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no proof that it was not strong when Junot defend, and not to assail. This was a most entered it at first ; and with you rests the perplexing situation for our army, and Junot onus probandi. I do not purpose to enter would take especial care to increase the difinto a detailed account of the circumtances ficulty to his utmust. Now, bad the before. under which Jouot entered, and took pos mentioned statements of the imjinense session of Lisbon ; nor do I intend to quote strength of Junot's position, and his abunthe Prince Regent's Manifesto, and a variety dant supply of provisions been disproved inof other documents to rove how he could stead of meeting with a confirmation, in have been resisted ; and I am not aware of the unqualified assertion, “ that Junot could any reason why it may not be admitted, easily have consumed time in a protracted though contrary to the fact, that there was detence,” it would avail nothing to your not, at the time Junot entered Portugal, one argument. And unless you convince us that parapet in the whole kingdom, from behind every individual of the public, who naturally vhich resistance could have been made with expected an unconditional surrender was, in steater advantage than in the open field, if forming such opinion, convinced that Junot resistance bad been determined on. There had no formidable entrenchments to fly to, Can, indeed, be no analogy between the si- and no suppiy of provisions, it will not assist tuation of the French and English armies at you, if you can even prove that Sir Arthur the times they respectively entered : he coun

could have marched into Lisbon with no try. But since when did these places be- more obstruction than one of your readers come so very strong ? There is no reason to into Mr. Bagshaw's shop, and would have

be astonished; Junot has been in Portugal been as cordially and politely welcomed. u long enough, and his not wanted means, You proceed—“'Well, then," say you, “ if

without supernatural aid or the interposition “ it be true that Sir Arthur Wellesley, with of a necromancer, to erec: fortifications, frum “ only 9000 men, beat the whole of the which io dislodge him by the nexi arrival “ French force, in spite of all their advanwould require all the skill of English of. tages, have we not a right to expect, nay, ficers, and all the intrepidity of British sol. “ had we not a right to claim and to de. diers. But, Sir, every account since Ju. or mand, at the hands of the conmander in not's arrival most fully concurred in re- Portugal, when he had 30,000 men, the presenting him as particularly sedulous in capture or the total destruction of the repairing the old, and erecting new forti. ** French army in Portugal, and is any nafications, and that he had rendered his po

cion had any right to expect any thir:g, Sition almost impregable; and I never saw

" this vatiou had a right to expect a result any statement, which tended in the slightest

" such as bere described ?"- It is true degree to invalidate their claim to general policy in a general to whom the defence of a beliet; and, certainly, there were not a few strong place is entrusted, and who has at his individuals who, previous to Sir Arthur's disposal a force more than necessary for its landing, entertained very alarming appre- defence, to march out and attack the army

as to the result of the attack, if advancing to the siege, if the circumstances, such had been found unavoidable.

Yout muder which he is to make the attack, are then ask, “Was Junot's army to be fed by such as to justity him in expecting a favourravens ?" I cannot immediately find the pas

able result; and in the event of his sustainsige, but something to this effect. If you ing a repulse, retreat to his position is sewere as successful in proving tbat Junot was On the contrary, it would erince a not supplied with, nor had any means of great want of skill in the general, wbo procuring provisions for his army, as you are

would march out when his force was scarcely in exposing the hollow and groundless rea- sufficient to garri.on the place, where sucsons entertained by our generals as to the cess was not certain. Jurot, in his play of impracticability of obtaining a supply for

attack on the 21?t, and in his resistance at the English army, I should determine not to Roleia, appears 10 have been perfectly satrouble you with these observations, although tistied that he should succeed. It fortunate. the question, as it respects the public, would ly was not the case, bu: his retreat was not still remain the same. The newspapers,

prevented. What was ile effect? The Enghowever, furnished us with vario:is accounts lish army was enabled to blockade him, and of Junot's having collected a large quantity prevent his incursions 110 the country; he of provisions; and there was no great reason could not again meal their inibe tieki; but to believe, that a French arıoy would starve it did not follow tui an Eorlisarniy would while there were between 2 and 300,000 be able to expel himn iron bis forts. A Porluguese inhabitants in Lisbon, people crowd of instances might be collected to who.n we went to assist, not to distress, to prove, that men who had been beated in



the field, bad successfully defended a forti- general opinion, that except in the most disfied place; but those of more recent occur- tressing circumstances, nothing can justify rence, will perhaps be more convincing. our cornmanders for baving acceded in the We have not yet ceased to deplore the fate present Convention; it is, I fear, a Conand admire the courage of the Spaniards, vention which has affixed to the British ardefeated at Rio Seco, and our tongnes siill my and nition a stigma so indelible, that no vibrate with the praises of the undisciplined event, however favourable, can wholly redefenders of Valencia, Gerona, and Sara- move it, or prevent its suggesting the most gossa ; places certainly not more forinidable agonizing reflections. We are, however, than the forts and entrenchments of Porn well aware, that great public calamities and tugal. Now, I do not mean to insinuate individual misfortunes, have not untrequentthat our troops could not reduce Junot; but ly given rise to, or been accompanied by their announting to 30,000 would not preo circumstances which, in the progress of vent less blood bed. Do you believe, that time, bave very materially contributed to if Lisle, Maestricht, or Brissac, were pro. diminish the pernicious effects apprehendad perly garrisoned and commanded, that the at their occurrence; and it is some consobesieging army would experience less loss, lation, that the people have not suttered if they were ten times the number of the their reputation to be sullied without a mur: blockaded garrison ? We also know, that mur ; that the sanie page of history which in the battle of the 17ih, when our army records this infamous and insulting Convenie foiced the passes of Roleia, only 6000 med tion, will also relate the virtuous indignation could be brought to bear; and it is probr. felt by a people jealous ot ibeir bonour ; ble, that if Loison and Laborde had efti creu will rouse the lethargic, and aniniate the their junction before the attack was made, torpid of succeeding ages, by a glowing dewe should have experienced a very alarm- scription of the patriotism which prevailed ing loss. I think no one will dens, that the in every rank; will detail the people's republic had the means of satistactorily ascer- hement and unceasing cries for vengeance taining that Junot effected his retreat atier on those who dared to digrade their characthe battle of the 21st; that the places to ter, and debase their dignity. And although which he retired were strong by nature and it is higlily probable, that the inmedie art; that he had a plentiful supply of pro- consequences of this Convention w visions, and that his force after his defeat highly disastrous, it is not impossibles was still formidable; and the probability of it may produce some beneficial effects. I reducing him not much greater than when will shew the world the feelings and da the forces first sailed, recollecting, that at racter of Englishmen; it will powerfully that time it was generally reported and be- instruct our military coinmanders, that the lieved, that Sir Arthur Wellesley would honour of a nation is not to be surrendered land at Peniche, and immediately invest with impunity. Since the commencement the place. Impressed with the belief of of the French revolution, no treachery these facts, I really cannot see how the however base, no infamy however atrocious public could anticipate the result, such as (and unfortunately many equally, nay, more ihey did anticipate, and as you have re- iniquitous than the Convention of Lisbon lated, till the public will declare that condi- may be enumerated), ever produced in the tions might not be granted which would be countries where they happened complaints preferable to the certainty of great loss in so general and unqualified as in the present

the atiаck of these places, and the ciance instance. The consideration of these cirof failure; till it can be proved that it was cumstances will afford more than a transient the public conviction, that our army would gleam amidst the immense gloom; will have been able to continue the blockade prove more serviceable than a solitary spar, without much difficulty, that their services wlien threatening waves surround. I feel were not wanted in any other quarter; till, confident that I have been considerably too in short, it can be proved, that the public prolix and tedious, that many of my rewas certain that there were no secret mo- inaiks are totally unnecessary, and others lives, and those very strong ones, to in- not sufficiently elucidated; but as I have fluence the determination of our conuman- not time to condense and arrange them, 1 ders to agree to a conditional surrender. shall leave them to your candid and unpre So far, I think, you will allow uncondi- judiced consideration. I cannot, however

, tonal suriepder could not reasonably be ex- conclude without expressing my regret, that pected by the public, and that our com- any circumstances should exist which could manders were, so far, prematorely disgraced; prevent our having, what we certainly very But I mos perfictly concur with the now much wanted, and which you bare energen

tically expressed, " an instance of triumph, might have been, I should not have called a proof of victory, which no one could your attention to them. But will you be,

gainsay." - bave the honour to re- sieve it, Mr. Cohbeit? in consequence of 0.31n, Sir, &C.-C.

Mr. Lingham, who in his book, according

to these critics' own account, “.kept quite EDINBURGH REVIEWERS.

“ clear of the least appearance of faction," 818 ;-The Edinburgh Reviewers, in having characterised the other gentleman their bulky pamphlet of April, 180s, under by a few expressions not by any means unthe guise of reviewing (wu publications, usual in political controversy, and none of written by gentlemen, whose names, I be.

which, from their analysis of his publicaJiere, are wholly unknown to the public, tion, I think it is pretty clear, were misapa Mr. Rylance and a Mr. Lingham, are plied ; such as s obscure pamphleteer," pleased to enlighten the world with their in unauthorized tool of a party,' and the thoughts, upon the subject of the late emi- like; I say, will you, Sir, believe it, that gration to the Brazils. Upon this topic, I these worthy disciples of the Whig school, tel no interest ia controverting their opi- these pains-taking underlings of the present nions, as they are of course the echo of the Opposition, these Scotch preachers of polispeeches in parliament, of that faction upon tical liberty, are actually for letting loose the whose fortunes their own depend; it being dogs of law upon poor Mr. Lingham, and now no secret to any one that the positive amercing him with tines, penalties, imorerbearing and doginatical paradoxes, which prisonment, and the pillory, for having failed have so peculiarly distinguished the Edin- to acknowledge the eminent consequence of burgh Review, proceed from a small this Mr Rylance and his perfect indepenknot of young friends, who hunt after the dence, (which, be it observed, these reviewgool dinners and other good things of those ers themselves impeaclı) for having dared to accomplisbed statesmen, Lords Holland and publish the truth of him, and io speak of Henry Petty. The subject, upon which I him as he deserves. They introdce their at present address you, Mr. Cobbert, is the whining complaint, and garbled quotations -language, which, in the article above-men- of Mr. Lingham's “ abusive language" with tioned, these gentlemen have made use of this sentence : “ Some passages, we are upon the subject of Libel; language betraying pretty sure, would subject him to punishit once the base slavish spirit of which they ment in a court of justice : and having are composed, and the determined hostility finished their extracts, they conclude : which animates them against all the assertors

" We have little doubt that the above pasof the Liberty of the Press. It seems, that sages, are themselves hbellous." Is not this these authors, whose pamphlets form the pre- monstrous ? Why, the action lately brought tence of the review, Mr. Rylance and Mr. by the Duke of Bedford's Kuighi, '(I forget Lingbam, unfortunately agreed in nothing his name) was nothing to this. Irritated but in each dedicating his work to the Livera | feelings in being shewn to be a dunce, and pool Solomon, Mr. Roscoe. . Upon every disappointed expectations in uot getting from point, relating to the subject of ihe Portu- his task-master his usual bire, to a certain guese emigration, they differed in their degree palliated the resentment of that sentiments. Mr. Lingham, to use the wretched book-maker. But what have these words of the review, “ kept quite clear reviewers to urge in extenuation of this gra" of the least appearance of faction; while tuitous recommendation of legal proceed"Mr. Rylance, without any material quali- ings? Mr. Linghain did hot charge them

fication, except perhaps bis praise of with a systematic and scandalous perversion "Mr. Roscoe in the dedication, adopted of their duty, with a base and profligate bias " the precise line of argument, taken by either for or against every author whom they " the persons in opposition to the present noticed ; Mr. Lingham did not say of them,

ministry." This was difference enough that their maligniry against most authors to regulate the judgment of these candid, and was to be equalled only by their interested impartial critics. Mr. Rylance became, of adulation of a few; that their wanton and course, the favourite, and Mr. Lingham, as scurrilous attacks on respectable writers a man swayed by no party motions, but bold in gencral, were balanced only in infamy by and independent enough to write from his their gross and unblushing panegyrics upon own understanding, was, of course, to be run the members of their own fraternity ; that, down. If, however, on the present occa- throughout the whole of their career, their sion, the Edinburgh Reviewers had confined pens have been vilely prostituted to party theiaselves to literary strictures only, how- purposes, in which task their inconsistency ever partial and corrupt those strictures has been as notorious as their corruption,

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the grovelling sycophants of power and keep up the noble spirit by which it is, -the aclmirers of Pit, whe: living, mated. To make known to Spain and the and of his opponents, when dead. These, whole world the base means resorted to by or similar charges, Mr. Lingham never in- ibe Emperor of the French to seize the persinuated against the Eunborgh Reviewers. son of our king, Ferdinand VII, and to One does not see therefore why they should subjugate this great and generous nation, is feel so sore, why they should so strongly a duty well worthy of one v ho, like myself, sympathize with Mr. Rylance, cry out the is in a condition to discharge it ; inasmuch senseless yell of libel, and call for punish- as circumstances placed me in a situation to ment in a court of justice! Really, Mr. be an eye witness of the events which preCobbeit, the coincidence between the time ceded the catastrophe of Bayonne, and in of this publication (April, 1809) and the which I bore a part It was not in my conimencement of the knight's low-suit, and power to do this before, in consequence of the identity of their sentiments upon the sub- personal restraint, and froin not having col. jeci of libel, are so marvellous,' that I veri- jected the documents necessary to accredit ly suspect some of these young friends, who my statement. Some are still wanting, perhaps may belong to the profession of the which it was necessary to burn, in conse. law, were his counsellors upon the occasion, quence of dangercus circumstances, ia advised the action, as the phrase is, and which every thing was to be feared; others perhaps assisted in getting up the cause. The have disappeared through the various inciknight, 1 dare say, has since beartily re- dents connected with thar unhappy period; pented of having acted upon the opinion, but those which I now present are sufficier? from whatever quarter it proceeded ; and to prove the atrocious violence coinmitte: the Edinburgh Fieviewers, since the unfor- against our beloved king, Ferdivand VII, tuvate failure of his experiment, are pro- and the whole nation. Though the condiu bably now ashamed of the detestable perse- of Spain towards France since the peace

of cuting spirit so wholly inimical to the libera Basle, a very interesting portion of its po ty of the press, upon the expression of tical history in these latter times, is in.. which I have animadverted.

In nuking

nately connected with the important ere's these animadversions I have no other object which form the subject of this Expositie io view than to vindicate that pailadium of it is not necessary to dwell even upons our rights. without the secure enjoyment of principal periods. It will be sufficiels which you, Sir, have so often observed, that state what the whole nation, and all Europe, our bosted freeilom is nothing worth know, that the political sysien of Spal the same time I feel an apology to be due, has constantly been during this time to pres for the length to which niy observations serve friendship and the best understandiri have extended, a length to be justified only with France, and to maine ain), at all habuy the importance of the subject itselt, zards, the ruinous alliance concluded in wbicis will, I hope, plead iny excuse, and 1796.–To attain this end, there is no sacri. bestow a temporary consequence even upon fice which Spain has not made; and as the these insignificant individuals, Messrs. Ry. preservation of the Prince of the Peace 13 lance and Lingham.--Yours, &c. - P. D.- the high degree of favour he ersjoyed with Sept. 24, 1909.

Charles IV. depended in a great measure

upon the continuance of this system, it was EXPOSITION OF THE

maintained with the greatest constancy and CHINATIONS WHICH LEN TO THE USUR- indefatigable attention. , Fleets, armies, CP THE CROWY OP SPAIN, AND


everything was sacrificed 10, • THE MEANS ADOTTED BY THE EMPEROR France; humiliations, submissions, every

thing was suffered, every ibing ECUTION, PEDRO ÇEVALLOS,

to satisfy, as tar as possible, the insatiable demands of the French

government; CATHOLIC MAJESTY the idea never once occurred of preserving FERDINAND VII.

the nation against the mac nations of an At a period when the nation has made ally, who was overriinning Europe.-112 and continues to make the most beroic Treaty of Tilsit, in which the desting of the erforts to stake off the yoke of slavery. al- world seemed to be decided in his favo"?, tempted to be imposed nipon it, it is the du- was hardly concluded, when he turned his ty of all good citizens to contribute, by eyes towards the West, and resolved on the every means in their power, to enlighten it ruin of Portugal and Spain ; with respect to the real causes that have

to the same purpose, 'ro make himself m:25 brought it into its present sitliatio:a, and to ter of this vast peninsula, with a view of




was done






or what comes


making its inhabitants as happy as those of agent employed to forward the plan which Italy, Holland, Switzerland, and the league Napoleon' had formed. Fortunately the of the Rhine.—At this very time, the Em- Spanish nation was deeply inpressed with peror was revolving in his mind some designs its situation, entertained a just opinion of fatal to Spain (for he began to disarın her), the good disposition and religious principles by demanding a respectable body of our of their prince of the Asturias. and sustroops to exert their valour in remote re- pected instantaneously that the whole was a gions, and for foreign interests. he calumny fabricated by the Favourite, as abeffected without difficulty, and there was surd as it was andacious, in order to remove placed at his disposal a gallant and picked the only obstacle which then opposed his force of 16,000 men of all descriptions. views. -- It is already know, that on the The enterprize of making himself master imprisonment of the prince of Asturias, his of Spain was not so easy as Napoleon ima- royal father to the Emperor, 110 gined. It was, above all, necessary to find doubt at the suggestion of the Forcarile, out some pretext for carrying into execution complaining of the conduct of the an.bisthe daring and gigantic plan of subjugating sador Beauharnois, in his clandestire coina friendly and allied nation, that lead iade munications with the prince of Asturias, so many sacrifices for France, and which and expressing his surprise that the emperor this very Emperor had praised for its fidelity had not come to a previous understanding and nobleness of character.-Nevertheless, with his majesty on a subject of such prebeing accustomed to act with that disregard to eminent importance to sovereigns.-ds the delicacy in the choice of his means, which imprisonment of the prince of Asturias, is characteristic of the man who imagines and, above all, the most scandalous decree

that the conquest of the whole world, the fulminated against his royal person, produse destruction of tbe human species, and the ced an affect completely contrary to i he exbavoc of war are conducive to true glory, pectations of the Favourite, he begau to be

he resolved to excite and foment discord in afraid, thought proper to recede, and to of the royal family of Spain, through his am- mediate a reconciliation between the royal To sassador at this court.-The latter, though parents and their son. Wi:b this view, as is pript perhaps not initiated in the grand secret of stated in the Abstract of the Escurial Cause, s E this master, succeeded in seducing the prince circulated by the Council in consequence of Set of Asturias, our present king and master, his majesty's orders of the sth April, he Sur lod suggested to him the idea of inter- | forged certain letters, and made the prince od Barrying with a princess related to the em- of Asturias' sign them while a prisoner, em peror. The affliction which his highness which being delivered into the hands of the its Jabuured under from a conjunction of circum- royal parents, were supposed to have sofiena 1. det stances, as lamentable as notorious, and his ed their hearts; and by these sirgolar meins

anxiety to avoid another connection into did this innocent prince obtain a nominal which it was attempted to force him, with liberty.-- This was the state of afairs when a lady selected for him by his greatest ene- a French courier arrived at the royal palace my, and on that account alone the object of of St. Laurence, with

treaty concluded bis aversion, induced bim to acquiesce in and signed ar Fontainbleau on the 27ih of the suggestions of the anibassador, but with Oct. by Don Eugenio Isquierdo, as plenipothe stipul:nion that it was to meet the appro- tentiary of bis Catholic majesty, and Mar. bation of his august parents, and under the shal Duroc, in the name of the emperor of impression that it would strengthen the the French. Its contents, as well as those friendship and alliance then subsisting be- of the separate Convention, constituie Nos.

His bighness, ac- 1 and 2 of the docume:ts annexed to this tunatel by motives so cogent in a political Exposition-I is worthy of observation, point of view, and yielding to the solicita- that the department of the ministry, if tions of the ambassador, wrote accordingly which I was at the head, was totally unac. to his Imperial majesty:--A few days after quainted with the measures taken by Don E. Oar belored prihce wrote this letter, occurr- Isquierdo, at Paris, as well as with bis aped the scandalous imprisonment of his au- pointment, his listructions, bis corres; ongust person in the royal monastery of St. Laurence, and the still more scandalous de.

dence, and every part of his proceedings.

The result of this treaty was to render the cree which was issued in the name of the hing, and addressed to the council of Cas

Emperor master of Portrgal with very little file. There are very strong reasons to be

expence; to furnish him with a plausible lieve, that the unknown hand that frustra

pretext for introducing bis armies into our

peninsula, with the intent of subjugating it fed this feigned conspiracy was some French

at a proper opportunity, and to put lin in

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tween the two crowns.

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