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344. It is to be observed, that all messengers, whether post or otherwise, are to be considered in the light of ordinary labourers, and post messengers are to be paid at a rate which shall never exceed 5s. per month, when such is necessary, on account of distance from post towns.
345. Every valuator or surveyor is expected to select his place of residence in reference to convenience to his work, to obviate the necessity of frequent removals ; but when removal becomes necessary the shortest possible routes are to be chosen, and all excessive luggage will be disallowed. Charges for hotel expenses can in do case be paid, except by the express approbation of the Commissioner.
Commissioner of Paluutiok. Dublin, June, 1853.
GENERAL VALUATION OF RATEABLE PROPERTY IN
Amount of Traffic Receipts,
Expenditure and allowances.
at 5 per cent 18, 886 Tenants' profits, at 15 per cent = 56,658 Depreciation of Stock, at 12 per cent
Amount, 324 per cent Renewing Rails and Sleepers on 190} miles, at £116 a mile,
separately under the head, Buildings at Stations
ART. III.-JUVENILE DELINQUENTS AND THEIR
MANAGEMENT. 1. First Annual Report of the Directors of Convict Prisons in
Ireland. Presented to both Houses of Parliament by com
mand of Iler Majesty. Dublin, 1851. 2. Crime : its Amount, Causes and Remedies. By Frederick
Hill, Barrister-at-Law, late Inspector of Prisons. 1 Vol.,
London : John Murray, 1853. 3. Prison Discipline, and the advantages of the separate
system of imprisonment, with a detailed accouut of the discipline 110w pursued in the new County Gaol at Reading. By the Rev. J. Field, M. A., Chaplain. 2 Vols., London :
Longman and Co., 1818. 4. Chapters on Prisons and Prisoners. By Joseph Kingsmill,
M.A.; Chaplain of Pentonville Prison. London, Third
Edition, 1 Vol., London : Longman and Co., 1854. 3. Reformatory Schools. A Letter to C. B. Adderley, Esq.,
M.P. By the Rev. Sydney Turner, Resident Chaplain of the Philanthropic Farm School, Red Hill. London: Thos.
Hatchard, 1855. 6. Hints on the Discipline appropriate to Schools. By Arthur
Hill. London: Longman and Co., 1855.
All admit the principle, that “ prevention is better than cure," but many lose sight of it in practice. Endeavouring only to reform criminals, is “working at the pump and leaving the leak open.”
Why not commence at the source and cut off the supply? This is the most simple and natural way to prevent. The "cure” is necessary for those who have already fallen. We shall see how far prevention and cure can go hand in hand.
Mr. Hill, with whom we fully concur, in his able work on Crime gives the following as the chief causes of crimc :- Bad training and ignorance, drunkenness and other kinds of profligacy, poverty, habits of violating the laws engendered by the creation of artificial offences, other measures of legislation interfering unnecessarily in private actions or presenting examples of injustice, temptations to crime, caused by the probability either of entire escape or of subjection to an insufficient punishmeút. Mr. Hill writes :
“ The enumeration of the causes of crime suggests the remedies. These consist chiefly, in my opinion, of good education and the gen. eral spread of knowledge ; the cultivation of habits of forethought, sobriety, and frugality, with the control of the passions ; the pro. motion of habits of industry and self-reliance, and the adoption of all other practicable means for raising every class of society beyond the sphere of destitution, and into that of comfort and moderate wealth ; such a remodelling of our laws as shall bring the statutebook as nearly as possible into coincidence with the eternal principles of justice, so that wbile it is a code of munieipal law, it may also serve as a manual of morality; and lastly, the adoption of such means for the apprehension, trial, and punishment of offenders as shall secure, as far as practicable, that every offence be followed by im. mediate detection and certain conviction, and that the criminal sball be placed in such a position as shall make him sincerely and deeply regret the wrong he has committed, and bring him to labour earnestly in the work of his reformation, and in obtaining the means for making restitution to the person whom he has injured."
Lient.-Col. Jebb, in his Report on the Discipline and Management of the Convict Prisons, and disposal of convicts 1851, gires the following as the main causes of crime :-Drunken. ness-the total inadequacy of accommodation to secure the most ordinary decencies of life in the houses of the lower classes--the demoralizing and vitiating effects of penny theatres, balls, concerts, and low places of amusement-facilities for disposing of stolen goods—the want of any recognised means of education and industrial training for the lower classes.
We forbear quoting any more, but content ourselves with - remarking, that in all the works before uş, enumerating the chief causes of crime, all agree, that ignorance, drunkenness, and destitution, are the grand causes of crime in Ireland. Others there are, but they are partly consequences of these“Many more co-operating causes might be designated," writes Lieut.-Col. Jebb, "but the foregoing are each and all susceptible of abatement. They only require to be grappled with in a vigorous manner, by the combined action of the legislatire and local authority, and the effects of benevolence; and more good would soon be effected than any one, unacquainted with the magnitude of the evils, would deem to be possible.” If we set about the work earnestly, and with a conviction that we shall succeed, we must succeed. And what work, may we
ask, could be more becoming a christian nation and a christian people ? Our people are as intellectual, as enterprising, as charitable as any other people under heaven. Why then, it may be asked, hare they not kept pace with the other nations of Europe in this respect ? Our answer is, the question has not been sufficiently brought under their notice. The following very forcible remarks on "prevention” and “ cure” are made by Mr. Thompson of Banchory House, near Aberileen, in a most admirable little work, entitled “Social Evils, their Causes and their Cure."
" It is not enough for society to reform criminals after they have led lives of crime for years ; it has another and a greater, and, happily, it is also an easier work to accomplish, and that is, to prevent the growth of a population of juvenile offenders, ready and willing, year after year, to fill up the places of those who may have been reformed, or removed from the country. The work is not to cleanse the polluted stream after it has long flowed on in its pestilential course, but to purify the fouutain whence it draws its unfailing supply.
In order to get a right view both of our state as a nation, and of our duty in regard to our neglected juveniles, it is necessary to take a brief survey of the principal causes of crime amongst us, and likewise of the principal agencies at work to counteract them. Until we know something of both the one and the other, and the various circumstances which foster the evil and repress the good, we are not prepared to form a just judgment of what we truly have to do ; we cannot appreciate either the nature or extent of our work.
The work we have to accomplish may, in general terms, be defined as the solution of the problem, How are we effectually and perma. nently to diminish for the future the numbers of our juvenile criminal population?' and it will be found to be twofold-some things to be undone, and others to be done.
What we have to undo is whatever has a tendency to create or encourage offences ; and unhappily not a few of our social arrangements and habits are of such a character that they may be fairly and justly described as most efficacious means of producing and fostering dangerous classes in the community. While such laws or habits are maintained and cherished we must expect to reap more or less of their natural fruit, whatever counteracting agencies may be kept in operation ; and the work can never, while they exist, be satisfactorily i accomplished, because, just as the curative or preventive measures
take effect on the one hand, so will the producing causes go on to supply a fresh population of juvenile offenders on the other.
What we have to do is to devise and carry out such measures as shall take possession of all juveniles who may be placed in such cir. cumstances as to be evidently preparing for a life of crime, or who may already have entered upon it, and keep hold of them until they have been trained up in the knowledge of the right way, and fairly started in a course of well doing.
That this is practicable, not even very difficults is the great objeet of these pages to demonstrate, and the proof will not proceed upon the mere assertion of abstract principles, but upon practical experience, acquired first in one town, and gradually confirmed in others, and so simple as to be applicable to every place where neglected juveniles exist."
In order to prevent crime we must remove the causes. Il we remove only some of the causes, or partially remove them, in the same proportion; evidently crime will be prevented. And should we find on trial, which appears to us a little improbable, that the total removal of all the causes of crime is impossible, we must not be discouraged because we cannot do all that we would wish, bearing in mind the good old saying “half a loaf is better than no bread."
With regard to drunkenness, it is not hard to say whether it be the effect or cause of ignorance; it is not, however, of much consequence when there is an imperative demand for the reinoval of both. We are inclined to take the same view as the Rev. Mr. Clay does of the connexion of these vices. Mr. Clay writes :
“ There is another cause of crime on which, as I have adverted to it annually for twenty-two years, I must not now be silent, lest it should be imagined, that it is less active than formerly, as the origin of an incomputable amount of misery. No one requires to be told that drunkenness is THE VICE of the uneducated labourer, but many have to learn that it is his vice because he is uneducated. I bare framed a table, which shews that of all the offenders committed to this prison during the last year for offences attributable to acts of drunkenness, 187 were unable to read, 161 were unable to name the months, and 116 were unable to repeat a prayer. Can we wonder, then, that our hospitals, workhouses, and prisons are filled with the disease, the poreriy and the crime fostered by drink! The Divine Law gives the intelligible and emphatic warning that the drunkard
shall not inherit the kingdom of God;' but human law deals gently with his sin, and with all the encouragements to it.beer-houses, ale-houses, gin-palaces, concert rooms and only begins to look sternly on the wretch when he turns to begging, poaching, or pilfering- I speak not of graver crinies. My journal is filled with tales of wickedness and misery told by drunkards. Some of these I give in the Appendix, as examples from the different classes of criminals disgraced or ruined by intoxication."
It is scarcely conceivable the numberless evils which follow in the train of that monstrous vice, drunkenness. It lowers a man to the level of the brute creation, by depriving him of sense and reason ; it madly inflames his passions, while it er. tinguishes every spark of virtue. In this state of wild in.