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fence, and in this way spread the good party, you will go far to, if not entirely, feeling, without seeming to have any such eradicate those feelings, which, on former object. He was everywhere favorably occasions, threw so many obstacles in the greeted by the people, and received by way of government.
The chief magisdelegations which in many instances were trate of a great and powerful nation should specially marle up of all shades of opinion. never indulge in party feelings. His con
The Cabinet was composed of men of duct should be liberal and disinterested ; rare political distinction, even in that day always bearing in mind, that he acts for the of great men. It was probably easier to whole and not a part of the community.” be great then than now, just as it is easier This advice had been given with a view to be a big political hero in the little State to influence the appointment of a mixed of Delaware than it is in the big States of political Cabinet, but while Monroe proNew York or l'ennsylvania. Yet these fessed to believe that a free government men were universally accepted as great could exist without political parties, he without regard to their localities. All were nevertheless sought to bring all of the peoRepublicans or Democrats, with John ple into one political fold, and that the Quincy Adams as Secretary of State, Wm. Democratic. Yet he certainly and plainly H. Criwford (Monroe's competitor for the sought to allay factions in his own party, nomination) as Secretary of the Treasury, and with this view selected Crawford for John C. Calhoun as Secretary of War, the Treasury--the gentleman who had William Wirt its Attorney General. All been so warmly supported in the nominaof these united with the President in the ting struggle by the Clintonians and by all general desire to call a halt upon the who objected to the predominating inpolitical asperities which were then recog- fluence of Virginia in national politics. nized as a public evil. On one occasion, Monroe, like his immediate predecessor, during his tour, the citizens of Kennebunk accepted and acted upon the doctrines of and its vicinity, in Maine, having in their the new school of Republicans as repreaddress alluded to the prospects of a politi, sented by Clay and Calhoun, both of whom cal union among the people in support of still favored a tariff
, while Clay bad be the administration, the President said in come a warm advocate of a national sys reply:
tem of internal improvements. These two You are pleased to express a confident statesmen thus early differed on
some hope that a spirit of mutual conciliation questions, but they were justly regarded as may be one of the blessings which may re- the leading friends and advisers of the adsult from my administration. This in- ministration, for to both still clung the deed would be an eminent blessing, and I patriotic recollections of the war which pray it may be realized. Nothing but they had so warmly advocated and supunion is waiting to make us a great people. ported, and the issue of which attested The present time affords the happiest their wisdom. Clay preferred to be called presage that this union is fast consumma- a Republican; Calhoun preferred to be ting. It cannot be otherwise; I daily see called a Democrat, and just then the terms greater proofs of it. The further I ad- were so often exchanged and mingled that vance in my progress in the country, the history is at fault in the exact designation, more I perceive that we are all Americans while tradition is colored by the bias of -that we compose but one family—that subsequent events and lives. our republican institutions will be sup- Monroe's first inaugural leaned toward ported and perpetuated by the united zeal Clay's scheme of internal improvements, and patriotism of all. Nothing could but questioned its constitutionality. Clay give me greater satisfaction than to behold was next to Jefferson the most original of a perfect union among ourselves—a union all our statesmen and politicians. He was which is necessary to restore to social in- prolific in measures, and almost resistless tercourse its former charms, and to render in their advocacy, From a political standour happiness, as a nation, unmixed and point he was the most direct author of the complete. To promote this desirable re- war of 1812, for his advocacy mainly sult requires no compromise of principle, brought it to the issue of arms, which and I promise to give it my continued at- through him and Calhoun were substituted tention, and my best endeavors.”
for diplomacy. And Calhoun then stood Even General Jackson, since held up to in broader view before the country than public view by historians as the most since. His sectional pride and bias had austere and “stalwart” of all politicians, been rarely aroused, and like Clay he caught the sweet infection of peace, and seemed to act for the country as an enthus advised President Monroe:
tirety. Subsequent sectional issues changed "Now is the time to exterminate that the views held of him by the people of monster, called party spirit. By select- both the North and South. ing (for cabinet officers] characters most We have said that Monroe leaned conspicuous for their probity, virtue, toward internal improvements, but he capacity, and firmness, without regard to thought Congress was not clothed by the
Constitution with the power to authorize to do so. It is only when rights are inmeasures supporting it, and when the op- vaded or seriously menaced, that we reportunity was presented (May 4, 1822) he sent injuries, or make preparation for our vetoed the bill“ for the preservation and defense. With the movements in this repair of the Cumberland road,” and ac- hemisphere we are of necessity more imcompanied the veto with a most elaborate mediately connected, and by causes which message in which he discussed the consti- must be obvious to all enlightened and tutional aspects of the question. A plain impartial observers. The political system majority of the friends of the administra- of the allied powers is essentially different tion, under the leadership of Clay, sup- in this respect from that of America. This ported the theory of internal improve difference proceeds from that which exists ments from the time the administration in their respective governments. And to began, but were reluctant to permit a divi- the defense of our own, which has been sion of the party on the question.
achieved by the loss of so much blood and Mississippi and Illinois were admitted treasure, and matured by the wisdom of to the Union during the “Era of Good their most enlightened citizens, and under Feeling," without serious political disturb- which we have enjoyed unexampled feliciance, while Alabama was authorized to form ty, this whole nation is devoted. We owe a state constitution and government, and it, therefore, to candor, and to the amicaArkansas was authorized as a separate ble relations existing between the United territorial government from part of Mis- States and those powers, to declare, that souri. In 1819 President Monroe made a we should consider any attempt on their tour through the Southern States to ex- part to extend their system to any portion amine their defenses and see and get ac- of this hemisphere as dangerous to our quainted with the people. From the first peace and safety. With the existing coloinauguration of Monroe up to 1819 party nies or dependencies of any European lines can hardly be said to have existed, power we have not interfered, and shall but in the sixteenth session of Congress, not interfere. But with the governments which continued until May, 1820, new who have declared their independence, and questions of national interest arose, pro- maintained it, and whose independence we minent among which were additional pro- have, on great consideration, and on just tective duties for our manufactures; inter- principles, acknowledged, we could not nal improvements by the government; view any interposition for the purpose of acknowledgments of the independence of oppressing them, or controlling in any the South American States.
other manner their destiny, by any European power, in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States. In the war
between those new governments and Spain, Upon the question of recognizing the in- we sleclared our neutrality at the time of dependence of the South American States, their recognition, and to this we have ad
, ever since been quoted and denominated vided no change shall occur which, in the “ 'The Monroe Doctrine." It is embodied judgment of the competent authorities of in the following abstract of his seventh this government, shall make a annual message, under date of Dec. 2d, ponding change on the part of the United 1823:
States indispensable to their security “It was stated, at the commencement of The late events in Spain and Portugal the last session, that a great effort was then
Of making in Spain and Portugal to improve this important fact no stronger proof can the condition of the people of those coun- be adduced, than that the allied powers tries, and that it appeared to be conduct- should have thought it proper, on a prined with extraordinary moderation. It ciple satisfactory to themselves, to have need scarcely be remarked that the result interposed by force in the internal conhas been, so far, very different from what cerns of Spain. To what extent such inwas then anticipated. Of events in that terposition may be carried, on the same quarter of the globe, with which we have principle, is a question to which all indeso much intercourse, and from which we pendent powers, whose governments differ derive our origin, we have always been from theirs, are interested; even those most anxious and interested spectators. The remote, and surely none more so than the citizens of the United States cherish United States. Our policy in regard to sentiments the most friendly in favor of the Europe, which was adopted at an early liberty and happiness of their fellow men stage of the wars which have so long agion that side of the Atlantic. In the wars tated that quarter of the globe, nevertheof the European powers, in matters relat- less remains the same, which is, not to ining to themselves, we have never taken any terfere in the internal concerns of any part, nor does it comport with our policy of its powers; to consider the government,
The Monroe Doctrine.
de facto, as the legitimate government for portions of the then province of Louisiana. us: to cultivate friendly relations with it, In this controversy, the compromise was and to preserve those relations by a frank, sustained and carried entirely by the Demfirm, and manly policy; meeting, in all ocratic Senators and members from the instances, the just claims of every power, Southern and slave-holding States aided submitting to injuries from none But in and sanctioned by the Executive, and it regard to these continents, circumstances was opposed by fifteen Senators from nonare eminently and conspicuously different. slave-holding States, who represented the It is impossible that the allied powers opposite side on the political questions of should extend their political system to any the day. It passed the House by a close vote portion of either continent without endlan- of 86 to 82. It has been seriously quesgering our peace and happiness; nor can tioned since whether this act was constituany one believe, that our southern boreth- tional. The real struggle was political, and ren, if left to themselves, would adopt it of for the balance of power. For a while it their own accord. It is equally impossible, threatened the total overthrow of all potherefore that we should behold such litical parties upon principle, and the subinterposition, in any form, with indiffer- stitution of geographical parties discrimi
If we look to the comparative nated by the slave line, and thus destroystrength and resources of Spain and those ing the proper action of the Federal govnew governments, and their distance from ernment, and leading to a separation of each other, it must be obvious that she can the States. It was a federal movement, acnever subdue them. It is still the true cruing to the benefit of that party, and at policy of the United States to leave the first carried all the Northern democracy in parties to themselves, in the hope that its current, giving the supremacy to their other powers will pursue the same course. adversaries. When this effect was per
The second election of Monroe, in 1820, ceived, democrats from the northern non Wäs accomplished without a contest. Out slave-holding States took early opportuof 231 electoral votes, but one was cast nity to prevent their own overthrow, by against him, and that for John Quincy voting for the admission of the States on Adamis. Mr. Tompkins, the candidate for any terms, and thus prevent the eventual Vice-President, was only a little less for- separation of the States in the establishtunate, there being 14 scattering votes ment of geographical parties divided by a against him.
Neither party, if indeed slavery and anti-slavery line. there was a Federalist party left made any The year 1820 marked a period of finannominations.
cial distress in the country, which soon became that of the government. The army
was reduced, and the general expenses of Tlie Missouri Compromise.
the departments cut down, despite which The second sexsion of the 17th Con- measures of economy the Congress deemed gress opened on the 4th day of March, it necessary to authorize the President to 1820, with James Vonroe at the head of contract for a loan of five million dollars. the Executive Department of the Govern- Distress was the cry of the day; relief the ment, and the Democratic party in the general demand, the chief demand commajority in both branches of the Federal ing from debtors to the Government for Legislature The Cabinet at that time public lands purchased under the then was composed of the most brilliant minds credit system, this debt at that time agof the country, indeed as most justly re- gregating twenty-three millions of dollars. marked by Senator Thomas H. Benton in The banks failed, money vanished, instalhis published review of the events of that ments were coming due which could not period, it would be difficult to find in any be met ; and the opening of Congress in government, in any country, at any time, November, 1820, was saluted by the arrival more talent and experience, more dignity of memorials from all the new States prayand decorum, more purity of private life, a ing for the relief to the purchaser of the larger mass of information, and more ad- public lands. The President referred to it diction to business, than was comprised in in his annual message of that year, and the list of celebrated names then consti- Congress passed a measure of relief by tuting the executive department of the changing the system to cash sales instead government. The legislative department of credit, reducing the price of the lands, was equally impressive. The exciting and and allowing present debtors to apply payagitating question then pending before ments already made to portions of the Congress was on the admission of the land purchased, relinquishing the remainState of Missouri into the Federal Union, der. Applications were the subject of the issue being the attempted time for the establishment of the pretacking on of conditions restricting sla-emptive system, but without effect; the very within her limits. She was admitted new States continued to press the question without conditions under the so-called and finally prevailed, so that now the precompromise, which abolished it in certain lemptive principle has become a fixed part of our land system, permanently incorpo-Road,which passed both houses of Congress, rated with it, and to the equal advantage met with a veto from President Monroe, of the settler and the government. accompanied by a state paper in exposi
The session of 1820-21, is remarkable as tion of his opinions upon the whole subbeing the first at which any proposition ject of Federal interference in matters of was made in Congress for the occupation inter state commerce and roails and canals. and settlement of our territory on the He liscissed the measure in illl its bearColumbia river-the only part then owned ings, and plainly showed it to be unconby the United States on the Pacific coast. stitutional. After stating the question, he It was made by Dr. Floyd, a represent:l- examined it under every head of constitutive from Virginia, who argued that the tional derivation under which its advoestablishment of a civilized power on the cates claimerd the power, and found it to American coast of the Pacific could not be granted by no one of them and virtually fail to produce great and wonderful bene- prohibited by some of them. This was fits not only to our own country, but to then and has since been considered to be the people of Eastern Asia, China and the most elaborate and thoroughly conJapan on the opposite side of the Pacific sidered opinion upon the general question Ocean, and that the valley of the Colum-, which has ever been delivered by iny bia might become the granary of China. American statesman. This great state paand Japan. This movement suggested to per, lelivered at i time when internal imSenator Benton, to move for the first time provement by the federal government had publicly in the Unite:1 States, il resolution become an issue in the canvis for the to send ministers to the Oriental States. Presidency and was arlently advokated by
At this time treaties with Mexico and three of the candidates and qualified by Spain were ratified, by which the Uniter two others, had in immense current in its States acquired Florida and ceded Texas; power, carrying with it many of the old these treaties, together with the Missouri strict constructionists. compromise-a measure contemporaneous The revision of the tariff, with a view to with them-extinguished slave soil in all the protection of home industry, and to the the United States territory west of the establishment of what was then called Mississippi, except in that portion which “The American System,” was one of the was to constitute the State of Arkansas; large subjects before Congress at the sesand, including the extinction in Texas sion of 1823–24, and was the regular comconsequent upon its cession to a non-slave- | mencement of the heated debates on that holding power, constituted the largest ter- question which afterwards ripened into a ritorial abolition of slavery that was ever serious diffi- ulty between the federal govup to that period effected by any political ernment and some of the Southern States. power of any nation.
The presidential election heing then deThe outside view of the slave question in pending, the subject became tinctured with the United States, at this time, is that the party politics, in which so far as that inextension of slavery was then arrested, gredient was concerned, and was not concircumscribed, and confined within narrow trolled by other considerations, members territorial limits, while free States were divided pretty much on the line which alpermitted an almost unlimited expansion. I ways divided them on a question of con
In 1822 a law passed Congress abolish-structive powers. The protection of doing the Indian factory system, which had mestic industry not being among the powbeen established during Washington's ad- ers granted, was looked for in the incidenministration, in 1796, under which the tal; and denied by the strict construction Government acted as a factor or agent for ists to be a substantive term, to be exerthe sale of supplies to the Indians and the cised for the direct purpose of protection; purchase of furs from them; this branch of but admitted by all at that time and ever the service then belonged to the depart- since the first tariff act of 1789, to be an ment of the Secretary of War. The abuses incident to the revenue raising power, and discovered in it led to the discontinuance an incident to be regarded in the exercise
of that power. Revenue the object, proThe Presidential election of 1824 was tection the incident, had been the rule in approaching, the candidates were in the the earlier tariffs; now that rule was sought field, their respective friends active and to be reversed, and to make protection the busy, and popular topics for the canvass in object of the law, and revenue the inciearnest requisition. Congress was full of dent. Mr. Henry Clay was the leader in projects for different objects of internal the proposed revision and the champion of improvement, mainly in roads and canals, the American system; he was ably supand the friends of each candidate exerted ported in the House by many able and themselves in rivalry of each other, under effective speakers; who based their arguthe supposition that their opinions would ment on the general distress then alleged to stand for those of their principals. An act be prevalent in the country Mr. Daniel for the preservation of the Cumberland Webster was the leading speaker on the
of that system.
other side, and disputed the universality | bound to obey a particular impulsion, and of the distress which had been described; disobedience to which would be attended and contested the propriety of high or pro- with infamy, and with every penalty which hibitory duties, in the present active and public indignation could inflict. From the intelligent state of the world, to stimulate beginning they have stood pledged to vote industry and manufacturing enterprise. for the candidate indicated by the public
The bill was carried by a close vote in will; and have proved not only to be useboth Houses. Though brought forward | less, but an inconvenient intervention beavowedly for the protection of domestic tween the people and the object of their manufactures, it was not entirely supported choice. Mr. McDuffie in the House of on that ground; an increase of revenue Representatives and Mr. Benton in the being the motive with some, the public Senate, proposed amendments; the mode debt then being nearly ninety millions. of taking the direct vote to be in districts, An increased protection to the products of and the persons receiving the greatest several States, ay lead in Missouri and Illi- number of yotes for President or Vicenois. hemp in Kentucky, iron in Pennsyl- President in any district, to count one yote vania, wool in Ohio and New York, com- for such office respectively which is nothmanier many votes for the bill; and the ing but substituting the candidates themimpending presidential election had its in- selves for their electoral representatives. fluence in its favor.
In the election of 1824 four candidates Two of the candidates, Messrs. Adams were before the people for the office of and Clay, voted for and avowedly supported President, General Jackson, John Quincy General Jackson, who voted for the bill, dams, William H. Crawford and Henry Wits for it, as tending to give a home sup- Clay None of them received a majority ply of the articles necessary in time of war, of the 261 electoral votes, and the election and a- raising revenue to pay the public devolved upon the House of Representadebt ; Jr. Crawford was opposed to it, and tives. John C. Calhoun had a majority of Mr. Calhoun had withdrawn as a Presiden- the electoral votes for the office of Vicetial candidate. The Southern planting President, and was elected. Mr. Adams States were dissatisfied, believing that the was elected President by the House of new burdens upon imports which it im- Representatives, although General Jackposed, fell upon the producers of the ex- son was the choice of the people, having ports, and tended to enrich one section of received the greatest number of votes at the Union at the expense of another. the general election. The election of Mr. The attack and support of the bill took Adams was perfectly constitutional, and as much of a sectional aspect; Virginia, the such fully submitted to by the people; but two (:rolinas, Georgia, and some others, it was a violation of the demos krateo prin. being unanimous against it. Pennsylva- ciple; and that violation was equally renia, Vow York, Ohio, and Kentucky being buked. All the representatives who voted unanimous for it. Massachusetts, which against the will of their constituents, lost up to this time had no small influence in their favor, and disappeared from public commerce, voted, with all, except one life. The representation in the House of member, against it. With this sectional Representatives was largely changed at aspect, a tariff for protection, also began to the first general election, and presented a assuine a political aspect, being taken un- full opposition to the new President. Mr. der the care of the party, afterwards de- Adams himself was injured by it, and at nominated as Whig. The bill was ap- the ensuing presidential election was beatproved by President Monroe; a proof that en by General Jackson more than two to that careful and strict constructionist of one. the constitution did not consider it as de- Mr. Clay, who took the lead in the prived of its revenue character by the de- House for Mr. Adams, and afterwards took gree of protection which it extended.
upon himself the mission of reconciling the A subject which at the present time is people to his election in a series of public exciting much criticism, viz: proposed speeches, was himself crippled in the amendments to the constitution relative to effort, lost his place in the democratic parthe election of President and Vice-Presi- ty, and joined the Whigs (then called the dent, had its origin in movements in that national republicans). The democratic direction taken by leading Democrats dur- principle was victor over the theory of the ing the campaign of 1824. The electoral Constitution, and beneficial results ensued. college has never been since the early elec- It vindicated the people in their right and tions, an independent body free to select their power. It re-established parties a President and Vice-President; though upon the basis of principle, and drew anew in theory they have been vested with such party lines, then almost obliterated under powers, in practice they have no such prac- the fusion of parties during the era of tical power over the elections, and have good feeling," and the efforts of leading had none since their institution. In every men to make personal parties for themcase the elector has been an instrument, I selves. It showed the conservative power