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mit. We are aware, there may be many them. But it should be remembered that i nothing for this book to do, but to remind important traits in this man's character the persons upon whom their vengeance has him of some of the most obvious and valuawith which we are yet upacquainted; but, fallen were not the authors of these wrongs; ble principles,--such as he must have rejudging from the information we now pos- and that, to put the most favourable con- membered, if he remembered any part of sess, we think the censures which have struction upon their measures, they are, in these sciences. been cast upon him at home and abroad, the words of our author,“ suddenly visit- Mr Russell seems to claim something of have not been deserved, and that posterity, ing the accumulated errors of three cen- originality in his design of making compothat impartial tribunal to whose decision turies upon the heads of the last, and per- sition a distinct branch of education. We the characters of all must eventually be re- haps the least offending generation." agree with him in the opinion, that too litferred, will do him better justice.
We cannot close this article better than tle attention is devoted to it in our higher With feelings of unmingled pleasure we by summing up our views on the subject in schools; but where it is studied at all,--and read, that one of the first proclamations is- another short extract from the pages be- most of these schools make it a study,-it is sued by General San Martin after entering fore us.
made distinct from every thing but its own Lima, declared the freedom of every per- There has seldom perhaps, existed in the world essentials. Its rules are those of grammar and son born after the 15th of July, 1821, from a more interesting scene than is now passing in rhetoric, and, of course, it cannot be sepwhich period the independence of that South America, or one in which buman character, arated from these branches. All the meancountry is dated. If the Peruvians have in aliis modifications, has received so remarkable ing that is worth deriving from his view of virtue enough to adhere to the principle unbounded, and the actors in it so numerous ; where this subject, is, that in our schools the study thus laid down at the very beginning of every variety of moral and physical circumstance of these sciences is not made sufficiently their national existence, however much we, is so fully subjected to actual trial; or where so practical. More attention should be paid as a nation, may be in advance of them in great a number of states living under different cli: to the application of the principles to their other points, they will be relieved from the mates, and possessed of different soils
, are brought common uses. This is plain enough, and miseries of a slave population, long before under review at the same moment, are placed seves | all acknowledge it. The point is, to give
rally and collectively in similar situations, and are we can hope for this blessing.
forced to act and think for themselves, for the first us a book, in which the principles are arAll political revolutions have their dark time; where old feelings, habits, laws, and prejudi- ranged analytically, and which will thus as well as their bright side. There are ces, are jumbled along with new institutions, new render their application easy. This is prethose that weep as well as those that re- knowledge, and new customs, and new principles, cisely what Mr Russell has not done.
all left free to produce what chance, and a thou. joice. In the enthusiasm which the occasand upthought of causes, may direct; amidst con
The first part of his work contains “ A sion commonly produces, the former class ficting interests and passions of all kinds, let loose Review of the Principles of Orthography, may be for a time overlooked ; and those to drift along the face of society.
Punctuation, and Rhetoric,--as applied to who remain at a distance may, if they will, If the remarks of an intelligent and in the Practice of Composition.” In the shut their eyes, and not see the sufferers; genuous writer, on a people and a country,
“ Remarks on the Principles of Orthograbut the calm and unprejudiced observer who perhaps
, at this moment, the most interest- phy, observed in the most accurate recent is on the spot, must look upon the grieving ing in the world, can have any attraction publications,” we find rules for many deviaas well as the rejoicing; and, if faithful in for our readers, this book certainly pre- tions from what we regard as the custom of discharging the trust which he has assumed, sents strong claims to their notice.
the best writers. Who are the authors he must report it as he finds it. The most
that adopt his mode of spelling “ traveler," conspicuous sufferers in these revolutions
“worshiper," "civilise," " enroll,” “ counhave been the resident Spaniards ; the mer- | A Grammar of Composition, including a seler," and’ « skillful. There are many cantile transactions of those countries were
Practical Review of the Principles of other examples of almost equally rare orformerly conducted almost exclusively by
Rhetoric, a Series of Exercises in Rheto- thography, sanctioned on the authority of this class; they had the countenance and
rical Analysis, and sir Introductory what he is pleased to call “the most accuprotection of the Spanish government; the
Courses of Composition. New Haven. rate recent publications." We must consystem of monopoly which excluded the na
1823. 12010. pp. 150.
fess that we are not acquainted with these tive South Americans from participating in The author of this book is Mr Russell,-“ publications." the profits of trade, had made these people the same who lately pleased us with a Latin The rules for punctuation are not accomrich; and with—perhaps from these ad- Grammar. It will not appear surprising if panied by any examples for illustration, vantages, they were also more intelligent he should be found incapable of writing two and, hence, many of them are totally uninand better informed. The severity with good school books : few men can write one. telligible to all who need such instruction. which these residents have been treated in We must, however, acknowledge, that with The 14th Rule is as follows: all the South American States may be po- the favourable opinion which we had formed
When a preposition precedes the relative, a com litically justifiable. They had been taught of his talents and fidelity, it was difficult to ma is inserted, if the preposition and the words by education and custom to look upon those satisfy us that this is a work of little merit; which follow it are used to explain the antecedent ; born in the country as a race beneath them; but this conclusion has been forced upon us, but no comma takes place, when the preposition and and such is the pride of the Spanish char- and we shall justify it by plain criticism.
its dependent words form but one idea with the rel
a ive. acter, that there could be little probability The Preface informs us, that
Where does the author intend that the that they would for a long time to come The course of instructions contained in this willingly submit to be citizens of the new work, is designed to be of service to four classes of comma shonld be inserted? The 21st Rule governments, and place themselves on a youth: those who are engaged in the higher branch- stands thus : level with those whom they had been long es of education, at academies; those who are A remarkable expression or short observation, in accustomed to despise. But, with this ex- who have entered on their college studies, without nected, is separated from the context by a comma.
preparing for college, by private study; and those the form of a quotation, if short, and closely con. ception, Capt. Hall bears testimony to the having previously devoted to this branch as much general goodness of their character, and time as they afterwards find it requires. The plan
Are not all“ short” observations " short ?" many of them are represented by him as may also be found useful in completing the English The second Rule for the colon is not men of real worth. The estates of most of department of the education of young ladies. very definite; but, if we understand its these have been confiscated, and they re- It is not obvious, that either of these meaning, it would authorize the insertion main there sunk in poverty, or have been classes will find the work very useful. In of that point twice in the sentence that we compelled in this destitute condition to quit order to understand it at all, it is necessary are writing, and in all of similar construction. the country. The promoters of these meas- to have previously acquired a pretty tho- This point is used after a member of a sentence, ures doubtless reconcile them to their con- rough knowledge of grammar and rhetoric, whether simple or complex, which forms complete sciences in the consideration, that most of as taught in the common elementary works. sense, but does not excite expectation of what follows. this wealth had been accumulated under a Few scholars obtain this, till late in col- The third Rule is still worse, and the system of wrong and oppression towards lege life ; and when acquired, it leaves fourth, though frequently observed by oth
er writers, is totally disregarded by Mring with themes selected by the pupil | Swift and his works are forgotten, the betRussell himself. They read as follows: himself, and treated according to his own ter for mankind. In justice to our author, When a conjunction is understood.
judgment. The method here prescribed of or rather compiler, we should add, that the Before an example, a quotation, or a speech, is advancing from more to less dependence letter selected for this work, standing by introduced.
upon guides, may be useful; but it might itself, contains little which can lessen the We must say of his Rules generally, that have been stated in one page,-in which usefulness of the good advice it offers. they are remarkably obscure. So far as case, we might, perhaps, have been enabled There is one paragraph which may amuse we can understand them, they are quite in- to say, that there was one truly valuable our readers; it will give them some idea of feriour to those of Walker and Murray; page in the book.
the vast improvement which has taken and after a scholar has become familiar
place in the education of the fairer sex, with these elementary works, it is not ne
within a few years. Let it be remembercessary to buy new books to repeat the The Ladies' Companion ; containing, First, ed that Swift, who was intimate in the best same lessons. If Mr Russell had made his
Politeness of Manners and Behaviour, society, wrote this letter to a young lady of work complete in itself, we should have ex
from the French of the Abbe de Belle- distinguished family and fortune. pected a repetition of many of the common
garde ; Second, Fenelon on Education;
It is a little hard, that not one gentleman's rules found in others; but, as the case
Third, Miss More's Essays; Fourth, daughter in a thousand, should be brought to read stands, he has repeated them, or made
Dean Swift's Letter to a Young Lady or understand her own natural tongue, or to be a worse substitutes, with no advantage what
newly married ; Fifth, Moore's Fables judge of the easiest works that are written in it; ever, but to make the scholar buy his book, for the Female Sex. Carefully selected as any one may find, who can have the patience to instead of referring to one already purchas.
and revised by a Lady in the County play or novel, where the least word out of the com
hear them, when they are disposed to mangle a ed, long used, and made familiar. We are of Worcester, Mass. Worcester. 1824.
ncert them. It is no wonconfident that it will require more time of
12mo. Pp. 156.
der, when they are not so much as taught to spell every instructer who introduces this book, The title-page, copied at the head of this in their childhood, nor can ever attain to it in their to explain its rules and principles, than it notice, is a sufficient table of contents of more or less, every day, to your husband, if he will would to refer the pupil to those already the book. The first selection, from the permit you, or to any other friend (but not a fernale studied, and make them intelligible. French of the Abbe de Bellegarde, is none one) who is able to set you right; and as for spell
The Review of Rhetoric contains some too well translated,—and though it may ing, you may compass it in time, by making collecof the principles of this science, expressed help a young lady to behave well, it can
lions from the books you read. in a concise manner, and sufficiently intel- hardly be of use in teaching her good Eng
The character and size of this book conligible to those who have seen them well lish. We may remark, in passing, that fine its pretensions within very narrow limillustrated in larger works. The common although these extracts are taken from a its. The compiler probably did not aim at rhetorical figures are explained, and rules work, of which the general subject is, we be very extensive usefulness; but the work are given for using them. But we are obliged lieve, Politeness of Manners, the parts select- she has given to the public, can hardly do here to repeat our objection, that the work ed relate exclusively to moderation in our harm to any, and to some may be interestis incomplete, and presents nothing in a desires and disinterestedness in our conduct, ing and useful. more advantageous or practical light, than and of course refer to politeness, only so far that with which the scholar is already fa- as that is the natural expression of all exmiliar, or may be made familiar by refer- cellence of character. Fenelon's treatise A Poem on the Restoration of Learning in ring to his old, elementary book.
on the Education of a Daughter, and Miss the East; which obtained Mr Buchanan's Part II. treats of Analysis and Criticism, More's Essays, are standard works, and it Prize. By Charles Grant, Esq. M. A. and applies the common principles of gram- would be idle to undertake to discuss their Fellow of Magdalen College. Georgemar and rhetoric to ten short lines from merits very particularly. The selections
town, D. C. 1824. 18mo. pp. 60. Addison. By this specimen of the right from them, particularly from Fenelon, are The name of the Reverend Claudius Bumode of analyzing and criticising, the au- judiciously made. We rather regret to see chanan is doubtless known to many of our thor expects to instruct those who have Swift brought into so close a connexion readers, by his labours in India, and his studied Murray, Blair, Walker, and Camp- with the Archbishop of Cambria. A lady success in illustrating the foul mysteries bell, and put them in a fair way to become should hardly qualify herself to select the and merciless rites of the superstitions of good critics. To speak honestly and plain- best passages from the writings of the for- that country. To this work, the best efly of this,-it is totally useless, and discov- mer; but it may be, and we hope is the case, forts of his life were devoted; and, probaers a degree of short-sighted self-compla- that the fair compiler of this little volume bly with the hope of urging others to lacency, which renders it intolerable. Those found the passages she thought it wise to bour in a cause which he deemed so imporwho have faithfully studied authors like make use of, not in their original location, tant and so holy, he gave to the University those above mentioned, are not so ignorant amid all sorts of filth, but culled and made of Cambridge, in 1804m having formerly as to need these instructions; and such ready for her hand. We have no disposi- been a member of Queen's College--the only can understand them. Those who tion to deny the strong sense, and acute, sum of two hundred and ten pounds; which have studied these works to no purpose, far-reaching sagacity of Swift, or to under- he ordered to be divided into prizes for the will do well to study them again, and not value the simplicity and directness of his following productions, viz. one hundred content themselves with this trifling exam- transparent style; but if modesty and de- pounds for an English Prose Dissertation ple of Analysis and Criticism.
cency be any thing more than empty « On the best means of civilizing the subPart III. commences at the 66th page, names,-if obscenity be thought disgusting, jects of the British empire in India, and of and occupies almost half of the book. It and foul thoughts and language are consid- diffusing the light of the Christian religion consists of a variety of quotations, embrac- ered, to say no more, provocatives to sin, throughout the Eastern World;"—sixty ing narrative, descriptive, and didactic if it be thought desirable to protect purity pounds for an English Poem “On the Respieces. It is designed that the scholar should and innocence from stain and from tempta- toration of Learning in the East;"—twenread one of these pieces, and then close his tion, from ideas and feelings which bring ty-five pounds for a Latin Poem “On the book and write one like it. The reading with them degradation if not danger ;-and, College at Bengal;"—and the same suin books in our common schools, furnish ex- perhaps, more than all, if it is thought in for a Greek Ode, of which the subject amples of these several species of writing, jurious to the tenderness or correctness of should be, “Let there be light.” Mr equally adapted to this purpose.
the moral sense, to feel habitually any Grant,—whose many titles may be read The “Six Introductory Courses of Com- measure of respect for one, the tenor of above,-wrote for the second of these position,” consist of directions for exer- whose life bears unvarying, testimony to prizes, and won it by the poem now pubcises, commencing with a single paragraph the fact of his being a heartless, selfish vil. lished. We have read many things in its slightly varied from the author's, and end- lain, then may we well say, the sooner praise, in some English journals; and it is now given to the American public, in or- | Thy daughters shone amid the virgin choir : accordingly, wherever it has prevailed, der that it may “ touch the hearts of our Not fair Circassia touch'd her blooming race
yielded very slowly before the evidence of countrymen, and inspire them with a dis- With tints so tender of impassion'd grace;
enlightened observation. There are few, With all their glances wove such artless wiles, position to contribute more liberally to the Or breath'd such brightness round their angel
however, now, who have much fear of the cause of Christianity in the East.”
contagion of dysentery or consumption. The Without entering into any discussion re- Ah! at the tyrant's frown those beauties die ; believers in that of yellow fever are more nuspecting the merits or character of the Fled is the smile, and sunk the speaking eye:
merous, though they are gradually diminishpurpose, thus stated by the American edi. Nor barp, nor carol-warbles through the glade,
ing. Typhus fever maintains its character tor, we would express our decided opinion, But the steel'd savage revels in thy woes, Nor pensive love-notes sooth the plane-tree shade;
rather better, and plague perhaps best of all; that it will be very little aided by the pub- And round his temples twines thy brightest rose. of all, we mean, which are questionable. lication of this poem. It contains not
There is something very like affectation This subject has been better understood and much of either poetry, or eloquence; any in the frequent introduction of Hindoo more rationally treated since the distincone, already convinced and very ready to words, when English words would have tion, which has been recognised between be pleased, might find it very agreeable ; done as well. Thus we have chawla," contagion and infection, which is an exceedbut he, whose opinions and feelings were which means rice, and nothing else ; and on ingly important one, and may be understood opposed to the cause for which Mr Grant the 29th page, in the line
by the definition of these two terms as given is an advocate, would hardly experience
by Dr Smith. much change in his views or his dispositions
And thy own pedma, roseate flower of light, from the perusal of the poem. the established English name for this plant, mal secretion, possessing the power of inducing
Contagion is a poison, generated by morbid aniThe leading spirits of the age are seldom lotos, would have made just as good rhythm, a like morbid action in healthy bodies, whereby it roused to labour by these public prizes; and have prevented the appearance of some is reproduced and indefinitely multiplied.
Infection is a febrific agent, produced by the dethere are exceptions to this rule, but they do pedantry. We learn the meaning of these not occur very frequently. We have read words from the author's notes. On the composition of animal and vegetable substances. many prize poems, and they are generally, 24th page, in the line
The force and practical value of this -as this is,-just such poetry as might be Then thought Gautami, India's peerless boast, distinction may be thus illustrated. If expected from any resolute rhymester of re- the Hindoo name, which Sir W. Jones, who yellow fever be a contagious disease, the spectable talents, whose mind had received is a pretty good authority in such matters, attendants must leave the patient, or risk a systematic cultivation, whose memory was spells Gotama, with the accent on the first participation in the calamity; if it be an enriched, and whose taste was ripened by syllable, is subjected to considerable change, infectious one, they need only leave the unan acquaintance with the best poetry of "to render the word more agreeable to healthy district and carry the sufferer with past ages, and whose industry insured that English ears." if it was necessary to in them, an operation not very difficult; since degree of uccess which the nature and troduce this sage at all, it was at least the pestilential locality is usually very cirstrength of his powers would permit. The equally necessary to introduce him by his cumscribed. poem now under notice has no very great true name.
Our author divides his first order into faults, excepting the greatest: it is the
two genera, “contagion communicable onwork of a scholar, but not of a poet. Per
ly by contact,” including as species that of haps the best passages in it are the follow- Elements of the Etiology and Philosophy of the itch, hydrophobia, and a few others; ing. The first is about Aurung zebe; the
. In two Parts. By Joseph and contagion communicable both by second describes the vale of Cashmere.
Nather Smith, M. D. Fellow of the Col- contact and by the atmosphere," of which
lege of Physicians and Surgeons of the the species are small-pox, measles, chickenSkill'd to deceive, and patient to beguile
University of the State of New York ; With sleepless efforts of unwearied toil,
pox, scarlet fever, and hooping-cough, His youth he shrouds in consecrated bowers,
&c. &c. New York. 1824. 8vo. pp. 223. Some objections might be made to this clasWhere prayer and penance lead the hermit hours; Dr Smith proposes in this work to do sification, but these would be more approYet not to him those bowers their sweets impart, something towards supplying the deficien- priate in a journal purely medical. The The mind compos’u, smooth brow, and spotless cy in the accounts of epidemics, by arrang- genera of Infection are koino-miasma, from
heart : No sun-bright visions with new hues adorn
ing their causes in systematic order, and to koinos, common or public. This is “ the Eve's purple cloud, or dewy beams of morn;
deduce from an examination of the nature effluvia exhaled from the public filth of But Fancy wakes for him more grim delights, and modus operandi of these causes, the cities, and from the soil of marshes and War's iniag'd pomp, and Murder's savage rites, laws wbich govern their rise, prevalence, champaign countries. It also properly inArd, like the Genius of some nightly spell, and decline, and the manner in which they cludes the noxious emanations from animal Peoples with shapes accurs'd the wizard cell : Keen Hate, Revenge, Suspicion's arrowy glare,
modify and supersede each other. The and vegetable substances which are accuAnd all the blood-stain'd joys of Guilt are there ;
Introduction enumerates three orders of mulated and allowed to putrefy in cellars, Thus, by sell visions rous'd, th' usurper springs
causes which he supposes to be concerned storehouses, and the holds of ships.” IdioFierce from his lair, to lap the blood of kings. in the production of epidemics; they are, miasma, from idios, personal, which is
Go, count thy spuils, thy trophies grim rehearse, contagion, infection, and atmospheric con- " produced from the matter of perspiration
stitution, or as he denominates it, Meteora- and the other excretions of the human Of trampled hosts, while India weeps around :
tion. It is principally devoted to the con- body, accumulated in small and unventiOn Hindoo shrines thy bigot fury pour,
sideration of the notion of the contagious-lated places, and acted upon by heat ;” and And quench the darts of sharp Remorse in gore. ness of certain diseases, which is one, that lastly, idio-koino miasma, a combination of
"Tis done. Lo, Persecution lights from far is very easily disseminated among man- both. These genera are again divided in-
, difficulty. Contagion is an intangible foe, which our readers will readily excuse the Are heard. The despot, thron'd in blood, presides and, like demons or spectres, has its effect omission, The distinction of species is O'er havoc's work, and all the ruin guides. upon the imagination of many, whose rea- founded on the comparative intensity of
son would deny its existence. The circum- the poisonous effluvia at different times and Ah, beauteous Cashmere, love's enchanting vale! stances, moreover, of many wide-spreading in different situations. The koino-miasma, What new Abdallah shall thy woes bewail ? and fatal diseases are such as favour the according to its virulence, produces interIn vain thy snowy mountains, swelling round, For Peace alone would guard the holy ground:
doctrine of contagion in the minds of those mittent, bilious, or yellow fever, and as Dr Oh, once for thee the rosy-finger'd Hours
who are not well disciplined in medical log- Smith supposes, the plague. The idio-miWove wreaths of joy in Pleasure's echoing bowers; ic; and during the prevalence of such dis- asma is the remote cause of typhus, and the Once round thy limpid stream and scented grove,
eases the side of the contagionist is gen- third genus that of those anomalous and The haunts of Fancy, Freedom lov'd to rove; erally, as far as his personal interest is compound diseases, about which the faculty And, moulded by the land of young Desire, concerned, the safest. This belief has I have been occasionally so much divided;
as for instance the fever which prevail-attempt it, yet the disease in such cases pon the first, considering its connexion ed in New York in 1820. Such diseases spreads no further, and ceases with the with the origin and progress of epidemics, will incline either to yellow or typhus, in cessation of the communication. Instances as a very obscure subject, which has bafiled proportion as the common or personal mi- of this sort have been frequent. The case the endeavours of the most industrious obasma prevails. Thus in tolerably well ven- of the Ten Brothers, in the fall of 1819, servers. The second genus is discussed at tilated situations the symptoms will be will be remembered by our Boston readers greater length, and bere we think Dr Smith those of the former; while in the dirty and as one of these. When cases of this sort has fallen into the common error of ingencrowded dwellings of the poor, the form of happen in a port just before, or coincident ious rnen--that of allowing imagination to disease will be a horrible anomaly, in which with, the commencement of an indigenous supply the deficiences of observation. Rethe typhoid appearances will soon predomi- epidemic, they seem to afford strong sup- specting these supposed insensible qualities nate. We cannot, in a work of this kind, port to the defenders of the doctrine of con- of the atmosphere, we have to inquire first, follow Dr Smith through the various details tagion; but taken in connexion with what is there any proof of their existence? and and ingenious illustrations of this part of we have already observed, it will be per- second ; can any thing be added to the sum his subject; we confine our remarks to two ceived that they admit of an explanation, of our knowledge by admitting it? With or three points; the first is the manner in without supposing the existence of specific respect to the first question, it is adwhich the koino-miasma diffuses itself-this contagion. We have intimated that the mitted that we have no evidence, either is so interesting that it deserves to be giv- believers in the contagiousness of typhus from our senses, or any instrument or open in our author's own words.
were still numerous; nor is this remarka- eration hitherto adopted, that there are The grounds from which the miasm is exhaled, ble, when we consider how nearly the opin- any such qualities; their existence is inare usually of small extent, compared with the area ions of both parties in relation to this ques. ferred from the circumstances of certain over which it eventually spreads. At first, the tion approach each other. Dr Smith, in epidemics—that is, these circumstances, poison is probably generated in a very minute behalf of the anti-contagionists, maintains or effects, must have some cause, and as quantity, perhaps not enough to occasion disease that the perspiration and other excretions no known circumstance, or antecedent, even in those who are the most susceptible to its of persons labouring under severe febrile can be produced, Dr S., as others have done increases, and shortly becomes sufficiently accumu- diseases, are extremely liable to become before him, assumes that this antecedent is lated at and about its source to produce the few putrid, and, of course, to produce what be an insensible quality of the atmosphere; an cases of fever which form the commencement of terms idio-miasma, which produces typhus assumption which we consider entirely graan epidemic. As the exhalation multiplies, fever. Thus,an attendant on a patient ill with tuitous. And what are we to gain by inspreads to the adjoining streets, producing addi- yellow-fever in circumstances where he is terposing this new link in the chain of tional cases. ance of the disease as an epidemic, frequently ap- not at the same time exposed to the koino- causation ? Nothing. When we say that the pears doubtful, owing to the wind dispersing the miasma, may be seized with fever, but this cause, or one of the causes, of influenza is miasm, the quantity of which is yet inconsiderable. will be typhus; and all this is according to an insensible quality of the atmosphere, But the poison, multiplying from day to day, slowly the laws of infection. By attending a case we say only that the cause of influenza extends over a larger space, entering the bouses, of typhus, he may in the same manner be- is something of which we know nothing. As the season advances, the pestilential soil become affected by idio-miasma, which, as It is an acknowledgment of ignorance, with comes more and more prolific of the poison, and before, produces typhus; and this agrees a circumstance, or a concealing of it under when at length its exhalation is no longer increas with the same laws of infection. But it is a periphrasis. When our author states that ed, the epidemic soon rises to its height. also a case in which one fever produces by the prevalence of a severe epidemic is pre
In accounting for the extension of yellow fever, it its effluvia another similar fever, which is ceded by unusual severity of the common is important to observe, that the quantity of Per, almost the definition of contagion, and in- disorders of the season, he gives us data on koino miasma daily augments, and that the principal canse of its not spreading rapidly with effect, is its deed, is all that many contagionists contend which to found precautionary calculations. dispersion in the atmosphere. The poison in a for. The difference, according to Dr Smith, When he infers that these facts intimate the dilute state is, no doubt, always considerably in is, that contagion a secretion, which loses presence of epidemic meteoration, does he advance of the place in which it is sufficiently con- its specific power by decomposition, as is do any more? Can we remove or correct centrated to produce disease; and although that well known to be the case with the vario- this ? Certainly not. We cannot tell whence streets of an infected district, may frequently be lous and vaccine matter, while infection, it comes, or whither it goeth; we have scattered by the wind so as to render them com- or more strictly speaking, idio-miasma, is only an unnecessary and unmanageable ad. paratively safe to passengers, yet as the poison has the product of an excretion which acquires dition to our notions respecting epidemics, possession of enclosures and ranges of buildings, its activity from the very process by which which are already quite troublesome enough. and is constantly emanating from its source, they that of the former is lost. Whatever the When Dr S. suggests that this meteoration soon become again pestilential in a calm state of truth may be in this matter, one thing in may be electricity, we begin to find some miasm is condensed with the dews, and partially relation to it is important, and is admitted on savour in the doctrine. This is something absorbed by the soil, from which it is exhaled all hands, namely, that the sphere of activ- tangible. Let him procure an electrometer, during the heat of the day. This idea is the more ity of this effluvia of typhus is very circum- or if no known instrument of that kind will plausible, seeing there is reason to believe that the scribed, and in well ventilated apartments, answer, let bim invent a new one, and watch specific gravity of Perkoino miasma is greater than the danger of receiving a severe disorder it ten or twenty years, as Van Swicten did the surface of the earth is never considerable. It from this cause alone, is very inconsid- his thermometer and barometer; let him is an old observation that the occupants of the up- erable.
put his notion to the test of experiment, per stories of houses are less exposed to the rava- Thus far we have been gratified with this and he will be usefully employed. But, ges of pestilence than those who reside on the work, and pleased with the clearness and against insensible qualities we enter our ground floors.
ingenuity of its author; and, though we protest. For our own part, we cannot help Another circumstance is important in the are not yet prepared to subscribe to all his thinking that the sensible qualities of the history of this pernicious effluvia, which is, notions, we acknowledge that they are gen- atmosphere have a greater share in the that it adheres to clothes, vessels, &c., and erally plausible, and often satisfactory. It circumstances of epidemics than has been is thus imported from situations where it is with regret, therefore, that we express allowed them. The connexion is obscure, prevails, to others which were before the opinion, that in nearly all which relates and, perhaps, never may be satisfactorily healthy. But the effects of this importa- to his third order, or meteoration, Dr Smith explained,- probably from the complication tion, which were for some time matter of has lost his labour. He divides this order of the subject. A native of a northern triumph to the contagionists, and of trouble into two genera, the first comprising the climate becomes, by the operation of that to their opponents, are, in reality, such as sensible qualities of the atmosphere, or sen- climate, prepared to suffer severely by the confirm the argument of the latter; for, sible meteoration, and the second the insen- epidemics of the south ; why may not a sethough communication with such vessels, sible ones; and this is insensible or epidemic ries of years predispose a whole city or disor their contents, is often fatal to those who I meteoration. He makes very few remarks trict to the effectual operation of agents,
which, without such predisposition, would be 14 P. M. passed the light-house, bringing the run longer than till twelve at night, and acharmless ? One word more with epidemic me- wind with us for the benefit of several ves- cordingly, though we had a fine wind, hove teoration and we are done with it for the pre- sels, which had started before us, and were to till five in the morning; and then made sent. The author, like many of the invent- then becalmed in the outer harbour. The sail again. At six we spoke a noble vessel, ors or defenders of gratuitous hypotheses, first week brought us to the Grand Banks. one of the packets from Liverpool to New endeavours to draw a parallel between his A few evenings after we left Boston, 1 York, and made an attempt to send you a favourite agent and gravity, of which, says noticed a phenomenon, which was quite letter, but in vain; it fell into the hands of he, we know nothing. Tell me, is the im- new to me, though Capt. M. says it is com- Nep's postmaster-general, who doubtless plied language in this case, what gravity is, mon enough. Just after the sun had set, made very little ceremony with the wafer. and I will tell you what meteoration is. To there appeared, diverging from the place About ten o'clock we came in sight of the which we reply, that gravity, as far as we which he might be supposed to have reach- first land we had seen for three weeks,know, is nothing but a quality or a tenden- ed, a number of blue rays, stretching the highlands of Dungarvon in the county cy of all bodies to approach each other; across the red ground, and producing a of Waterford; and as the wind continued the reality of which every one perceives very beautiful effect. During the second from the northwest, run close in with the and admits; while meteoration is a quality week our progress was inconsiderable, the shore, and coasted along all day with a of the atmosphere, by which it influences wind being generally easterly, or light, light breeze. You can hardly conceive or produces epidemics, in a manner which and often we were entirely becalmed. On any thing more delightful. The weather its nature prevents our perceiving, and the Monday of the third week a fine breeze was clear and mild, and the appearance which we are by no means willing to admit. sprung up, and we had as much as we could of green Erin most beautiful. We had
Our limits will not permit us to make fly under with close reefed topsails and at once exchanged the wild, dreary, and many observations upon the second part of foresail. It did not, however, continue tumbling expanse of ocean, bounded with this volume. It is generally interesting, long so furious, but soon reduced itself to a one eternally monotonous circle of sky, for .and, excepting those portions which imply fresh breeze, either directly aft, or two or a smooth channel, edged with lofty hills or the admission of the insensible qualities, ju- three points on either quarter, to which we plains, and declivities gilded with wheatdicious. It is composed with care, and at could carry our smallest sails. From this fields, and diversified with villages, hamthe expense, apparently, of much industri- moment the voyage was delightful. The lets, light-houses, and other monuments of ous reading Dr Smith supposes, while brig was a superb sailor, and to do our Cap- human industry; above us a bright sun, treating this part of this subject, that the tain justice, he never wasted a puff of wind. blue sky variegated with cottony clouds ; diseases which are propagated by specific Away we went merrily, with top-gallant, bebind, a gentle breeze wafting us along, contagion, as small-pox, measles, &c., may topmast and lower steering sails, royals, and changing the prospect every instant, and sometimes originate from the effects of the ringtail all full, and making the water refreshing the eye and soul with continued atmosphere upon the human frame. In this white all around us. One morning about variety, “ever changing, ever new.” Such we cannot agree with him. The history of nine, we saw on the weather bow a large a day was sufficient to pay one for a longthese diseases will not warrant such a sup- ship, with all sail set, even more than we er voyage over the Atlantic, than ours has position. In what manner they did, or may had, and copper-bottomed, steering within been. Some of us were of opinion, that originate, is, with one or two exceptions, one point of the same course with our if this state of things continued, it would entirely unknown; and the analogy of these selves; about twelve, we spoke him (a John matter little whether we reached Dublin would lead us to suspect that they were de- Bull from Quebec), and about four hours for a month; but Capt. M- was otherrived from the brute creation.
after left him just dipping beneath the hori- wise minded : “de gustibus non." His We hope our remarks upon the subject zon on our lee quarter. We went by him, taste for the picturesque has not probably of meteoration will not be offensive to Dr to use a sailor's hyperbole, as if he had been much cultivated. During the day we Smith. If he has erred in the manner we been lying at anchor. My fellow-passen- passed the villages of Dungarvon and suppose, bis mistake is similar to that of gers were rather agreeable than other-Waterford, and about sunset were up with many eminent men in his profession. Stahl wise; one especially, P- a Scotch half- the Saltee islands and Tusker rock. Fhad his Archeus, Darwin his Spirit of ani- pay lieutenant, afforded great amusement will recollect the gale of wind in which mation, and Hoffman and Cullen their ner- by his stories of dukes, duchesses, princes, we passed this rock before, and I am sure, vous energies and vis medicatriz. “ There etc. Dwould have reverenced this if he has forgotten it, I have not. I conmust be a tub," said the learned and amia- man for his familiarity with Shakspeare. trasted our sail this day, with that by the ble Cullen in conversing on this subject, His memory was really astonishing; he same places ten years ago, and the differ“ to amuse the whole.” Philosophers will spouted from Burke, Pitt, Douglass, Drence was far enough from being trifling. clasp shadows sometimes, instead of sub- Syntax, Homer, Milton, Thomson, and The following morning the scene was again stances, and occasionally stumble on the Burns; enacted the Gentle Shepherd, and beautiful beyond description.
The sun, as
pleased with our company that he took fringed with gold as the sun's rays glanced
himself fairly on the taffrail for the rest of the hill of Hoth and the entrance to Dub-
the voyage, and “ blew a gallant blast." Jin bay ; on the right, two vessels in full
Cape Clear, but having run too far to the completed the prospect. Before long it be-
southward, were not able to make it. The came quite calm, and we amused ourselves
deep sea-line being also a very shallow sea- by catching a small fish called here gurMY DEAR FRIENDS_Soon after you left line, we could not get bottom, though the nets. About noon the wind sprung up again us on the morning of the 15th, we were water was quite green. In these circumstan- and a pilot-boat came along side, manned under way with a light breeze, and about Ices Capt. thought it imprudent to with a crew which beggars all description
LETTERS FROM A TRAVELLER.