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BATTLE OF BULL RUN.
and to the left of the road, down which much severe fighting. Some of the our troops had marched from Sudley regiments which had been driven from Spring, is a hill with a farm-house on the hill in the first two attempts of the it. Behind this hill the enemy had, enemy to keep possession of it had beearly in the day, some of his most come shaken, were unsteady, and bad annoying batteries planted. Across the many men out of the ranks. road from this hill was another hill, or “It was at this time that the enemy's rather elevated ridge, or table of land. reinforcements came to his aid from the The hottest part of the contest was for railroad train, understood to have just the possession of this hill with a house arrived from the valley with the residue on it. ... Rickett's battery, which of Johnston's army.* They threw did such effective service and played themselves in the woods on our right so brilliant a part in this contest, was, and towards the rear of our right, and together with Griffin's battery, on the opened a fire of musketry on our men, side of the hill, and became the object which caused them to break and retire of the special attention of the enemy, down the hillside. This soon degenerwho succeeded—our officers mistaking ated into disorder, for which there was one of his regiments for one of our own, no remedy. Every effort was made to and allowing it to approach without rally them, even beyond the reach of firing upon it—in disabling the battery, the enemy's fire, but in vain. The reand then attempting to take it. Three treat soon became a rout, and this times was he repulsed by different soon degenerated still further into a corps in succession, and driven back, panic. Finding this state of affairs and the guns taken by hand, the horses was beyond the efforts of all those who being killed, and pulled away. * had assisted so faithfully during the
“The enemy was evidently disheart- long and hard day's work in gaining ened and broken. But we had been almost the object of our wishes, and fighting since half past ten o'clock in that nothing remained on the field but the morning, and it was after three to recognize what we could no longer o'clock in the afternoon. The men had prevent, I gave the necessary orders to been up since two o'clock in the morn. protect their withdrawal, begging the ing, and had made what, to those un- men to form in line, and offer the apused to such things, seemed a long pearance at least of organization. They march before coming into action, and returned by the fords to the Warrenton were without food. They had done road, protected, by my order, by Col.
Porter's force of regulars. Once on * The rebel general, T. J. Jackson, was of especial service at this period of the battle. Coming up with * Beauregard, in his elaborate report, made some his brigade of fresh troops, and displaying great considerable time later, states that the balance of steadiness, one enthusiastic South Carolina officer Johnston's force arrived under Kirby Smith, about shouted, “ Look, there is Jackson standing like a stone-three P.M., having left Manassas by railroad at noon. wall!” This epithet was considered a happy one, and It was just at this critical moment that 4,000 fresh was very generally attached afterwards to Jackson's troops came to their help, and the rebels were enabled name.-See Cooke's“ Life if Jackson,” pp. 68, 77. to gain the day.
the road, and the different corps coming asserting, that the Union army was together in small parties, many with beaten by a force less than half their out officers, they became intermingled, own number.* Davis was in favor of and all organization was lost.
immediate pursuit and a dash at the “By sundown,” as General Mc- capital, which course indeed was the Dowell states, in conclusion, “ most of natural one to be adopted in order to our men had gotten behind Centre. reap the fruits of victory; but it was ville Ridge, and it became a question evident that the rebels were in no conwhether we should or not endeavor to dition to avail themselves of their opmake a stand there. The condition of portunity.t our artillery and its ammunition, and Beauregard, though boasting of his the want of food for our men, who had great success, gives as his excuse for generally abandoned or thrown away not following up and destroying the
all that had been issued the enemy, that his men were worn down
day before, and the utter dis- by a long fight in a July day, and organization and consequent demorali- were hungry and thirsty; also, that zation of the mass of the army, seemed the next day it rained steadily, and he to all who were near enough to be had no cavalry. Johnston accorded consulted—division and brigade com with this view of the subject, and manders and staff—to admit of no said, in addition, that the certainty alternative but to fall back. On send that General Patterson, if needed, ing the officers of the staff to the differ- would reach Washington with his ent camps, they found, as they reported army of 30,000 men
sooner than to me, that our decision had been they could, prevented any serious anticipated by the troops, most of those thoughts of advancing against the who had come in from the front being capital. From all which, it may safely already on the road to the rear, the be inferred that the ability, not the panic with which they came in still will, was wanting, and that the rebels continuing and hurrying them along. acted judiciously in not making a futile At about ten o'clock, the rear guard attack upon Washington. (Blenker's brigade), moved, covering The losses at Bull Run were, accordthe retreat, which was effected during ing to General McDowell's report, 481 the night and next morning." Jefferson Davis left Richmond by 30,000, and was fully equal in numbers to that under
* Beauregard's army numbered not less than railroad on this eventful Sunday morn. command of General McDowell
, and yet Davis unde ing, and reached the field of battle took to say, as above, "our force was 15,000 ; that
of the enemy estimated at 35,000." See Beauregard's about 4 P.M., when the contest was Report, and Pollard's “ First Year of the War," p. 101. virtually decided. He telegraphed the + See “ Stonewall Jackson; a Military Biography,"
(New York, 1866) by John Esten Cooke, a profound welcome news to the Confederate Con
admirer of the man who had attained so singular a gress that same night, stating, truly sobriquet
. According to Mr. Cooke, Jackson, as he sat enough, that it had been “ a hard fought exclaimed, "Give me ten thousand men, and I will be
on his horse looking at the retreating Union troops, field.” but, with needless mendacity, in Washington to-night!”
EFFECTS OF BULL RUN DEFEAT.
killed, 1,011 wounded, 1,216 missing. The effect of the disaster at Bull Beauregard reported the rebel loss at Run was astounding. The news at 269 killed, 1,533 wounded, in all 1,852. first from the field of battle, as made Johnston made the number of killed known by reports and telegraphic com378, but agreed with Beauregard in the munications, had been cheering, and general result. No notice was taken promising certain and great victory. of some two or three hundred prison. The next news told of utter rout and ers made by our army in the early part disgrace ; and Monday and Tuesday, of the battle and sent to Washington. the 22d and 23d of July, saw the Beauregard claimed as prisoners not streets of the capital thronged with less than 1,600 Union soldiers, and panic stricken crowds of those who estimated our loss at 4,500. Probably had literally fled when no man the nearest approximation to the ex- pursued. In the great cities, act truth now possible is, rebel loss and throughout the country, as the over 2,000; Union loss over 3,000. wildly exaggerated telegrams made Beauregard also claimed as the spoils known the overthrow of our army, the of the day, 28 pieces of artillery, about people were in a maze, and could with 5,000 muskets, nearly 500,000 cartrid. difficulty credit the unwelcome reports ges, a garrison flag, and 10 colors cap- of disgraceful defeat. High-spirited and tured in the field or in the pursuit ; self-confident, never supposing defeat and besides these, 64 artillery horses possible, men at the North ran into an with their harness, 26 wagons and much opposite extreme, and for the moment camp equipage, clothing, and other looked upon what the rebels had done property left behind.
at Bull Run as a virtual guarantee of Our limits do not admit of dwelling their final success.* But the depression upon particular instances of valor and and discouragement, wonderful as they spirit on the part of the great majority seemed, were only temporary. Bitter of our officers and men, or of noticing as was the lesson of that memorable the lack of these soldierly qualities and week at the close of July, it was a instincts, which were expected, as a salutary lesson. It showed loyal men matter of course, from all our troops. what was before them; that it was no Neither are we able now to spare time holiday undertaking of a few weeks or in narrating well authenticated cases months to put down rebellion or trea of barbarity, cruelty and outrage to- son, organized as they were on a scale wards the dying and the dead, after the battle was over. The conduct of the behalf of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the
War; April 30th, 1862. rebels on this occasion was marked by * Military critics (such as Major Barnard and others) ungovernable, blind fury, and was dis- are agreed, that General McDowell's plan of the battle graceful in the last degree to themselves victory, had it not been for delays, above noted, on and our common humanity.*
Friday and Saturday, and the escaping of Johnston's
four or five thousand men from Patterson's watching, * See Duyckinck's “ War for the Union," vol. i., thereby causing a panic among a portion of the Union pp. 402-416 ; Senator Wade's Report to the Senate, in army just at the critical moment.
was well laid and would have resulted in a decisive
of magnitude and power undreamt of Run, and to hold up the hands of the heretofore; and that, if the Union was government at any cost, in crushing the to be sustained, it must be by united, mad and desperate attempt to destroy steady, unflinching energy and devo- the life and integrity of the nation. tion in its behalf. The resolution and We shall see, as we proceed in our spirit of Congress we have already narrative, how thoroughly the noble, noted (see p. 54). The people of the manly qualities of our countrymen loyal states likewise speedily nerved were roused up into efficient action in themselves to avenge the losses at Bull this their hour of trial.
FOREIGN RELATIONS AND POLICY - PRIVATEERING - TRENT AFFAIR.
Position of foreign nations - Course of England and France, how affecting the United States — Importance of
foreign relations Secession efforts abroad — Feeling towards the United States in Great Britain and France - Hostility to the Union - British government hastens to acknowledge belligerent character of Southern Confederacy - Queen’s proclamation - How looked on in America Neutrality enjoined — Il success of the rebel agents abroad — Louis Napoleon's course – Diplomatic notes and courtesies — Friendly spirit of Russia
- Articles of Congress of Paris (1856) on privateering - Offer of the United States on the subject — Proviso of Earl Russell — Privateering carried on -- The Savannah taken — Trial of the privateersmen; are they pirates or not ? — Davis's threats and acts — Government abandon the prosecution — Privateering only mo derately successful — The Petrel and the St. Lawrence – The Jeff. Davis and her end — The negro Tillman's heroism – Public feeling at this date — Mason and Slidell new agents to go to Europe — Reach Havana Sail in the Trent, English mail packet – Capt. Wilkes in San Jacinto stops the Trent and captures Mason and Slidell and their secretaries — Public applause — Attitude of the government — Excitement in England
- Rebel commissioners demanded – War apparently imminent – Mr. Seward's argument and decisionMason and Slidell given up - Chagrin and disappointment of the rebels and their friends at home and abroad — Pungent remarks of the London Times.
The position of foreign nations and friends and well wishers of our country, the probable course to be pursued by they should so direct their policy, and
, them in regard to the United States, should assume such ground, as that the was a matter of very grave importance weight of their influence would be given at the outbreak of the rebellion. Eng. to the support of the Union and the land and France, especially, were so crushing out the rebellion, the case
situated as to render their line would be rendered more easy of settle
of action of the utmost moment, ment by means of the United States whether for good or evil, to the Great power on the land, where alone the Republic. If
, acting out the noble, rebels had succeeded in organizing any manly part, which becomes sincere effective resistance against the authority
ANXIETY AS TO COURSE OF FOREIGN NATIONS.
of the government. If, on the other The leaders in the seceded states were hand, the great maritime nations, like also profoundly interested in the con England and France, should see fit, dition of affairs abroad, and the manner more or less openly to encourage the so- in which their present attempt at a called confederacy in its ambitious de- breaking up of the Union might be signs, and in addition to recognizing its looked upon by the great powers of belligerent character, should aid in fur: Europe. If England and France should nishing it not only with supplies of favor their cause, directly, or at least various sorts but also with the means indirectly, it would greatly facilitate of preying upon the commerce of the matters, and would almost ensure suc United States, they certainly had the cess to the rebellion ; but if they power so to do, while holding a profess- should refuse entirely any countenance edly friendly attitude to the government to this proposed rending in pieces of which they were virtually helping to the Union, and should look
the undermine and destroy. And, in such outbreak as an insurrection, which the an event, the rebellion would be all the lawful government of the land was able more likely to protract its existence, if to and would in due time suppress, not finally to succeed in accomplishing then, the hopes and expectations of the its ends.
confederates would be sadly curtailed Of course, the government of the of their fair proportions, and their United States felt an unusually deep chances of final success very consider interest in the views which might find ably diminished. predominance among foreign nations, Fully alive to the importance and who were watching with profound con- necessity of securing foreign sympathy cern the incipiency of our great nation- and aid, the astute leaders in secession al struggle; and was well aware how and revolution had given very careful much depended upon the course which attention to the subject from the beginthey might think best to adopt. It was ning. Agents, admirably adapted to consequently seen at once to be of the the work in hand, such as Yancey, * highest importance, that our country Rost, Mann, and Butler King, had been should be represented at foreign courts sent abroad to leaven the public opin. by the ablest and most energetic men ion, to excite prejudice against which could be obtained. Happily, the government, to gain the ear Messrs. Adams, Dayton, Clay, Motley, of politicians and men in power, to Marsh, and others were selected, and misrepresent the origin and aim of the by their labors at their several posts, rebellion, to enlarge upon the advantathey soon gave evidence of the wisdom ges they had to offer, in a commercial which had led to their appointment. point of view, to foreign nations, and Our country had abundant reason to such like; and it must be confessed, be satisfied that her interests were com- that, by persistent, unscrupulous statemitted to the hands of some of her ments, by activity and real worthy of noblest sons.
* See McPherson's " History of the Rebellion," p. 27