuring quest, and, sure enough, there was the rebel because the rebels would not come out and meet officer waiting to be conducted into our lines. them. The fact is, the rebels, having an approx. He was taken before Colonel Barton, and, havimate idea of our force, knew it would be useless ing taken the oath of allegiance, permitted to go for them to make a defence. We have every rea- at large. son to believe that the enemy, if he fights at all, On the march Monday night, we discerned a will choose his ground on the bank of the Su bright illumination of the sky at our left. I wanee River. We have information that such is learned the next day it was occasioned by the his design. Lake City is not fortified, and, as I burning of two hundred and seventy-five bales remarked before, the government property has of cotton taken by the rebels from the steamer been sent to a point further back. The bridge St. Mary, which lay in the river St. Mary, two over the Suwanee will, of course, be destroyed, miles from Camp Finnigan. The steamer hershould our troops advance, and the river is not self was scuttled and sunk in deep water. The fordable. To cross it, we must throw over a captain had been in for six weeks, waiting an oppontoon or construct a regular bridge. If we portunity to run the blockade. On the advance of have a battle there, it will, in all probability, our troops he gave up in despair, and to prevent take place at Suwanee River, which is between the cargo and vessel from coming into our posLake City and Tallahassee.

session, fired the one and sank the other. A gun The section of country through which we have which was planted to protect the stream was passed offers superior advantages for guerrilla captured by us the next day. Most of the crew warfare. A number of this despicable class of have given themselves up as deserters. people has been seen lurking in the woods. Two Yesterday morning the gunboat John Adams of them were captured last Friday while follow- came in from Fernandina with a locomotive and ing a negro soldier from Sanderson. A courier, several cars to be used on the Florida Central going from Camp Finnigan to Jacksonville, was Railroad. The rails on this road are in good confired upon not far from the former place. We dition, and have been little used. The track at believe the guerrillas will soon tire of their hate the Jacksonville end, and that portion which Colful practice, as measures will be instituted show-onel Henry destroyed, also a half-mile which ing them, if caught, no mercy whatever.

General Seymour ordered to be burned just above Perhaps it will be an enigma to many, how we Sanderson, are the only breaks between Jacksonmanaged to go through the country with such ville and Lake City. In a day or two we shall celerity and certainty. At the head of each col. have a train running to our front with supplies. umn we have a guide, a man who is thoroughly The telegraph is in operation from Jacksonville versed with the country, and is acquainted with to Sanderson. every road and by-path. The guides are, accord- The President's amnesty proclamation will be ing to my best belief, loyal to the very end of extensively circulated through Florida.

A large their toes. It is said of one who was with our supply has just arrived from Washington, and advance, that he had better military judgment packages have already been sent to the front. I than half of the generals in the field. The same doubt not we shall see a most favorable effect guide did, in my presence, predict when the reb- produced by its distribution. els would be found, and about the force they On Thursday the steamer Nelly Baker prowould be likely to have, which in every instance ceeded up St. John's River, a distance of thirtyproved as he said. The guides are the most val- five miles from Jacksonville, to a place called uable auxiliaries we have in the command. I Green Cove Spring. Two companies of infantry heard a woman tell one, at Sanderson, that he were on board. Medical Director Swift was in would be surely hung if the rebels ever got hold command of the force. After landing, the party of him. He took it all as a joke, and replied, in went to one of the principal hotels of the place, a quiet way, that the rebels would find it ex- and discovered therein eighteen barrels of sugar ceedingly difficult to be assured of his company and three barrels of resin, which was brought

On Friday afternoon, a party of the Fifty-fourth away in the vessel the same day. Three families Massachusetts, (colored,) under Captain Web- of refugees, with their furniture, were also taken ster, proceeded ten miles east of Barber's, and off. They had been expecting our forces would destroyed a bridge over the St. Mary's River. go there for some days. The location has been The bridge was about thirty feet in length, and famous in its day as a watering-place. A large by its destruction the rebels will not be able to sulphur-spring is in the vicinity, around which get on our right without going to considerable are bath-houses. The place also has three hotrouble either in the way of rebuilding the tels, each of which is capable of accommodating bridge or travelling a long roundabout road. two hundred guests. The principal hotel is On his march to the bridge, Captain Webster hardly finished, and has never been used. None stopped at a farm-house, and learned from a wo of the enemy were seen. The rebel Major Philman that a rebel officer was in the habit of com- lips had a camp of men near by not long since. ing there frequently, and desired to get into our The property brought away was markedl - Baldlines. IIe was expected at the house that night, win." The hospital transport Cosmopolitan op and if Captain Webster would take the trouble the following day went up the same river to a to visit then after dark, he would confer a fa-l place called Picolata. The troops did not land.


were :

They heard of a large quantity of cotton and tur- of War that I had in contemplation the occupapentine that was in the interior. The vessel was tion of Florida orf the west bank of the St. John's piloted by a negro.

River at a very early day.

Under date of January twenty-second, you inGENERAL SEYMOCR'S ORDERS.

formed that in regard to my proposed operations HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT FLORIDA, !

in Florida, the Secretary replied that the matter JACKSONVILLE, FLA., February 17, 1861.

had been left entirely to my judgment and disGENERAL ORDERS, No. 5. The Brigadier-General Commanding heartily that as the object of the proposed expedition ha:

cretion, with the means at my command, and congratulates his command on the brilliant suc- not been explained, it was impossible for you to cess which has attended all their movements thus judge of its advantages or practicability. far into Florida. Three flags, eight guns, with

On January thirty-first, I wrote informing you caissons, battery-wagons, and forge; many was, that the objects to be attained by the operations ons and horses, and much subsistence, stores, and clothing have fallen into our hands, besides large amounts of cotton, turpentine, and resin.. Prop- timber, etc.

1. To procure an outlet for cotton, lumber, erty valued at over one and a half millions of

2. To cut off one of the enemy's sources of dollars is the fruit of the success.

commissary supplies, etc. To Colonel Guy V. Henry and his command,

3. To obtain recruits for any colored regi. the battalion of Massachusetts cavalry, under

ments. Major Stevens, the Fortieth Massachusetts mount

4. To inaugurate measures for the speedy reed volunteers, and to Captain Elder, First arti! storation of Florida to her allegiance, in accordllery, and his battery, this achievement is princi

ance with instructions which I had received from pally due ; and the Brigadier-General Command the President by the hands of Major John May, ing especially desires to praise Captain George E.

Assistant Adjutant-General. Marshall, company E, Fortieth Massachusetts mounted volunteers, and his small command of whose command was already embarked, to go to

On February fifth, I directed General Seymour, forty-nine men, who captured and held Gaines. Jacksonville, Florida, effect a landing there, and ville for fifty-six hours

, receiving and repulsing push forward his mounted force to Baldwin, an attack from more than double his force, and, twenty miles from Jacksonville, the junction of after fulfilling his mission successfully, returning the two railroads from Jacksonville and Fernanto the designated place of rendezvous. These dina. A portion of the command reached Balddeeds will be among those remembered by us win on the ninth, at which point I joined it on with the greatest pleasure and honor, and the the evening of the same day. At that time the command may emulate but can hardly expect to enemy had no force in East-Florida, except the surpass them. By order of

scattered fragments of General Finnigan's comBrigadier-General T. Seymour.

mand; we had taken all his artillery. On the Official: R. M. Hall, First Lieutenant First Artillery, U. S. A., Asst. Adjt.-General. tenth, a portion of our forces were sent toward

Sanderson, and I returned to Jacksonvillle. TelBATTLE OF OLUSTEE.

egraphic communication was established between

Baldwin and Jacksonville on the eleventh. On GENERAL GILLMORE'S REPORT.

that day I telegraphed to General Seymour not HEADQUARTERS D, S., Hilton Head, S. C.,


to risk a repulse, on advancing on Lake City, but March 7, 1864.

to hold Sanderson, unless there were reasons for Major-General Halleck, General-in-Chief U.S.A., falling back which I did not know, and also, in iVashington, D. C.:

case his advance met with any serious opposition, I have the honor to submit herewith copies of to concentrate at Sanderson and the south fork certain letters and telegraphic despatches which of the St. Mary's, and, if necessary, to bring back comprise the instructions given to Brigadier-Gen- Colonel Henry to the latter place. eral T. Seymour, relative to operations in Florida On the twelfth, General Seymour informed me prior to the fight at Olustee on the twentieth ul- from Sanderson that he should fall back to tho timo. A brief narrative of events connected with south fork of the St. Mary's as soon as Colonel the recent occupation of Florida, west of the St. Henry, whom he had ordered back from the front, John's River, will not be out of place.

had returned. On the same day I telegrapheil Under date of the twenty-second December, to General Seymour that I wanted his comman:) 1863, I was authorized by you to undertake such at and beyond Baldwin concentrated at Baldwin operations in my department as I might deem without delay, for reasons which I gave him. Genbest, suggesting conference with Admiral Dahl- eral Seymour joined me at Jacksonville on the

fourteenth, the main body of his command being On January fourteenth, 1864, I wrote you that, at that time at Baldwin as directed. He hadd, unless it would interfere with the views of the however, sent Colonel Henry toward the left to War Department, I should occupy the west bank capture some railroad trains at Gainesville on the of the St. John's River in Florida very soon, and Fernandina and Cedar Keys Railroad. establish small dépôts there, preparatory to an After arranging with General Seymo!ır for the advance west at an early day.

construction of certain defences at Jacksonville, On January fifteenth, I wrote to the Secretary Baldwin, and the south fork of the St. Mary's, I Vol. VIII.-Doc. 26

gren, etc.

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