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562

ANDERSONVILLE PRISON.

prisons during the war, but some have put them as high as seventy thousand. Over ten thousand perished in Andersonville prison alone. In the latter, although the camp was located in the immediate neighborhood of large forests, the captives were allowed no shelter, and the sick groaned out their lives on the bare ground. The treatment was not the same at every period during the war, nor the same in all the prisons, but at Andersonville, the record of every day and month was one of horrors. Here some twenty acres were inclosed by a stockade, with a swamp in the centre, where, at times, thirty thousand Union prisoners were confined. This space was dotted with holes dug by the prisoners to obtain a place of shelter. American soldiers and citizens were here compelled by their former fellow-citizens, to burrow like wild animals in the earth.

The horrors and sufferings of this mundane hell were such that some went mad and roamed about in helpless idiocy; others deliberately walked across the dead-line, as it was called, to be shot, and so get rid of their misery. Those who attempted to escape were hunted with blood-hounds or shot down. Many of the efforts put forth by these men to keep up their spirits, ana brace them to endure their sufferings were most pitiful.

The rebel officers sought to take advantage of their sufferings and make them enlist in the Confederate army, but in most cases without success. The brave fillows, though utterly prostrated in strength and spirits, still refused to betray the flag under which they had fought--and so died, unknown and unsung, yet noble martyrs for their country. The rebel surgeons were, in most cases, humane, and remonstrated with the authorities against the cruelties perpetrated on Union prisoners.

Those who wish to read the heart-rending details of Southern prison-life, will find them at length in the account

A CRUEL POLICY,

563

of the trial of Captain Wirz, who was in immediate command of Andersonville prison. This wretch, who, we are glad to know, was not born in this country, was arraigned soon after the close of the war, before a military commission in Washington, tried, convicted and hung.

There is no language too strong to express the enormity of the guilt of the Southern authorities. On the other hand, there can be no justification of a policy, on our part, that would perinit tens of thousands of brave soldiers to perish under untold sufferings, when they might have been saved. If the principle, laid down by Mr. Lincoln, and given on a former page; had been carried out, a greater part of this misery might have been prevented.

CHAPTER XL.

JANUARY FEBRUARY, 1865.

TIE RIGHT WING OF SHERMAN'S ARMY THREATENS CHARLESTON—THE LEFT

AUGUSTA-THE ARMY DELAYED BY HEAVY FLOODS-KILPATRICK'S CAVALRY-FORCING OF THE SALKEHATCHIE-THE ENEMY DECEIVED, AND THEIR FORCES HOPELESSLY SEPARATED--DESTRUCTION OF THE CHARLESTON AND AUGUSTA RAILROADCAPTURE OF ORANGEBURG-CROSSING THE EDISTO CAPTURE OF COLUMBIA-BURNING OF THE CITY-DISTRESS OF THE INHABITANTS—BURNING OF WINNSBORO'

CHARLOTTE, N. C., THREATENED_SHERMAN SUDDENLY STRIKES EAST FOR FAYETTEVILLE-CAPTURE OF CHERAWTALL OF CHARLESTON-JUNCTION OF THE TWO WINGS-CAPTURE OF FAYETTEVILLE-COMMDNICATIONS OPENED WITH SCHOFIELD AND TÆRRY-BATTLE OF AVERTSBORO-BATTLE OF BENTONVILLE-OCCUPATION OF GOLDSBORO'- --END OF THE CAMPAIGN=SHERMAN VISITS GRANT AT CITY POINT

SPEEDY REFITTING OF THE ARMY.

CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS.

(HERMAN, having rested his army at Savannah and

completed his plans, began, in the middle of January, tn send off a part of his troops, in transports, to Beaufort, preparatory to the commencement of his campaign through the Carolinas. But his army was not in motion until the first of February. It numbered about sixty-five thousand men, and was divided into four Corps, with a train of four thousand five hundred vehicles, of all kinds, which, if stretched in a single line, in marching order, would have extended forty-five miles. Each Corps, however, had its own train, which occupied a separate road so as to avoid crowding or delay.

The news of his departure from Savannah filled the South with alarm, and the North with solicitude

The question

SHERMAN'S PLAN.

565

was in every one's mouth, “Where next will this extraordinary man go?” Some thought that he would first strike Augusta, others, Charleston. But he had a grander object, in view than the immediate capture of either of these places. Standing in Savannah, he cast his eyes north five hundred miles to Goldsboro', and determined to carry his gallant army thither, right through the heart of two hostile States. One standing by his side and looking forward on the route the brave Chieftain had marked out for his columns, must have been amazed at the mighty enterprise on which he was about to enter.

One rebel army lay at Charleston, on his right, another at Augustà, on his left--North Carolina swarmed with troops, while every step he advanced took him nearer to Lee's gathered forces at Richmond. Large rivers were to be crossed, swamps traversed, and battles fought, before he could reach the goal of his wishes.

In organizing this campaign, Sherman resolved to make Columbia his first objective point. To do this, without being compelled to fight heavy battles, it was necessary to keep the rebel armies at Charleston and Augusta divided United they could make the rivers successive lines of defense, which could not be carried without severe loss. He, therefore, determined to threaten both places at the same time, and thus keep the enemy at each in a state of suspense and anxiety, and afraid to move in any direction. In carrying out this plan, he directed Slocum, with the left wing and Kilpatrick's cavalry, to move up the Savannah River and threaten Augusta, while Howard advancing from the sea-coast, was to threaten Charleston.

By this adroit management he prevented the enemy from doing the only thing that promised success—viz., the concentration of his forces on the line of the swampy Salkehatchie. Had this been done, and both Charleston and Au

CHAPTER XL.

JANUARY FEBRUARY, 1865.

THE RIGHT WING OF SHERMAN'S ARMY THREATENS CHARLESTON—THE LEFT

AUGUSTA--THE ARMY DELAYED BY HEAVY FLOODS -KILPATRICK'S CAVAL-
RYFORCING OF THE BALKEHATCHIE—THE ENEMY DECEIVED, AND THEIR
FORCES HOPELESSLY SEPARATED-DESTRUCTION OF THE CHARLESTON AND
AUGUSTA RAILROAD_CAPTURE OF ORANGEBURG-CROSSING THE EDISTO-
CAPTURE OF COLUMBIA-BURNING OF THE CITYDISTRESS OF THE INHAB-
ITANTS—BURNING OF WINNSBORO-CHARLOTTE, N. C., THREATENED-SHER-
MAN SUDDENLY STRIKES EAST FOR FAYETTEVILLE-CAPTURE OF CHERAW
TALL OP CHARLESTON-JUNCTION OF THE TWO WINGS-CAPTURE OF FAY-
ETTEVILLE-COMMUNICATIONS OPENED WITH SCHOFIELD AND TERRY-BAT-
TLE OF APERTSBORO'-BATTLE OF BENTONVILLE-OCCUPATION OF GO
BORO?

-END OF THE CAMPAIGN-SHERMAN VISITS GRANT AT CITY POINT

BPEEDY REFITTING OF THE ARMY.

CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS.

SHE

(HERMAN, having rested his army at Savannah and

completed his plans, began, in the middle of January, to send off a part of his troops, in transports, to Beaufort, preparatory to the commencement of his campaign through the Carolinas. But his army was not in motion until the first of February. It numbered almut sixty-five thousand men, and was divided into four Corps, with a train of four thousand five hundred vehicles, of all kinds, which, if stretched in a single line, in marching order, would have extended forty-five miles. Each Corps, however, had its own train, which occupied a separate road so as to avoid crowding or delay.

The news of his departure from Savannah filled the South with alarm, and the North with solicitude The question

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