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The first steps toward the organization of the United States of America dates back to an assembly of Delegates from the several North American Colonies, which met at Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, Sept. 5th, 1774, and styled themselves a Congress. Its object was to discuss the grievances of Great Britain, and to enact measures for self-protection. Each Colony was entitled to one vote. The Confederation constantly gained in strength and in public confidence. British aggressions became intolerable; and, July 2d, 1774, the Continental Congress resolved "That these United Colonies are and of right ought to be Free and Independent States," &c.; and on Thursday, July 4th, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was agreed upon, and read to the public July 8th. On the 9th of Sept., 1776, by resolution of Congress, the words "United Colonies" was changed to "The United States of America."

The Articles of Confederation and perpetual union of the United States of America was agreed to November 15th, 1777, subject to the ratification of the several State Legislatures, the last of which ratified the same March 1st, 1781,


To all whom these Presents shall come, We, the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our names, send greeting Whereas, the Delegates of the United States of America, in Gongress assembled, did, on the 15th day of November, in the Year of our Lord, 1777, and in the Second Year of the Independence of America, agree to certain Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States of New Hamp shire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Planta tions, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, in the words following, viz. :

"Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

ARTICLE 1. The style of this Confederacy shall be "The United States of America."

ARTICLE 2. Each State retains its sovereignty, freedom and independence, and every power, jurisdiction and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States in Congress assembled.

ARTICLE 3. The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of

them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.

ARTICLE 4. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different States in this Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States-paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted-shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several States; and the people of each State shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions and restrictions, as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restriction shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property, imported into any State, to any other State of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided, also, that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any State on the property of the United States, or either of them.

If any person guilty of, or charged with treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon demand of the Governor, or executive power of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State having jurisdiction of his offense.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these States, to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other State.

ARTICLE 5. For the more convenient management of the general interest of the United States, Delegates shall be annually appointed, in such manner as the Legislature of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each State to recall its Delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the year.

No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor by more than seven, members; and no person shall be capable of being a Delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a Delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees or emolument of any kind.

Each State shall maintain its own Delegates in any meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the Committee of the States.

In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each State shall have one


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