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19, (all Whigs but Calhoun, of S. C., and Yulee | Mr. Houston, of Delaware, voting in the majority of Florida); Nays, 26, (24 Dem., with Corwin as before: otherwise, members from the Free of Ohio, and Johnson of Louisiana.) States in the affirmative; those from the Slave States in the negative.]
Aug. 3.-This bill reached the Senate, when Mr. Badger, of N. C., moved its indefinite postponement: negatived, 47 to !, (Yulee). It was then sent to the Committee on Territories.
Mr. Westcott, of Fla., immediately moved that the bill do lie on the table, which prevailed: Yeas, 26; Nays, 18 (a mixed vote, evidently governed by various motives); but the negatives were all Democrats, but Corwin and Johnson aforesaid. This being the last day of the The Senate had had under consideration, session, it was evident that the bill, if opposed, from time to time through the Session, a bill as it was certain to be, could not get through, of its own, reported by Mr. Douglas, which was and it was, doubtless, in behalf of other press- finally referred to a select Committee-Mr. Claying business that many Senators voted to lay ton, of Delaware, Chairman-and by said comthis aside. It was, of course, dead for the ses-mittee reported some days before the reception of the House bill. It was then dropped.
Dec. 6, 1847.-The XXXth Congress assembled; Robert C. Winthrop (Whig) of Mass. was chosen Speaker of the House. President Polk, in his Annual Message, regretted that Oregon had not already been organized, and arged the necessity of action on the subject.
Feb. 9.--Mr. Caleb B. Smith, of Indiana, reported to the House a bill to establish the territorial government of Oregon; which, by a vote of two-thirds, was made a special order for March 14th. It was postponed, however, to the 28th; when it was taken up and discussed, as on one or two subsequent days. May 29th, it was again made a special order next after the Appropriation bills. The President that day sent a special message, urging action on this subject. July 25th, it was taken up in earnest; Mr. Wentworth, of Illinois, moving that debate on it in Committee cease at two o'clock this day.
Mr. Geo. S. Houston, of Ala., endeavored to put this motion on the table. Defeated: Yeas 85; Nays 89, (nearly, but not fully, a sectional division). Mr. Geo. W. Jones, of Tenn., moved a reconsideration, which was carried: Yeas, 100; Nays, 88; and the resolution laid on the table: Yeas, 96; Nays, 90.
The bill continued to be discussed, and finally (Aug. 1) was got out of Committee; when Mr. C. B. Smith moved the Previous Question thereon, which was ordered.
Aug. 2.--The House came to a vote on an amendment made in Committee, whereby the following provision of the original bill was stricken out:
That the inhabitants of said Territory shall be entitled to enjoy all and singular, the rights, privileges, and advantages granted and secured to the people of the Territory of the United States northwest of the river Ohio, by the articles of compact contained in the ordinance for the government of said Territory, passed the 13th day of July, seventeen hundred and eighty-seven; and shall be subject to all the conditions, and restrictions, and prohibitions in said articles of compact im.. posed upon the people of said territory, and
The House refused to agree to this amendment: Yeas, 88; Nays, 114.
The Members from the Free States who voted with the South to strike out, were
NEW YORK.-Ausburn Birdsall-1.
OHIO.-William Kennon, jun., John K. Miller-2. ILLINOIS.-Orlando B. Ficklin, John A. McClernand, William A Richardson-3.
INDIANA. John L. Robinson, William W. Wick-2.
Mr. John W. Houston of Delaware voted in the majority.
The bill was then passed: Yeas, 128; Nays,
Aug. 5.-Mr. Douglas reported the House bill, with amendments, which were printed.
Aug. 10. After some days' debate, the Senate proceeded to vote. Mr. Foote, of Miss., moved that the bill do lie on the table. Defeated: Yeas, 15 (Southern); Nays, 36.
On the question of agreeing to this amend ment:
Inasmuch as the said Territory is north of thirty-six deg thirty min., usually known as the [line of the] Mis souri Compromise.
It was rejected: Yeas, 2 (Bright and Dou glas); Nays, 52.
Mr. Douglas moved to amend the bill, by inserting after the word "enacted:"
That the line of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes of north latitude, known as the Missouri Com
promise line, as defined in the eighth section of an act entitled, "An Act to authoriz. the people of the Missouri Territory to form a Constitutional and State Govern ment, and for the admission of such State into the Unionhibit Slavery in certain Territories, approved March 6th, on an equal footing with the original States, and to pro1820," be, and the same is hereby, declared to extend to the Pacific Ocean; and the said eighth section, together and declared to be in full force and binding, for the with the compromise therein effected, is hereby revived, future organization of the Territories of the United States in the same sense, and with the same understand ing with which it was originally adopted; andWhich was carried: Yeas, 38; Nays, 21; as fol
The bill was then engrossed for a third read
[This vote was almost completely sectional. |ing: Yeas, 33; Nays, 22; (nearly the same as
Otherwise, from Slave States, all Yeas: from Free States, all Nays.
Aug. 12.-The Senate, after voting down various propositions to lay on the table, etc., finally decided to recede from its amendments to the Oregon bill, and pass it as it came from the House Yeas, 29; Nays, 25 (all from Slave States).
Resolved, That, as the people in Territories have the same inherent rights of self-government as the people in the States, if in the exercise of such inherent rights the people in the newly-acquired Territories, by the Annexation of Texas and the acquisition of California and New-Mexi co, south of the parallel of 36 degrees and 30 minutes of
north latitude, extending to the Pacific Ocean, shall establish Negro Slavery in the formation of their state governments, it shall be deemed no objection to their admission as a State or States into the Union, in accordance with
the Constitution of the United States.
Jan. 21.-Gen. Taylor, in answer to a resolution of inquiry, sent a message to the House, stating that he had urged the formation of State Governments in California and NewMexico.
Feb. 13, 1850.-Gen. Taylor communicated to Congress the Constitution (free) of the State of California.
Jan. 29, 1850.-Mr. Henry Clay, of Kentucky,
So the bill became a law, and Oregon a Terri-submitted to the Senate the following protory, under the original Jefferson or Dane Pro- positions, with others, which were made a special viso against Slavery. order and printed:
THE COMPROMISE OF 1850.
1. Resolved, That California, with suitable boundaries, ought, upon her application, to be admitted as one of the States of this Union, without the imposition by Congress of any restriction in respect to the exclusion or introduction of Slavery within those boundaries.
2. Resolved, That as Slavery does not exist by law, and is not likely to be introduced into any of the terri Mexico, it is inexpedient for Congress to provide by law either for its introduction into, or exclusion from, any part of the said Territory; and that appropriate terriin all the said Territory, not assigned as within the bountorial governments ought to be established by Congress, daries of the proposed State of California, without the adoption of any restriction or condition on the subject of Slavery.
The XXXIst Congress commenced its first Session at Washington, Dec. 3, 1849; but the House was unable to organize-no person receiving a majority of all the votes for Speaker -until the 22nd, when, the Plurality rule hav-tory acquired by the United States from the Republic of ing been adopted by a vote of 113 to 106, Mr. Howell Cobb, of Ga., was elected, having 102 votes to 100 for Robert C. Winthrop of Mass., and 20 scattering. It was thereupon resolved -Yeas, 149; Nays, 35-" That Howell Cobb be declared duly elected Speaker;" and on the 24th President Zachary Taylor transmitted toboth Houses his first Annual Message, in the course of which he says:
No civil government having been provided by Congress for California, the people of that Territory, impelled by the necessities of their political condition, recently met in Convention. for the purpose of forming a Constitution and State Government; which, the latest advices give me reason to suppose, has been accomplished; and it is believed they will shortly apply for the admission of California into the Union, as a Sovereign State. Should such be the case, and should their constitution be conformable to the requisitions of the Constitution of the United States, I recommend their application to the favorable consideration of Congress.
The people of New Mexico will also, it is believed, at no very distant period, present themselves for admission into the Union. Preparatory to the admission of California and New-Mexico, the people of each will have instituted for themselves a republican form of government, laying its foundation in such principles, and organizing its power in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.
By awaiting their action, all uneasiness may be avoided and confidence and kind feeling preserved. With a view of maintaining the harmony and tranquillity so dear to all, we should abstain from the introduction of those exciting topics of a sectional character which have hitherto produced painful apprehensions in the public mind; and I repeat the solemn warning of the first and most illustrious of my predecessors, against furnishing any ground for characterizing parties by geographical
Jan. 4.-Gen. Sam. Houston, of Texas, submitted to the Senate the following proposition
Whereas, The Congress of the United States, possessing only a delegated authority, have no power over the subject of Negro Slavery within the limits of the United States, either to prohibit or interfere with it, in the States, Territories, or District, where, by municipal law, it now exists, or to establish it in any State or Territory where it does not exist; but, as an assurance and guaranty to promote harmony, quiet apprehension and remove sectional prejudice, which by possibility might impair or weaken love and devotion to the Union in any part of the country, it is hereby
in the District of Columbia, whilst that institution con5. Resolved, That it is inexpedient to abolish Slavery tinues to exist in the State of Maryland, without the consent of that State, without the consent of the people of the District, and without just compensation to the owners of slaves within the District.
6. But Resolved, That it is expedient to prohibit, within the District, the slave-trade in slaves brought into it from States or places beyond the limits of the District, either to be sold therein as merchandise, or to be transported to other markets without the District of Columbia.
7. Resolved, That more effectual provision ought to be made by law, according to the requirement of the Constitution, for the restitution and delivery of persons bound to service or labor in any State, who may escape into any other State or Territory in the Union. And, 8. Resolved, That Congress has no power to prohibit or obstruct the trade in slaves between the slaveholding States, but that the admission or exclusion of slaves brought from one into another of them, depends exclusively upon their own particular laws.
Feb. 28.-Mr. John Bell, of Tennessee, submitted to the Senate the following propositions:
Whereas, Considerations of the highest interest to the whole country demand that the existing and increasing dissensions between the North and the South, on the subject of Slavery, should be speedily arrested, and tha! the questions in controversy be adjusted upon some basis which shall tend to give present quiet, repress sectional animosities, remove, as far as possible, the causes of future discord, and secure the uninterrupted enjoyment of those benefits and advantages which the Union was intended to confer in equal measure upon all its mem
And, whereas, It is mani:est, under present circumstances, that no adjustment can be effected of the points of difference unhappily existing between the Northern and Southern sections of the Union, connected with the subject of Slavery, which shall secure to either section all that is contended for, and that mutual concessions upon questions of mere policy, not involving the violation of any constitutional right or principle, must be the basis of every project affording any assurance of a favorable acceptance;
And, whereas, The joint resolution for annexing
Texas to the United States, approved March 1, 1845, contains the following condition and guaranty-that is to say: "New States of convenient size, not exceeding four in number, in addition to said State of Texas, and having sufficient population, may hereafter, by the consent of said state, be formed out of the territory thereof, which shall be entitled to admission under the provisions of the Federal Constitution; and such States as may be formed out of that po. tion of said Territory lying south of thirty-six deg. ees thirty minutes north latitude, commonly known as the Missouri Compromise line, shall be admitted into the Union with or without Slavery, as the people of each State, asking admission may desire; and in such State or States as shall be formed out of said territory north of said Missouri Compromise line, Slavery, or involuntary servitude (except for crime),
shall be prohibited:" Therefore,
1. Resolved, That the obligation to comply with the condition and guaranty above recited in good faith be distinctly recognized, and that, in part compliance with the same, as soon as the people of Texas shall, by an act of their legislature, signify their assent by restricting the limits thereof, within the Territory lying east of the Trinity and south of the Red River, and when the people of the residue of the territory claimed by Texas adopt a constitution, republican in form, they be admitted into Union upon an equal footing in all respects with the original States.
2. Resolved, That if Texas shall agree to cede, the United States will accept, a cession of all the unappropriated domain in all the Territory claimed by Texas, lying west of the Colorado and extending north to the forty-second parallel of north latitude, together with the jurisdiction and sovereignty of all the territory claimed by Texas, north of the thirty-fourth parallel of north latitude, and to pay therefor a sum not exceeding millions of dollars, to be applied in the first place to the extinguishment of any portion of the existing public debt of Texas, for the discharge of which the United States are under any obligation, implied or otherwise, and the remainder as Texas shall require.
3. Resolved, That when the population of that portion of the Territory claimed by Texas, lying south of the thirty-fourth parallel of north latitude and west of the Colorado, shall be equal to the ratio of representation in Congress, under the last preceding apportionment, according to the provisions of the Constitution, and the people of such Territory shall, with the assent of the new State contemplated in the preceding resolution, have adopted a State Constitution, republican in form, they be admitted into the Union as a State, upon an equal ooting with the original States.
Resolved, That all the Territory now claimed by Texas, lying north of the thirty-fourth parallel of north latitude, and which may be ceded to the United States by Texas, be incorporated with the ferritory of New-Mexico, except such part thereof as lies east of the Rio Grande and south of the thirty-fourth degree of north latitude, and that the Territory so composed form a State, to be admitted into the Union when the inhabitants thereof shall adopt a State Constitu.ion, republican in form, with the consent of Congress; but in the mean time, and until Congress shall give such consent, provision be made for the government of the inhabitants of said Territory suitable to their condition, but without any restriction as to Slavery.
5. Resolved, That all the Territory ceded to the United States, by the Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo, lying west of said Territory of New Mexico, and east of the contemplated new State of California, for the present, constitute one Territory, and for which some form of government suitable to the condition of the inhabitants be provided, without any restriction as to Slavery.
6. Resolved, That the Constitution recently formed by the people of the western portion of California, and presented to Congress by the President, on the 13th day of February, 1850, be accepted, and that they be admitted into the Union as a State, upon an equal footing in all respects with the original States.
Resolved. That, in future, the formation of State Constitutions, y the inhabitants of the Territories of the Un ted States, be regulated by law; and that no such Constitution be hereafter formed or adopted by the inlabitants of any Territory belonging to the United Blates, without the consent and authority of Congress. 8. Resolved, That the inhabitants of any Territory of
the United States, when they shall be authorized by Congress to form a State Constitution, shall have the sole and exclusive power to regulate and adjust all questions of internal State policy, of whatever nature they may be, controlled only by the restrictions expressly imposed by
the Constitution of the United States.
9. Resolved, That the Committee on Territories be
instructed to report a bill in conformity with and principles of the foregoing resolutions.
A debate of unusual duration, earnestness, and ability ensued, mainly on Mr. Clay's Resolutions. They were regarded by uncompromis ing champions, whether of Northern or of Southern views, but especially of the latter, as conceding substantially the matter in dispute to the other side. Thus,
January 29th.-Mr. Clay having read and briefly commented on his propositious, seriatim, he desired that they should be held over without debate, to give time for consideration, and made a special order for Monday or Tuesday following. But this was not assented to. Mr. Foote, of Mississippi, spoke against them generally, saying:
If I understand the resolutions properly, they are objectionable, as it seems to me,
1. Because they only assert that it is not expedient that Congress should abolish Slavery in the District of Columbia; thus allowing the implication to arise that Congress has power to legislate on the subject of Slavery in the District, which may hereafter be exercised, if it should become expedient to do so; whereas, I hold that Congress has, under the Constitution, no such power at all, and that any attempt thus to legislate would be a gross fraud upon all the States of the Union. that Slavery does not now exist by law in the Territories recently acquired from Mexico; whereas, I am of opinion that the treaty with the Mexican republic carried the Constitution, with all its guaranties, to all the Territory obtained by treaty, and secured the privilege to every Southern slaveholder to enter any part of it, attended by his slave-property, and to enjoy the same the ein, free from all molestation or hindrance whatso
2. The Resolutions of the honorable Senator assert
3. Whether Slavery is or is not likely to be introduced into these Territories, or into any of them, is a proposition too uncertain, in my judgment, to be at present positively affirmed; and I am unwilling to make a solemn legislative declaration on the point. Let the future provide the appropriate solution of this interesting question.
4. Considering, as I have several times heretofore formally declared, the title of Texas to all the Territory embraced in her boundaries, as laid down in her law of 1836, full, complete, and undeniable, I am unwilling to say anything, by resolution or otherwise, which may in the least degree draw that title into question, as I think is done in one of the resolutions of the honorable Senator from Kentucky.
6. As to the abolition of the slave-trade in the District of Columbia, I see no particular objection to it, provided it is done in a delicate and judicious manner, and is not
a concession to the menaces and demands of factionists
and fanatics. If other questions can be adjusted, this one will, perhaps, occasion but little difficulty.
7. The resolutions which provide for the restoration of fugitives from labor or service, and for the establishment of territorial governments, free from all restriction on the subject of Slavery, have my hearty approval. The last resolution-which asserts that Congress has no power to prohibit the trade in slaves from State to State-I equally approve.
8. If all other questions connected with the subject of Slavery can be satisfactorily adjusted, I see no objec tion to admitting all California, above the line of 36 degrees 30 minutes, into the Union; provided another new Slave State can be laid off within the present limits of Texus, so as to keep the present equiponder
ance between the Slave and Free States of the Union: and provided further, all this is done by way of compromise, and in order to save the Union, (as dear to me as to any man living.)
Mr. Mason, of Virginia, after expressing his deep anxiety to go with him who went furthest, but within the limits of strict duty, in adjusting these unhappy differences," added:
Sir, so far as I have read these resolutions, there is and that is the resolutior which proposes to organize but one proposition to which I can give a hearty sesent, Territorial governments at once in these Territories, without a decla. ation one way or the ouer as to their
of the Territory acquired by us from Mexico. He holds a directly contra y opinion to mine, as he has a perfect right to do; and we will not quarrel about that difference of opinion.
domestic institutions. But there is another which I deeply regret to see introduced into this Senate, by a Senator from a slavehold ng State; it is that which assumes that Slave.y does not now exist by law in those countries. I understand one of these propositions to Mr. William R. King, of Alabama, was in. declare that, by law, Slavery is now abolished in NewMexico and California. That was the very proposition clined to look with favor on Mr. Clay's proadvanced by the non-slaveholding States at the last positions, and assented to some of them; but session; combated and disproved, as I thought, by gen-he objected to the mode in which California had tlemen from the slavehold ng States and which the formed what is called a State Constitution. He Compromise bill was framed to test. So far, I regarded the question of law as disposed of, and it was very preferred the good old way of first organizing clearly and satisfactorily shown to be against the spirit Territories, and so training up their people "for of the resolution of the Senator from Kentucky. If the the exercise and enjoyment of our institutions." contrary is true, I presume the Senator from Kentucky would declare that if a law is now valid in the Territories Besides, he thought there was not that kind abolishing Slavery, that it could not be introduced there, of population there that justified the formation even if a law was passed creating the institution, or re- of a State Government." On the question of pealing the statutes already existing; a doctrine never assented to, so far as I know, until now, by any Senator Slavery in the new Territories, he said: representing one of the slaveholding States. Sir, I hold the very opposite, and with such confidence, that at the last session I was willing and did vote for a bill to test this question in the Supreme Court. Yet this resolution assumes the other doctrine to be true, and our assent is challenged to it as a proposition of law.
Mr. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, objected specially to so much of Mr. Clay's propositions as relates to the boundary of Texas, to the slave-trade in the Federal district, and to Mr. Clay's avowal in his speech that he did not believe Slavery ever would or could be established in any part of the Territories acquired from Mexico. He continued:
But, sir, we are called upon to receive this as a measure of compromise! As a measure in which we of the minority are to receive nothing. A measure of compromise! I look upon it as but a modest mode of taking that, the claim to which has been more boldly asserted by others; and, that I may be understood upon this question, and that my position may go forth to the country in the same columns that convey the sentiments of the Senator from Kentucky, I here assert, that never will I take less than the Missouri Compromise line extended to the Pacific Ocean, with the specific recognition of the right to hold slaves in the Territory below that line; and that, before such Territories are admitted into the Union as States, slaves may be taken there from any of the United States at the option of the owners. never consent to give addit.onal power to a majority to commit further agg.essions upon the minority in this Union; and will never consent to any proposition which will have such a tendency, without a full guaranty or unteracting measure is connected with it.
Mr. Clay, in reply, said:
ted by the Senator from Mississippi to carry Slavery anyWe ask no act of Congress-as has been properly intimawhere. Sir, I believe we have as much Constitutional power to prohibit Slavery from going into the Territories of the United States, as we have to pass an act carrying Slavery there. We have no right to do either the one or the other. I would as soon vote for the Wilmot Proviso as I would vote for any law which required that Slavery should go into any of the Territories.
Mr. Downs, of Louisiana, said:
I must confess that, in the whole course of my life, my astonishment has never been greater than it was when I saw this (Mr. Clay's) proposition brought forward as a compromise; and I rise now, sir, not for the purpose of discussing it at all, but to protest most solemnly against it. I consider this compromise as no compromise at all. What, sir, does it grant to the South? I can see nothing at all. Mr. Butler, of South Carolina, said:
As I understand it, the Senator from Kentucky's whole proposition of compromise is nothing more than this: That California is already disposed of, having formed a State Constitution, and that Territorial Governments shall be organized for Deseret and New-Mexico, under which, by the operation of laws already existing, a slaveholding population could not carry with them, or own slaves there. What is there in the nature of a compromise here, coupled, as it is, with the proposition that, by the existing laws in the Territories, it is almost certain that slaveholders cannot, and have no right to, go there with their property? What is there in the nature of a compromise here? I am willing, however, to run the risks, and am ready to give to the Territories the governments they require. I shall always think that, under a Constitution giving equal rights to all parties, the slaveholding people, as such, can go to these Territories, and retain their property there. But, if we adopt this proposition of the Senator from Kentncky, it is clearly on the basis that Slavery shall not go there.
The debate having engrossed the attention of the Senate for nearly two months
March 25.-Mr. Douglas, from the Committee on Territories, reported the following bills:
Senate, 169.-A bill for the admission of California into the Union.
Senate, 170.-A bill to establish the Territorial Governments of Utah and New-Mexico, and for other pur
These bills were read, and passed to a second reading.
I am extremely sorry to hear the Senator from Mississippi say that he requires, first, the extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific; and also that he is not satisfied with that, but requires, if I understood him correctly, a positive provision for the admission of Slavery south of that line. And now, sir, coming from a Slave State, as I do, I owe it to myself, I owe it to truth, I owe it to the subject, to state that no earthly power could induce me to vote for a specific measure for the introduction of Slavery where it had not before existed, either south or north of that line. Coming as I do from a slave State, it is my solemn, deliberate, and well-matured determination that no power-no earthly power-poses. shall compel me to vote for the positive introduction of Slavery either south or north of that line. Sir, while you reproach, and justly, too, our British ancestors for the introduction of this institution upon the Continent of America, I am, for one, unwilling that the posterity of the present inhabitants of California and New-Mexico shall reproach us for doing just what we reproach Great Britain for doing to us. If the citizens of those Territories choose to establish Slavery, I am for admitting them with such provisions in their Constitutions; but then, it will be their own work, and not ours, and their posterity will have to reproach them, and not us, for forming Constituti ns allowing the institution of Slavery to exist among them These are my views, sir, and I choose to express them; and I care not how extensively and universally they are known. The honorable Senator from Virginia has expressed his opinion that Slavery exists in these Territories, and I have no doubt that opinion is sincerely and honestly entertained by him; and I would say with equal sincer ty and honesty, that I
believe that Slavery nowhere exists within any portion
April 11.-Mr. Douglas moved that Mr. Bell's resolves do lie on the table. Lost: Yeas, 26; Nays, 28.
April 15.-The discussion of Mr. Clay's recolutions still proceeding, Colonel Benton moved tha: the previous orders be postponed, and that the Senate now proceed to consider the bill (S. 169) for the admission of the State of California.
Mr. Clay moved that this proposition do lie on the table. Carried: Yeas. 27 (for a Com. promise); Nays, 24 (for a settlement without compromise).
The Senate now took up Mr. Bell's resolves,
aforesaid, when Mr. Benton moved that they lie on the table. Lost: Yeas, 24; Nays, 28. Mr. Benton next moved that they be so amended as not to connect or mix up the admission of California with any other question. Lost: Yeas, 23; Nays, 28.
Various modifications of the generic idea were severally voted down, generally by large majorities.
On motion of Mr. Foote, of Miss., it was now Ordered, That the resolutions submitted by Mr. Bell or the 28th February, together with the resolutions submitted on the 29th of January, by Mr. Clay, be referred to a select Committee of thirteen; Provided, that the Senate does not deem it necessary, and therefore declines, to express in advance any opinion, or to give any instruction, either general or specific, for the guidance of the said Committee.
April 19.-The Senate proceeded to elect by ballot such Select Committee, which was composed as follows:
Mr. Henry Clay, of Ky., Chairman.
Messrs. Dickinson, of N. Y.
Phelps, of Vt.
Bell, of Tenn.
Cass, of Mich.
Webster, of Mass. Berrien, of Ga.
Cooper, of Pa. Downs, of La. King, of Ala. Mangum, of N. C. Mason, of Va. Bright, of Ind.
May 8.-Mr. Clay, from said Committee, reported at length, the views and recommendations of the report being substantially as follows:
1. The admission of any new State or States formed out of Texas to be postponed until they shall hereafter present themselves to be received into the Union, when it will be the duty of Congress fairly and faithfully to execute the compact with Texas, by admitting such new State or States.
2. The admission forthwith of California into the Union, with the boundaries which she has proposed.
8. The establishment of Territorial Governments, without the Wilmot Proviso, for New-Mexico and Utah, embracing all the territory recently acquired by the United States from Mexico, not contained in the boundaries of California.
4. The combination of these two last mentioned measures in the same bill;
5. The establishment of the western and northern boundaries of Texas, and the exclusion from her jurisdiction of all New-Mexico, with the grant to Texas of a pecuniary equivalent; and the section for that purpose to be incorporated in the bill admitting California and establishing Territorial Governments for Utah and New-Mexico.
6. More effectual enactments of law to secure the prompt delivery of persons bound to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, who escape into another State; and,
7. Abstaining from abolishing Slavery; but, under a heavy penalty, prohibiting the slave-trade in the District of Columbia.
The Senate proceeded to debate from day to day the provisions of the principal bill thus reported, commonly termed the Omnibus."
June 28.-Mr, Soulé, of Louisiana, moved that all south of 36° 30' be cut off from California, and formed into a Territory entitled South California, and that said Territory "shall, when ready, able, and willing to become a State, and deserving to be such, be admitted with or without Slavery, as the people thereof shall desire, and make known through their Constitution."
This was rejected: Yeas, 19 (all Soutnern); Nays, 36.
July 10.-The discussion was interrupted by the death of President Taylor. Millard Fillmore succeeded to the Presidency, and William R. King, of Alabama, was chosen President of the Senate, pro tempore.
July 15.-The bill was reported to the Senate and amended so as to substitute "that Congress
shall make no law establishing or prohibiting' Slavery in the new Territories, instead of respect to " it. Yeas, 27; Nays, 25.
Mr. Seward moved to add at the end of the 37th section:
But neither Slavery nor involuntary servitude shall be allowed in either of the Territories of New-Mexico or Utah, except on legal conviction for crime.
Which was negatived; Yeas and Nays not taken.
July 17.--The Senate resumed the consideration of the "Omnibus bill."
Mr. Benton moved a change in the proposed boundary between Texas and New-Mexico. Rejected: Yeas, 18; Nays, 36.
Mr. Foote moved that the 34th parallel of north latitude be the northern boundary of Texas throughout. Lost: Yeas, 20; Nays, 34.
July 19-Mr. King moved that the parallel of 35° 30′ be the southern boundary of the State of California. Rejected: Yeas, 20; Nays,
Mr. Davis, of Mississippi, moved 36° 30'. Rejected: Yeas, 23; Nays, 32.
July 23d.-Mr. Turney, of Tenn., moved that the people of California be enabled to form a new State Constitution. Lost: Yeas, 19; Navs, 33.
Mr. Jeff. Davis, of Mississippi, moved to add : And that all laws and usages existing in said Territory, at the date of its acquisition by the United States, which deny or obstruct the right of any citizen of the United States to remove to, and reside in, said Territory, with any species of property legally held in any of the States of this Union, be, and are hereby declared to be, null and void.
This was rejected: Yeas, 22; Nays, 33.
Baldwin, Conn. Benton, Mo.
Greene, R. I.
Hale, N. H.
Miller, N. J.
Norris, N. H.
Seward, N. Y.
Bright, Ind. Cass, Mich. Chase, Ohio. Clarke, R. I. Clay, Ky. Cooper, Pa. Davis, Mass. Dayton, N. J. Dickinson, N. Y. Dodge, Wisc. Dodge, Iowa. Felch, Mich.
Shields, Ill. Smith, Conn. Spruance, Del Sturgeon, Pa. Upham, Vt. Wales, Del.
Aug. 10.-The California bill was now taken Mr. Yulee,, of Fla., moved a substitute, remanding California to a territorial condition, and limiting her southern boundary. Rejected: Yeas, 12 (all Southern); Nays, 35.
Mr. Foote moved a like project, cutting off so much of California as lies south of 36 deg. 30 min., and erecting it into the Territory of Colorado. Rejected: Yeas, 13 (ultra Southern); Nays, 29.
Aug. 12.-Still another proposition to limit