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tal-as his command pounced upon the prey, believed it entitled to the credit of the capture."

The truth is, the battle of Shiloh was fought by an army of superbly brave men, very few of whom had had the advantage of instruction, drill, or discipline.

The surrender of Prentiss was due to the gallantry of the entire army, which, by desperate fighting between daylight and 4 o'clock on April 6, had dispersed and driven from the field all of Grant's army, except Prentiss and Wallace's Divisions, which, becoming in a measure isolated, were doomed to surrender.

Confederate regiments who never fired a shot at the surrendered troops were entitled to a full share of the credit, as they had defeated and driven off the other divisions, which made the capture of Prentiss and Wallace's Division possible. A review of the reports written at the time may be a matter of some interest.

War Records (Vol. X, page 104) and General Prentiss' report (pages 277-279) inform us that Prentiss' Division included the 12th Michigan, Colonel Francis Quinn; 18th Wisconsin, Colonel J. S. Albin; 18th Missouri, Colonel Madison Miller; 21st Missouri, Colonel David Moore; 23d Missouri, Colonel Tindall; 25th Missouri, Colonel Everett Peabody; 61st Illinois, Colonel Jacob Fry.

General Prentiss also informs us that the following regiments of General W. H. L. Wallace's Divison fought to the end and surrendered with him: The 8th Iowa, Colonel J. L. Geddes; 12th Iowa, Colonel Jos. I. Wood; 14th Iowa, Colonel Wm. T. Shaw; 58th Illinois, Colonel Lynch.

I find only eight reports made by these officers, and some of them do not allude to the fighting incident to the surrender of General Prentiss. His report, dated November 17 (Vol. X, page 278), says:

"I reformed to the right of General Hurlburt and to the left of Brigadier-General W. H. L. Wallace. This position I did maintain till 4 P. M., when General Hurlburt, being overpowered, was forced to retire. Perceiving that I was about to be surrounded, I determined to assail the enemy which had passed between me and the river, charging upon him with my entire force. I found him advancing en masse, and nothing was left but to harrass him and retard his progress so long as might be possible. This I did until 5:30 P. M., when finding that further resistance must result in the slaughter of every man in the command, I had to yield the fight. The enemy

succeeded in capturing myself and 2,200 rank and file, many of them being wounded."

Colonel J. J. Woods, Twelfth Iowa Report, April, 1862, pages

151-152, says:

"Thus matters stood in our front until about 4 P. M., at which time it became evident by the firing on our left that the enemy were getting in our rear. * * * Seeing ourselves surrounded, we, nevertheless opened a brisk fire on that portion of the enemy who blocked our passage to the landing, who, after briskly returning our fire, fell back. We attempted by a rapid movement to cut our way through, but the enemy on our left advanced rapidly, pouring into our ranks a most destructive fire. To have held out longer would have been to suffer complete annihilation. The regiment was, therefore, compelled to surrender as prisoners of war.

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Colonel J. L. Geddes, of the Eighth Iowa, in his report dated November 13, page 166, says:

"I formed my regiment in line of battle with my center resting on the road leading from Corinth to Pittsburg landing, and at right angles with my line. * * * About 3 P. M., all direct communications with the river ceased. * **General Prentiss' division having been thrown back from the original line, I changed front by my left flank, conforming to his movements and at right angles with my former base, which was immediately occupied and retained for some time by the Fourteenth Iowa, Colonel Shaw. In this position I ordered my regiment to charge a battalion of the enemy (I think Fourth Mississippi), which was done in good order, completely routing the enemy. We were now attacked on three sides. It now became absolutely necessary to prevent annihilation to leave a position which my regiment had held for nearly ten consecutive hours of severe fighting, with a loss of nearly 200 in killed and wounded. I ordered my regiment to retire. I perceived that further resistance was useless. Myself and the major portion of my command were captured."

It is possible that this was a portion of the line of battle which was pressing back General Chalmers when I relieved him about 3 o'clock. In a report dated April 9, 1862, page 281, Colonel Francis Quinn, Twelfth Michigan, says:

"Between 4 and 5 o'clock on the afternoon two regiments sur

rendered. * * * At this time General Prentiss must have been taken prisoner. He was a brave man and cheered his men to duty during the whole day. When the fight was thickest and danger the greatest, there was he found, and his presence gave renewed confidence. * * * The great numbers of the dead in front of this one position caused remark and astonishment by all who beheld it the following day. This point was held from 9 o'clock A. M. till 4:30 P. M., amid the most dreadful carnage for a little space ever witnessed on any field of battle during the war."

In report dated December 1, page 291. Colonel Quinn Morton says:

"We were then ordered to change our position and to engage a large force of the enemy who were pressing upon the centre, which was done.

"After a severe engagement at a distance of twenty-five or thirty yards, we drove the enemy back, not, however, without serious loss. We held the position assigned us until 4 P. M., fighting almost without intermission, at which time we were ordered to change our front to meet the enemy who had outflanked us. * * * We fought until 5 o'clock, driving the enemy back, although they charged us frequently during that time. Here there was a most horrible shower of shot and shell. We repulsed the enemy in our rear and determined to try and reach the main body of the army, which had fallen back to the river, and in the effort to lead our now broken force back, the gallant and much lamented Colonel Tyndall fell, shot through the body, after having done his duty most nobly during the day. After retiring about 200 yards we were met by a large force of the enemy and compelled to surrender at about 6 P. M., after ten hours of almost incessant fighting."

In his report dated October 26, page 154, Colonel Wm. T. Shaw


"At about a quarter to 5 P. M., I received an order from Colonel Tuttle to about face and proceed to engage the same body of the enemy. In order not to interfere with General Prentiss' lines, I marched by an oblique, passing close to the 18th Wisconsin in his line, and here for the third time that day the 14th engaged with the enemy. After less than half an hour we repulsed them and made a short advance which revealed to me the facts of our position. ** General Prentiss having already surrendered with a part of his command, the 14th was left in advance of all that remained, but com

pletely enclosed, receiving the enemy's fire from three directions. The regiment still kept its ranks unbroken and held its position facing the enemy, but the men were almost completely exhausted with a whole day of brave and steady fighting, and many of them had spent their whole stock of ammunition. It was therefore useless to think of prolonging a resistance which could only have wasted their lives to no purpose, and at about 5:45 P. M. I surrendered them and myself prisoners of war."

In his report dated April 12, page 550, General James R. Chalmers says:

"About a quarter of an hour after the surrender some of our troops, supposed to be of General Polk's division, made their appearance on the opposite side of the surrendered camp, and were with great difficulty prevented from firing upon the prisoners. * * It was then about 4 o'clock in the evening, and after distributing ammunition we received orders from General Bragg to drive the enemy into the river.”

Major-General Leonidas Polk, in his report dated September, 1862, forwarded February 4, 1863, says, page 409:

"About 5 P. M. my line attacked the enemy's troops, the last that were left upon the field in an encampment on my right. The attack was made in front and flank. The resistance was sharp but short. The enemy perceiving he was flanked in a position completely turned, hoisted the white flag and surrendered. It proved to be the command of Generals Prentiss and Wm. H. L. Wallace."

It will be observed that General Chalmers' report, written five days after the battle, fixes the hour of Prentiss' surrender at about 4 o'clock; also that Colonel Quinn, who made his report immediately after the battle (April 9), says that the movement to outflank his left was at 2 o'clock and that two regiments surrendered very soon afterwards, and he speaks of the dreadful carnage up to 4:30. Also that Colonel Geddes, of the 8th Iowa, says: Direct communication with the river ceased at about 3 P. M., and we knew that Hurlbert and a part of Wallace's Division retreated to the river a short time before the surrender.

It will be also observed that it is reports made many months after the battle, which places the time of the surrender of Prentiss as late as 5 o'clock.

My recollection is that I was fully twenty or twenty-five minutes in taking charge of the prisoners and placing them under the guard

of Colonel Shorter's Regiment, and fully twenty minutes more in replenishing ammunition and reforming the brigade, and certainly twenty minutes more in marching to the river bank, which we reached before sundown.

This would tend to fix 4 o'clock as very approximately the hour of Prentiss' surrender.

This engagement, by far, was the most warmly contested up to that period of the war, and hardly surpassed in severity by any battle which followed, was a square standup fight at close range and without cover by men, very few of whom had before that day been in battle. The Confederate loss was 1,728 killed, 8,012 wounded, 950 missing, more than one-third of the force actually engaged. The Federals report their loss at 1,700 killed, 7,495 wounded, and 3,022 captured.

General Prentiss and the lamented General W. H. L. Wallace and the brave men they commanded need no enconium; they bore the brunt of the battle from daylight until 4 o'clock. Then cut off and isolated, they made a desperate charge in an effort to escape, driving everything before them until met by my brigade, which they fought with desperation until they saw that surrender was inevitable.

[From the Richmond (Va.) Times, May 10, 1896.]



Facts from a Diary of Events, Substantiated by Official Reports of Actors in the Scenes.

Editor of the Times:

SIR,-In consequence of the frequent misstatements made, some of which have found their way into public print, concerning the fighting in the vicinity of Front Royal on the 23d of May, 1862, and the capture of the Federal garrison at that place, I have frequently been requested by some of my old comrades to prepare for publication a correct statement of the occurrences of that eventful day. From various causes I have from time to time postponed a compliance with these requests until the present, but, having been recently

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