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therefore the suffering part) regard, with grateful | ject to any secular authority, seeing that they could The truth is, that the idea of toleration devotion, a power, under whose protection they create God their creator !

had not yet found its way from heaven into slept four nights of the week in peace, when other- Christ bad bestowed upon the pope, when he wise they would have been in peril every hour.: spake as such, the same infallibility which resided, men's hearts; bigotry, fierce, intolerant, and The same power by which individuals were thus in himself

. And were he utterly to neglect his persecuting, was the common reproach of benefited, was not unfrequently exercised in great duty, and by his misconduct drag down innumer all those who had the power of exhibiting it. national concerns; if the monarch were endangered able souls to Hell with him, there to be eternally A wiser and better principle may have been or oppressed either by a foreign enemy, or by a tormented, no mortal man might presume to reprove planted there, but it repiped in other ages, combination of his Barons, here was an authority him for his faults. Even this monstrous proposi

: and was of tardy and imperfect growth. We 10 which he could resort for an effectual interposition has been advanced, that, aluiough the catholic rion in his behalf; and the same shield was extended taith teaches all virtue to be goori

, and all vice evil; { suppose that few of the descendants of the over the vassals, when they called upon the pope 10 nevertheless, if the pope, through error. should en- puritans will be indignant at the assertion, defend them against a wrongful exertion of the sove join vices to be committed, and probibit virtues, the that our fathers brought with them, and exreign power.

church would be bound to believe that vices were ercised upon each other, a spirit of intolerThe reverse of this picture calls forth all good, and virtues evil, and would sin in conscience ance akin to that from which they fled. The

were it to believe otherwise. He could change the the author's powers. His eloquent exposure nature of things, and make injustice justice. Nor "Lords Brethren" wore not the mitres of of the horrible falsehoods and villanies of was it possible that he should be amenable to any the “Lords Bishops,” but they were not the church must satisfy the most violent secular power, for he had been called God by Con- far behind them in a spirit of persecution, hater of the papacy. The seven-hilled city under God, the salvation of all the faithful depended ber church peculiar glory from the reforma.

nor do we know why Eogland can claim for is to him a moral and spiritual Gehenna;and one cannot but think, as he reads the blasphemous appellation of Lord God the Pope! It tion. This was a glorious event, and they closing paragraphs of this chapter, that Mr was disputed in the schools, whether he could not who forwarded it are worthy to be beld in Southey must have permitted the works of abrogate what the apostles had enjoined, determine everlasting remembrance; but they were unauthorized writers to inculpate the church to the creed; whether he did not, as God, partici- so boundless in its range and in its effects

, an opinion contrary to theirs, and add a new article not Englishmen alone. A change so wide, of Rome further than justice would allow, pate both natures with Chrlst; and whether he and have thrown upon this church an entire were not more merciful than Christ, inasmuch as

was not the result of partial causes. Let responsibility for the monstrous errors and be delivered souls from the pains of purgatory, Wickliffe have due honour; but let it be crimes of individuals. We refer to such whereas we did not read that this had ever been remembered that Huss, and Jerome of

done by our Saviour. Lastly, it was affirmed, that Prague, and Luther, and many noble spirits passages as these:

he might do things unlawful, and thus could do of many nations toiled and died for the same If the boundless credulity of mankind be a mourn- more than God!

cause in which he and his brethren laboured. ful subject for consideration, as in truth it is, it is All this was certain, because the church was in. yet more mournful to observe the profligate wick fallible. Where this infallibility resided, the Ro

We are unable to follow Mr Southey edness with which that credulity has been abused. manists have differed among themselves, some vest- through his second volume, and must omit The Church of Rome appears to have delighted in ing it in the pope, others requiring the concurrence much that we proposed to say of this part of insulting as well as in abusing it, and to have pleas- of a General Council

. Infallible, however, it was his work. It is in a high degree interesting, ed itself with discovering how far it was possible determined that the Roman Catholic Church must and, as a history, is undoubtedly in general to subdue and degrade the human intellect. as an be, and thus the key-stone was put to this prodigious correct; but some of his views and stateeastern despot measures his own greatness by the structure of imposture and wickedness. servile prostration of his subjects. If farther proof than has already appeared were needful, it would served ; but, after all, this Roman Church been perplexed by his never citing his au

It may be that this language is well de- ments, which we cannot stop to particu

larize, appear to us erroneous. We have tiation. This astonishing doctrine arose from taking was identified with the

Church of England thorities, even when he speaks of facts figurative words in a literal sense ; and the Roman for many centuries. We ask it not in dis- which he cannot consider well established

. ists do not shrink from the direct inference, that if respect, but where shall the line be drawn? their interpretation be just, Christ took his own | Where is the history to begin which is to

Indeed he scarcely refers to any work or body in his own hands, and offered it to his disci. shed upon the Church of England the ances.

writer, excepting some articles in the Quarlooked, when the flagrant absurdity of the doctrine tral and heritable glory which Mr Southey terly Review, which are known to be his itself is regarded. For, according to the Church declares it to be his purpose to illustrate neglect, than that the scale of the work of Rome, when words of consecration have been

If the first of these voluines speaks of the is not one which would require or justify 2 pronounced, the bread becomes that same actual Church of England, then let the reader rebody of flesh and blood in which our Lord and member the passages just quoted. But if

display of research,”—which is altogether Saviour suffered upon the Cross; remaining bread the Church of England begins its existence

insufficient. to tbe sight, touch, and taste, yet ceasing to be so,and into how many parts soever the bread may be with the reformation of king Henry VIII., broken, the whole entire body is contained in every let us look at this beginning. Henry him- Antiquarian Researches : comprising a Hispart.

self, with Cranmer and his associates, are to Of all the corruptions of christianity, there was be supposed the founders of this church;

tory of the Indian Wars in the Country none which the popes so long hesitated to sanction

bordering Connecticut River and Parts When the question was brought before but,—to particularize nothing more, in

Adjacent, and other. Interesting Events

, Hildebrand, he not only inclined to the opinion of what light Mr Southey regards the doctrine

from the first Landing of the Pilgrims, Berenger, by whom it was opposed, but pretended of Substantiation, we have seen, and how

to the Conquest of Canada by the English, to consult the Virgin Mary, and then declared, that zealously the earliest English reformers she had pronounced against it. Nevertheless, it clung to this doctrine, let the horrors of

in 1760: with Notices of Indian Depreprevailed, and was finally declared, by Innocent “The Lollards pit," and the torment and

dations in the Neighbouring Country: III., at the fourth Lateran Council, to be a tenet

and of the first Planting and Progress of necessary to salvation. Strange as it may appear, martyrdom of Anne Askew, testisy. Most

Settlements in New England, New York, the doctrine had become popular,-uith the people, true it is, that Cranmer and his brethren in for its very extravagance,--with the clergy, because martyrdom abjured this error before their

and Canada. By E. Hoyt, Esq. Greenthey grounded upon it their loftiest pretensions. glorious deaths ; but it is not less true, that Collections of the New Hampshire Histori

tield, Mass. 1824. 8vo. pp. 312. For if there were in the sacrament this actual and these venerable men deserved the rebuke entire sole presence, which they denoted by the term

cil Society, for the Year 1824. Volume I. of transubstantiation, it followed that divine worship cast upon them by Joan Bocher.

Concord, N. H. 1824. 8vo. pp. 336. was something more than a service of prayer and It is a goodly matter to consider your ignorance !' thanksgiving; an actual sacrifice was performed in said the undaupted woman, 10 those who sate in The early bistory of our country has lately it, wherein they affirmed the Saviour was again judgment on her. “Not long ago you burnt Anne become an object of increasing curiosity offered up, in the saine borly which had suffered on Ascue for a piece of bread, and yet came your. and interest to the public. The years, the Cross, by their hands. The priest, when he selves soon after to believe and profess the same doc. which have elapsed since the Pilgrims first performed this stupendous function of his ministry, trine, for wbich you burnt her! And now, forsooth, had before his eyes, and held in his hands, the you will needs bum

ine for a piece of flesh, and planted the standard of civil and religious Maker of Heaven and Earth; and the inference and in the end you will come to believe this also, liberty on the iron-bound shores of New which they deduced from so blasphemous an as- when ye have read the Scriptures, and understand England, have been slowly obliterating the sumption was, that the clergy were not to be sub-them!

scattered original records of their individ

as this.

ual character and conduct. Two centuries | suggested by the perusal of such works as 2001 estates, according to the proportion which such have gradually deepened the obscurity, those whose titles stand at the head of this men useu to pay, to whom such apparel is suitable

and allowed whicb involves the minute bistory of the article. They differ in character, as well olden times, and enlarged the shadowy as in the degree of interest which they are

The following, though a quotation from precincts, within which imagination may likely to excite, but the main object, that another writer, we notice here, as worthy range with that freedom, which is obstruct. of preserving and rendering accessible of the consideration of those, who imagine ed by the dull realities of the present. The what is known of the early history of New that the standard of education is lower, in forms of our fathers loom tiirough the haze England, is the same.

some of our colleges, at this day, than it of antiquity, which rests on the intellectual We have read Mr Hoyt's book with a

was in that of Cotton Mather, because the horizon, concealing the thousand details, great deal of interest, and cheerfully re-prosessors do not talk Latin fluently and which fetter the energies and chill the ar. cominend it to the public. To the general quote the ancients on all occasions, whether dour of fancy, and presenting only the reader we think it will be more amusing in season or out of it. grander features of the prospect.

than any history of the period with which Sir Henry Saville, in the preamble of the deed The situation and circumstances of the we are acquainted. The style is easy and by which he annexed a salary to the mathematical planters of New England, during the first agreeable; the accounts of various writers and astronomical professors in Oxford, says geomsixty or seventy years of the colonies, are digested in a judicious and pleasing England. The best learning of the age was the

etry was almost totally abandoned and unknown in were of a peculiar character, and such as manner, while some particulars are sup- study of the ancients. take a strong hold upon the imagination. plied, which we believe can be found in no They were stirring times in which our other publication. The writer passes light: defence of the morality and expediency of a

We cannot agree with the author in his ancestors lived, and ihis peaceable, calculat- ly over many portions of our annals, which bounty on Indian scalps. The effect of such ing, and realizing land was once the very are of a more dry and uninteresting char a practice on the minds of the scalp-buntcountry of romance.

acter, and dwells at greater length on those ers-the temptation thus held forth to slay, What adventure indeed could be more particulars which are likely to gratify those in cold blood, the captives who were unawild, than that of the passengers in the who read only for amusement. We think, ble to keep up with the victorious party; May-Flower, and what language would therefore, that it will be a popular work, and the example given to the natives, seem have been thought too extravagant to de- and hope the author will enjoy, as we think to us powertul considerations against it. As scribe it, bad it been unsuccessful. Such a he deserves, the opportunity of a second project, undertaken at such hazards and edition, to present it to the public

freed been feeble. Though the bounty offered

a measure of expediency it seems to have with such means, would be looked upon, at from the various typographical errors to for single scalps was occasionally enormous, this day, as utter madness. Indeed the which he alludes, and in a more elegant

-on one occasion, we believe, a hundred Pilgrims themselves considered their suc- form than it is at present. cess as the result of a direct and special After these general remarks, we shall no- seems ever to have been paid for those

pounds,—but a sinall amount on the whole interposition of Providence. The first set- tice a few things which may amuse or in- barbarous trophies; and we hope, for the tlers did not, it is true, traverse the coun- terest our readers, as they occurred to us honour of human nature, that it was betry with good steed, lance, and brand, in in the course of our perusal. search of captive knights or distressed dam- Among the collection of laws framed by choly must be the state of that country,

cause there were few to ask for it. Melansels, but their conduct and their language Ward and Cotton, and accepted by the which has no better defenders than those who was often little less extravagant. Their magistrates in 1641, which were copied al- are ready to hunt and mangle human beings enemies appeared in a different, but scarcc- most literally from those of Moses, is the for a price. Much cruelty is doubtless inly a more questionable shape. They were following:

separable from a warfare conducted with not giants, or og res, ensconced in castles of

Men betrothed and not married, or newly mar. savages. The passions are necessarily exsteel and defended by attendant sprites; ried, or such as bave newly built or planted, and cited to a degree unknown in the technical but savage warriors, swift of foot and subtie not received the fruits of their labour, and such as and mechanical combats of civilized arof mind, lurking in trackless forests and are faint-bearted men, are not to be pressed or forced against their wills, to go forth to wars.

mies-and many horrible examples of this swamps, and assisted, as our ancestors inost

If these were ever really carried into feelings with which a scalp is stripped from religiously believed, by the devil. Spectres

are in every history of this kind. But the and witchcraft were received articles of execution, it seems remarkable, in the first a dying enemy, to be preserved for barter, belief, and, with the sword in one hand and place, that any person should have been are of another character, and such as we the Bible in the other, our progenitors pressed or forced against his will to go trust were rare in the darkest days of New waged war alike against the visible and in- forth to wars;" and secondly, that if such a England. We have alluded to the bittervisible world. principle was acknowledged, exceptions of

ness of the passions, which occasionally The character of the aborigines is now such a nature should have been admitted: prevailed among the partisans of the time. likewise regarded with the interest which it The framers of the code were probably The following is an instance. In Captain deserves. They were once considered as better acquainted with the book of Deuter- Lovewell's battle at Pigwacket, his lieutenlittle better than the brutal tenants of the onomy than the real state and exigencies ant, Robbins, who, by the way, had been a soil; as a race cowardly, treacherous, mind- of the colony. And again.

scalp-hunter, was wounded and we are ful of injuries, but insensible to benefits,

And in war, men of a corrupt and false religion told that whose ferocity could never be tamed and are not to be accepted, much less sought for.

conscious of his fate, he requested his companions their affections never secured. But this Was a false representation. More atten

Truly we wonder our ancestors did not to load his gạn, that he might despatch another of tive consideration bas shown that their ag carry the parable so far as to fight against the enemy, should he return to the spot. Sassacus' fort with ram's horns; it would

We select the following as a specimen of gressions were rarely unprovoked, and have been little less extravagant, when we

our author's manner of writing. We wish that, in the fury of contest, there were some who remembered and repaid future consider that those under “a covenant of the story had been more to the credit of benefits. If some of the alleviations of works” were looked upon as men of a the colonial government. civilized warfare were unknown among corrupt and false religion.”

But prior to the termination of the war Miantoni

There was more worldly wisdom in the moh invaded the Mohegans with nine hundred of his them, some of its worst features

sumptuary law, which directed the select- warriors; I'ncas met him at the head of five hundred equally absent, and among the anecdotes, men of each town

of his men, on a large plain; both prepared for acwhich have come down to us, of the chief

tion, and advanced within bow shot Before the tains who figured in those eventful times, to take notice of the apparel of any of the in: conflict commenced, Uncas advanced singly and many may compare with those of Spartan judge to exceed their rank and abilities, in the cast- ber of men with you, and so have I with me; it is

habitants, and to assess such persons as they shall thus addressed bis antagonist. You have a numor Roman greatness.

liness or fashion of their apparel, in any respect, a great pity that such brave warriors should be killConsiderations like these are naturally I especially in wearing ribbons and great boots, at led in a priřate quarrel between us. Come like a



man, as you prosess to be, and let us fight it out. his delusive conduct, seized and disarmed the whole the case stood, or rather hung with their If you kill me, my men shall be yours; but if I kill without the loss of a man. Wonalonset, the chief, squaw borse, who un horsed their mare and you, your men shall be mine. Miantonimoh re: with his Pennacooks, and others who had agreed brought her to her

former tameness." plied, 'my men came to fight, and they shall fight.' on the peace, were released: the others being fugiUncas instantly fell upon the ground, and his men tives from Philip, were retained prisoners, to the

The latter part of this story, we observe poured a shower of arrows upon the Narragansets number of about two hundred, and afterwards sent en passant, which speaks of the iron-heels, and with a borrible yell, advanced rapidly upon to Boston, and seren or eight of their leaders hang- rather forgets the beginning, which would them and put them to fight. . Uncas and his men ed; the remainder were sold into siavery in for- seem to imply that the animal had been pressed on and drove them down a precipice, scat-eign parts.

long enougb in the woods to get clear of tering them in all directions. Miantonimoh was

Truly the contriver of this abominable her shoes. overtaken and seized by Uncas, who by a shout

deception had his reward. called back his furious warriors. About thirty

The work remaining to be noticed in Narragansetts were slain, and many wounded, The seizure of the Indians by Major Waldron this article, is the first fruits of the New among whom were several noted chiefs. Finding was not forgotten. Some who had been sold into Hampshire Historical Society. The great himself in the hands of his implacable enemy, slavery abroad, had found means to return home, benefit, which has accrued to the interests Miantonimoh remained

silent, nor could Uncas, hy and with impatience awaited an opportunity to re- of literature and science, by the division of any art, force him to break his sullen mood. you taken me,' said the conqueror

, • I should have the Pennacooks and Pigwackets, and soine others, literary labour effected by various associaasked you for my life.' No reply was made by to surprise Waldron and his neighbours at Dover. tions, is too well understood and appreciatmurmur to his humiliating condition. He was af- houses,

situated on each side

of the river, in which wé máy only observe that the objects of the indignant chief, and he submitted without a The place was then defended by five garrisoner ou to need any consideration in this place. terwards conducted to Hartford, by his conqueror, the people generally secured themselves in the the various historical and antiquarian saand delivered to the English, by whom he was held night. But as the Indians were frequently in the

cicties in this country are particularly in duress, until his fate should be determined by town for the purpose of trading with the people, no the commissioners of the colonies.

suspicions were entertained of their hostile plan, praisewortby. Much has thus been already After an examination of his case, the commis. and the guards had become very remiss.

preserved, that would long since have probsioners resolved, “That as it was evident that Uncas The night of the twenty-seventh of June was ably been lost to the world and much more could not be safe while Miantonimoh lived; but chosen for carrying their plan into excution, In will doubtless be collected, that is now in either by secret treachery, or open force, his life the evening two Indian women were admitted into

a fair way to become so. would be constantly in danger, he might justly put several of the garrisoned houses, which gave them such a false and blood-thirsty enemy to death; but an opportunity of observing the manner in which Among the various interesting articles this was to be done out of the English jurisdiction, the gates were opened. They informed Major contained in this work, we shall notice one and without cruelty or torture.' Miantonimoh was Waldron that a pomber of Indians would arrive or two which we think particularly so. delivered to Uncas, and by a number of his trusty the next day to trade with him; and an Indian Nearly half the volume is occupied by a attended by two Englishmen, to see that no torture the Major, while at supper, Brother, what would reprint of Penhallow's Narrative of Indian


Wars from 1703 to 1726, a book so exceedwas inflicted; and the moment that he arrived at you do if the strange Indians should come.' the fatal spot, one of Uncas' men came up behind, dron replied, that he would assemble one hundred ing scarce, that it was with great difficulty and with his hatchet split the scull of the unfortu- men by the motion of his hand. No suspicions that a perfect copy could be found in the nate chief. It is stated that the savage Uncas then however were excited by these insinuations, and country. It is an entertaining account, but, cut out a piece of the shoulder of the dead body, the family retired to repose. In a short time a like all other original accounts, is too freand ate it, with triumph, exclaiming. It is the large body of Indians entered the town; Waldron's sweetest meat I ever ate; it makes my heart gate was opened, and they rushed into his room. quently such as to be little creditable to the strong". The body was buryed on the spot, and Springing from his bed, and seizing his sword, he morality of the first settlers. 6 When I a heap of stones piled upon the grave. The place drove them back, but as he was returning for his asked one of the chief sachems," says Pensince that time has been known by the name of gun, he was stunned by the stroke of a hatchet hallow, wherefore it was that they were Sachen's Plain, and is situated in the town of Nor-drawn into his hall, and seating him in a chair, so bigotted to the French, considering their wich in Connecticut.

they asked, Who shall judge Indians now. They traffic with them was not so advantageous Horrible as the action of Uncas on this and face in the most horrid manner; and at length as with the English? he gravely replied, occasion must appear to every one, it was despatched him, took the other people, pillaged the that the friars taught them to pray, but that of a savage, wbose education had not house, and set it on fire.

the English never did,'” and he admits taught him better things; and we have no The author, while speaking of the Indian that the argument was well founded. hesitation in considering it less worthy of deer traps (which were made by bending Among other stories in this account, we detestation, than the treacherous conduct down a sapling, having a loop affixed to the have one of the conduct of an Indian at Cocheco, of Major Waldron, a man edu- end, and securing it so as to be easily dis- widow, which shows that the natives were cated under the light of christianity, and engaged by an animal passing through it) not always without a certain share of what one of place and authority among a people alludes to an anecdote related, in a very lu- Touchstone calls, “ natural philosophy." who valued themselves upon the purity of dicrous manner, by Wood in his New Eng- Samuel Butterfield, who being sent to Groton as their religion. The account is thus given land's Prospect. As one of our principal a soldier, was with others attacked as they were by Mr Hoyt.

aims in this Gazette is to amuse our read. gathering in the harvest ; his bravery was such, Hostilities, which had extended along the sea- Wood, though not particularly to the pur- and it happened that the slain Indian was a saga ers, we shall extract the account from that he killed one and wounded another, but being

overpowered by strength, was forced to submit; coast into Maine, still continued, and most of the settlements in that quarter partook of the general pose of this review.

more, and of great dexterity in war, which caused calamity. The Massachusetts forces were now at “ An English mare, having strayed from a matter of lamentation, and enraged them to such liberty to turn their arms in that direction; and her owner, and grown wild by her long so- a degree that they vowed the utmost revenge: some Captains Sill and Hawthorn, with two companies, journing in the woods, ranging up and down were for whipping him to death, others for burning were sent 10. Cocheco, where they joined Major with the wild crew, stumbled into one of these bim alive, but differing in their sentiments, they hundred Indians bad assembled in the vicinity of traps, which stopt her speed, hanging her, ing she would determine something very dreadful; the Major's house, part of whom were Pennacooks, like Mahomet's tomb, betwixt carth and but when the matter was opened, and the fact conwho had agreed on terms of peace, but now began heaven; the morning being come, the In-sidered, her spirits were so moderate as to make to show a hostile spirit

. Sill and Hawthorn were dians went to look what good success their no other reply than Fortune L'guerre. Upon desirous of attacking them, but the Major finally venison traps had brought them, but seeing "if by killing him, you can bring my husband to

which some were uneasy, to whom she answered, devised a plan to seize them by a stratagem. He such a long-scutted deer prance in their life again, I beg you to study what death you the next day. With the forces he had with him,. merritotter, they bade her good morrow, please ; but if not, let him be my servant;' which he was to join the two companies of Sill and Haw- crying out, “What cheer, what cheer, Eng- he accordingly was, during his captivity, and bad thorn, which were to form one party, and the In- lishman's squaw horse ?” having no better favor shewn him. dians the other, and the latter agreed to the play: epithet than to call her a woman-horse; We suspect that Butterfield was comely of At the time appointed the parties met, and Wali but being loth to kill her and as fearful to aspect, as well as strong of arm. received their harmless fire; he then contrived to approach the friscadoes of her iron-heels, We were much interested by the last surround them, and closing in his troops, changed they posted to the English to tell them how I will and testament of Standish, the famous

Plymouth commander, which is here pub- In the work before us, the author has not the country, might, like Fontenelle, thank lished entire. We have usually suspected attempted to make the thorough reforma- his stars that he has not yet learned what the worthy captain, if his descendants will tion, which, we suppose, he would agree grammarians call a preposition. There is allow us the expression, to bave been a with us in thinking desirable. Although very little exaggeration in this. It is ackind of Gallio in too many things, and he has introduced some valuable improve tually true, that very few of our eminent were gratified to find the following among ments, he has retained the general system scholars of fifty or sixty years of age, can the codicils of his will.

of grammar taught in all our schools. We parse an ordinary paragraph according to Further my will is, that Martha Marcye Roben- regard this system as radically, and almost common grammatical rules; and many of son, whom I tenderly loue for her grand farthers totally false ; and the study of the common them never learned to do it. sacke, shall haue three pounds in some thing to go books which teach it, as one of the most It may be said, that most of the learned, forward for her two years after my decease which useless and stupid exercises ever imposed who did not make English grammar a sepa. my will is my overseers shall see performed.

upon the growing mind. We shall not now rate study, yet acquired much knowledge That he had some longings after the detail our reasons for this opinion, as most of it from studying the Latin and Greek. « Desh-pots of Egypt," appears from the of them have been given to our readers, in There is some truth in this; but much less last devise.

the remarks which have been published in than is commonly imagined. The study of I give vnto my son and heire aparent Allexander several numbers of the Gazette, “On the these languages affords great assistance in Standish, all my lands as heire a parent by lawfult Common Systems of English Grammar.” determining the exact meaning of the words decent in Ormistick, Borsconge, Wrightington,

We do not mean to deny, that the study in our own; not only of those which are deMaudsley, Newburrow, Crawston, and in the Isle of Man, and given to mee as right heire by lawful de-lof grammar is attended with important ad- rived from the Latin and Greek, but of all cent but surruptuously detained from mee, my vantages; but we believe, that few of these that are brought into use during the study. great grandfather being a vond or younger brother advantages result from the system itself. The constant use of the dictionary for the from the house of Standish of Standish.

They appear to be almost wholly incidental. purpose of determining what English word We think this matter worthy the atten- The mind is exercised in determining the will express precisely the meaning of the tion of the heirs male, if there be any now meaning of words, phrases, and sentences, Latin or Greek word, gives the mind a remaining of this intrepid soldier. Who and, by this means, acquires the habit of habit of selecting terms for expressing its knows but the broad lands of Borconge, attending carefully and critically to the meaning with facility and accuracy, and Maudsley, &c., more substantial matters sense of what is heard and read. This is greatly enlarges its stock, from which the than the landless cotonet of the Dudleys, nearly all the advantage that can be de- selection is to be made. Add to this, that may one day find, like that, a lawful claim- rived from studying the common treatises when the etymology of an English word is ant on this side the Atlantic.

on grammar, and it is obvious that this does discovered, its exact meaning is generally Towards the end of the volume is a re- not depend on the correctness of the sys- better understood, and less liable to be forsolve of the Commissioners of the United tem. Some of the rules of orthography are gotten. Colonies concerning the Quakers. This, useful, but these belong to a child's second These are great and important aids towhich is in the usual bigoted and intoler- Spelling-Book. A few definitions of words wards an extensive and correct knowledge ant style of the day, we should not have are given more accurately than in our dic- of our language; and we think, that they noticed, but for a qualification annexed to tionaries; these, with the examples of in. constitute the principal advantages which the signature of Governor Winthrop, which, correct modes of expression, and some of are derived from studying the dead lanif we rightly understand it, is in the high- the rules for punctuation, are useful. It is guages. The grammatical structure of these est degree honourable to him. “ Looking,” commonly supposed, that parsing is of great is so different from that of our own, that very says he, « at the article as a query, and not consequence, from its disclosing the rela- little advantage can be derived from comas an act, I subscribe.”

tions which exist between the several words paring them. We close this desultory article with the in a sentence; but this will appear of much lo these prefatory remarks, we shall not be expression of our best wishes for the suc- less account, when it is observed, how very understood as casting any censoré upon Mr cess of the respective authors of the works, few of these relations are accurately defined. Picket. He has doubtless a more favourawhich have given occasion to it, and our It cannot add much to the scholar's knowl. ble opinion of the common system of English best acknowledgments for the entertain- edge, to tell him, that a preposition shows grammar than we have expressed, or he ment they have afforded us.

the relation between two words, while the would not have made it the ground-work of nature of that relation is not explained; or his book. But our objections to the general

that a conjunction connects two words, while system cannot be applied to this, more than Analytical School Grammar. Pickets Gram- the connexion is undefined.

to other grammars; and the author has mar of the English Language, comprising

If a knowledge of the common system of made some very important improvements, its Principles and Rules : Adapted to the parsing the English language be so impor- that give to bis work a real value, which business of Instruction in Primary Schools. tant as is generally imagined, how comes it we can concede to no other within the By A. Picket, Author of the American to pass that so few good writers of any age reach of the public. Our business, there. School Class Books, the Juvenile Spelling, have been at all dependent upon it. It is fore, with him, is to give him credit for all Book, &c. &c. Second Edition modified, scarcely a century since parsing was un- the good he has done, and thereby encourand greatly improved. New York. 1824. known. Our aged fathers all tell us, that age him, and others, to make further ad18mo. pp. 252.

it was taught little or none when they went vances in the work of reformation. PROBABLY many of our readers already to school. Even the most literary men The first of these improvements, which know, that Mr Picket has for many years among us, those who are distinguished for we shall mention, consists in the definitions been a most faithful and efficient labourer good writing and speaking, have rarely which are given to the technical language in the good cause of improving our system much acquaintance with this notable art. of this science. These definitions are given of education. We cannot say, whether his Had we a sentence hard to resolve accord-in the form of explanations and remarks exertions have been uniformly judicious; ing to the principles and rules of Murray, after the several sections; and they are but we believe his principles to be gener. we surely should not consult a president or much more numerous, clear, and compreally correct; his labours have certainly a professor of a college, except he were hensive than are to be found in the works been great; and we regret to learn, that very young, nor a learned clergyman, nor in common use. Many of them are, howhis compensation has been far less than his an eminent lawyer or judge. Nay, if both ever, partial, obscure, or erroneous, owing services have merited. His principles have houses of congress would make your quess to the general vagueness and falsity of the been considerably in advance of those which tion the order of the day, in committee of system which they are designed to illusare applied in most of our schools, and the the whole, it is doubtful whether they could trate. But enough is well done, to encourpublic cannot be immediately prepared to afford any aid ; and many a one of them, age the scholar greatly in the important appreciate then.

whose eloquence is celebrated throughout habit of inquiring carefully and critically

become stone.


into the meaning of every thing that belongs

Verbs ending in ate, draw after them a family of responding rules in other grammars; but, to his lesson. This habit is so essential, that terminations in ant, or, ory, acy, ation, and ive; as, in general, there is little improvement. It the value of every school book must be con: and operation; from derogate, comes derogatory; lected the best part of other grammars;

from operate, come operant, operator, operative, is sufficient to say, that Mr Picket has sesidered as depending in the degree in which from expiate, comes expiatory. it is calculated to promote it. Picket's Ize, or ise, is a verbal termination, and signifies that where he has deviated from them, he Grammar will encourage inquiry, and sat- to make; as, apologize, to make apology; equalise, has made some improvement; that be has isfy it, far better than any other that we to make equal.

set a very important example, in endeavhave seen,

Ize produces ist in the personal noun, and ism in ouring to make this science intelligible to But the part of this book which we most the neuter noun; as, from baptize, come haptist, the scholar in every stage of bis progress;

baptism; from catechise, come catechist, catechism. highly esteem, consists of nine pages, in

Ify, or fy, signifies to make, or to become ; as, to and that most of his definitions of prefixes which the common prefixes and affixes of beautify, to make beautiful ; justify, to make, or and affixes are very valuable additions to the English words are defined. Whatever will prove just ; signify, to make a sign ; petrify, to common stock of grammatical knowledge. aid the scholar in learning the exact mean

Before closing this article, we wish to Adjective Terminations

from the Latin. ing of terms, is of real value to him. We have already remarked, that, to ascertain ticiple of the Latin language, changing ans into ant

Ant, expressing quality, is purely the active par. express the opinion, that nearly all artif

cial rules for writing and speaking would the etymology of a word, generally aids the It may be best explained by the English participle be rendered unnecessary by a work which mind greatly in fixing its true signification. in ing; as, abundant, abounding; attendant, as should supply the deficiencies of our dicThis idea is ridiculed by many, but it is not tending; pleasant, pleasing.

tionaries. We need little instruction as to

The reader will observe that no words are given the right manner of using words, which we the less correct. No one pretends that the original word or words, of which a modern except such as are purely English, when the termination is removed.

perfectly understand. If any one is comone may be found to be composed, furnish Ent is the Latin participle under another form, petent to give the etymology of English precisely the meaning now given to it; but meaning the same as the preceding; as, adher- prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs, and but to ascertain the radical meaning, and ent, adhering ; indulgent, indulging ; provident, to define the radical ideas which they now then observe the modifications in form. providing. and meaning, which it has undergone in

Ous is merely the Latin adjective termination in express, we believe he can do a more im

Its meaning is the same as the preceding, and portant service to philological science than passing to its present state, exercises the may be expressed by the words having, or being. ang man has yet done. A work of this mind sufficiently to make a lasting impress. This termination also signifies plenty; as, advan- character, faithfully executed, would renion. Interest is excited, facts and circum- tageous, famous, dangerous, ruinous, courageous, der the greater part of every grammar upstances are brought to light; and the sense of the word, which, but for these, would this termination and the Saxon word wise, meaning examples;

and also point out the common

necessary. It should contain illustrations

There is a considerable resemblance between of the meaning of these words, by numerous have passed through the mind with little manner; as, rightwise, for righteous. notice, will now abide in the memory. Ar, signifies belonging to; as, angular, onging errors which are committed, from ignorance

Horne Tooke applied the science of ety. to angle ; circular, belonging to circle; singular, of their true meaning. If Noah Webster, or mology to the most difficult class of words belonging to single.

any one else, can do this, we think he should in the language. Let any person who has oracle, single, title, takes into the last syllable for his labour.

Each of those words formed from angle, circle, do it, and that be would be well rewarded used the Diversions of Purley say, whether but one, in conformity to the idiom of the Latin

We mention Mr Webster, he has not a more definite idea of the mean- language, from which they were derived.

because we have no evidence, that any other ing of the prepositions, conjunctions, and Ward is derived from the Saxon verb wardian, gentleman in this country is so competent to adverbs, of which the etymology is there to look, and signifies in the direction of looking to the task ;-and, also, because the brief acgiven, than he could possibly have obtained ward; as, forward, backward, eastward, westward

. count

of the work which he is now engaged from common dictionaries, or from attending beggarly, that is, beggarlike ; stately, statelike ; permits us to hope, that be bas attempted

in publishing, contained in the newspapers, to the meaning given them by modern usage. frankly, franklike. We believe, that no person who reads that Y appears to express plenty of that of which the something of this kind. work attentively, can fail of observing, that primitive is the name;

as, wealthy, plenty of wealth; those who disregard the science of etymolo- wortby, plenty of worth.

Analysis of Vocal Inflections, as used in gy, however learned they may be in others,

Negative Adjectives.
The negative adjectives express the negation of

Reading and Speaking, designed to renare very liable to use the minor parts of those qualities which the preceding confirm. The

der the principles of Walker's Elements speech vaguely and incorrectly. Every one negative is formed in two ways; either by the pre

more intelligible. Andover. 1824. knows that the principal difficulties, attend- fix un, or in, or by the termination less. The for. We have understood that the Rev.Dr Porter, ing the formation of a correct style, arise mer has been already explained.

Less is the imperative of the Saxon verb lessan, and that it was originally prepared for the

of Andover, is the author of this pamphlet, from this class of words. Few

scholars have and signifies to diminish; to take away; as, friendany means for determining, definitely, their less, without a friend.

use of his students. It may be thought not signification. If they consult their diction

Termination of the Personal Noun. altogether a proper subject of criticism, but aries or masters, the case is equally hope- Er may be considered as the genuine English as it is an uncommonly practical, compreless. We greatly need a dictionary which termination of the personal noun. It is the German hensive, and judicious treatise, on an elegant shall give the etymological signification of pronoun of the shird

person, answering to our he; accomplishment, and a useful branch of eduthese "winged words” in a manner so far as, accuser, he that accuses ; seller, he that sells.

Aris a variation of the foregoing, meaning nearly cation, we are not willing to lose the oppormiliar, as to be comprehended by the mere the same ; as, liar, beggar.

tunity of recommending it to our readers. English scholar, together with such exam- Or is a Latin termination, having the same sense The Analysis is designed to facilitate the ples as will show how they have passed to as the preceding, and derived from the same source; study of Walker; and something of this kiod

as, collector, he that collects ; director, he that was wanted. their present form and use.

Walker was, perhaps, undirects. But, to return to Mr Picket; who, we

Ary is also a frequent termination of the personal rivalled as a viva voce exemplifier of those said, bad done well to define prefixes and noun : as, adversary, one that is averse to any thing; principles, the discovery and the exposition affixes. We shall give an example relating missionary, one that goes on missions.

of which do bis name much honour. In the to affixes, commencing on page 120.

Eer is a variation of the terminatoin er; as, practical department of elocution, be may

auctioneer, one who sells at auction. En is a verbal termination expressing force or

have had no superior. But, as a writer, he

Ana energy; as, from the noun heiglu, comes the verb ore of the signs of the possessive case in the saxon must be acknowleged to be often vague, to heighten; from the adjective dark, comes the language, and may be explaioed thug: he that is prolix, and obscure. His mind, if we may verb to darken; from the adjectives less, hard, deaf, of, or belonging to; as, grammarian, he that pro- judge from his writings, does not seem to Ate, signifies to make or act; as, alienate, to make cese des to be acquainted with grammar; republican, have been trained and disciplined to meth

one belonging . alien; personate, to act the person; assassinate, to

odical arrangement. His thoughts were conact the assassin; criminate, to charge with crime;

In examining the rules of syntax, we no- stantly and exclusively directed to practifabricate, to make a fabrication.

ticed a few which are better than the cor. I cal excellence; and, accordingly, his works

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