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flagellation." The pavement is covered with inscriptions. Close to the altar is the so-called "stone which closed the mouth of the Lord's sepulcher," named by some the "angel stone," because the angel who addressed the Marys after Christ had risen sat upon it during their conversation. The palace of Herod the Great, called by him the Castle or Tower of Antonia in order to flatter Mark Antony, was looked upon as the pride of Jerusalem. It stood at the north-west corner of the Temple area, and its connecting buildings are supposed to have run along the whole northern limit of the area. Of it Josephus has written as follows:

The kinds of stone used in its construction were countless. Whatever was rare abounded in it. The roofs astonished every one by the length of their beams and the beauty of their adornment. Vessels of gold and silver, rich in chasing, shone on every side. The great dining-hall had been constructed to supply table-couches for three hundred guests; others opened in all directions, each with a different style of pillar. The open space before the palace was laid out in broad walks, planted with long avenues of different trees, and bordered by broad, deep canals and great ponds flowing with clear cool water, set off along the banks with innumerable works of art.

A sorry substitute for so much splendor now occupies the site in the long line of decayed structures used by the Turkish garrison as their headquarters and barracks. By the courtesy of the commandant the view on the opposite page was photographed from his quarters. A mosque, of course, is included in the group of government buildings. Its tall minaret rises high above everything else in the neighborhood. Seen through one of the shapely Saracenic arches, facing the north-east approach to the mosque platform, in combination. with the little dome of Solomon, erected to mark the spot where the kingly architect stood for prayer after he had completed the Temple, it presents a picturesque combination. But it is in fact dilapidated enough-belonging to a government which never gives any attention to repairs. Some measure of respect is felt for it, nevertheless, by the person whose backsheesh persuades the muezzin crier to permit him to enjoy a view of the surrounding country from the gallery of the shaky structure. On a clear day this view is absolutely overpowering and indescribable. It makes one feel like joining the earnest Moslem in the cry to everybody to praise God. Of course there is the dead and alive city, and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, and the Temple area, with ali their attractions, but they are eclipsed by the natural beauties surrounding. From Bethel on the north to Bethlehem on the south the undulations of the country are presented, as rough

and as rugged as the pages of history represented by every foot of the prospect. On the west one can see almost to Joppa; while on the east, after the delighted eyes dwell upon the Mount of Olives a moment and then sink down into the Jordan valley, they are lifted again to the mountains of Moab and are tempted southward once more by the glittering surface of the ever fascinating city of the dead and its gaudy borders.

What changes have been wrought by time since all this country was full of life and energy! It is true that Jerusalem still lives by the attractions of her great building and its accessories, as she did by her Temple when Christ Jesus preached here. But the crafty tetrarch, the subtle Sadducees, and the "please everybody" king are gone. In their places dervishes

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strut and the students bow in groups upon the pavement for prayer at each muezzin call. Instead of the countless kinds of stone described by Josephus as forming parts of the palace, only rattling limestone is seen. The richly chased vessels of gold and silver which served the Roman household have been displaced by the canteen and the mess-kettle of the garrison of the Crescent. The great dining-hall which supplied table-couches for three hundred guests has been covered with the armory, which is occupied by the soldiers of the garrison, who shoulder American rifles instead of supporting broad Damascus blades with bejeweled hilts. The open space before the palace, as we have seen, is no longer made attractive by broad, winding walks underneath groves of spices; there are only ablution fountains in place of the broad canals and miniature lakes which



were kept fresh from the great reservoirs of Solomon located down near Hebron.

On the right or east side of the group of government buildings is a solidly built tower with an arched doorway. It is the present fortress of the city. It is supposed to stand upon the site of the palace mentioned by Nehemiah, and where Pilate held forth when he adjudged the accused Jesus. Here Paul made his courageous stand for the Christian faith. Many a time has

the old structure faced the brunt of battle for Jew, Mohammedan, and Christian. Immediately on its other side is the Via Dolorosa with the "Arch of Ecce Homo." If the Western visitor comes here during Easter week he will fully understand the blight which has been caused by Moslem fanaticism. A good hour for such a visit is in the afternoon, after the sun has gone down behind the great dome of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and

nearly all the daylight has crept out of the historical area. In one sense it is a rest. There are no sleepy priests, nor gossiping trainbearers, nor censer-swingers, nor beadles begrimed with snuff; neither dripping tapers, though there are beads in plenty. More than likely the broad court is entirely empty of devotees when you enter, and there is time to look up at the minaret and compare it with the old home spire. A turbaned officer makes his appearance upon the gallery and assumes the attitude of prayer; his tenor voice is heard sending forth the muezzin call. The soft winds come from the Jordan over the Mount of Olives; they sweep across the Kidron, leap the ancient wall, and swirl into the area; as they come they catch the cry and bear it by gusts and by impulses into all parts of the city to those who are waiting the call to prayer with eager expectancy. Faithful listeners miles away may receive the summons too; then, wherever they are, their faces grow serious, they turn their eyes towards the east and obey that summons. The cry is not, "Joy to the world, the Lord is come," but the same as that which our turbaned friend repeats five times a day, "Hy Ilas Sula! Hy Ilas Sula! Hy ilal felah! La Ila Illulah! Wa Mohammed Rasoul Ullah!" "There is no God but God, and Mohammed is his prophet. Come thou to prayer, for prayer is better than eating or drinking." The innumerable gates in the wall and in the kiosks open suddenly and simultaneously as though moved by magic, then those privileged to pray in the mosque inclosure come slowly in. They have their favorite places. A large number usually gather near the western side of the dome. They are careless of all observers, and are alike indifferent to the architectural splendor about them. First, passages from the Koran are read, standing; then they fall upon their knees, with their hands placed at the sides of their heads, their eyes directed to heaven; next, their bodies are lowered upon their heels and their hands are placed upon their knees with their heads bowed humbly; next, the devotees rise, and, placing their hands at their faces, "move them to and fro to gather in the blessings"; finally, they prostrate themselves with their faces to the ground, crying out fervently with a heart-moving "Ullah Akbah! "Ullah Akbah! Ullah Akbah!" The process is repeated several times, each time with increased fervor, for the devotees believe that the oftener they pray the more blessings they receive.

I saw a different picture after I went out from that court on that Good Friday evening. Passing out through the arched doorway of the palace of Antonia into the Arch of Ecce Homo,underneath which, as tradition has it, Pilate scourged Jesus, and handing him over to the VOL. XXXVIII.- 8.

infuriated mob said, "Behold the man,"—the Via Dolorosa was followed until the Church of the Holy Sepulcher was reached. The kavass of Colonel Wilson of Iowa, the then American consul, with baton in hand, awaited at the door. He was accoutered in all the glories of the costume of the Albanians and Syrians. But his apparel was in keeping with the glitter of the silver image of the American eagle which fluttered upon the top of his baton, and they seemed to have their effect, for upon their joint appearance the motley crowd which thronged the broad court of the church gave way and permitted us to reach the entrance unharmed. Through dark passages and up lofty stairs the glistening Arab led, until at last an upper room was reached, where, to use the words of our consul, "a part of the Crucifixion scene was to be enacted, and sermons preached in the Greek, French, Italian, German, Arabic, and English languages." The chapel was lighted by a hundred gold and silver jeweled lamps, fed with American kerosene, and that was about the only part our great nation took in the service. The exercise was announced to begin at half-past six, but it was eight o'clock before the Coptic monks who opened it made their appearance. The greater part of their share in the performance was sung in the dreary, drony cadence of the Greek Church. Then, by the appearance of the German representatives, the audience was aroused from the semi-comatose state into which it had lapsed. One of these stood by a velvet rug spread upon the floor and delivered a short discourse in a sing-song tone. Before he began, a three-quarter size crucifix was brought in by an assistant and laid upon the rug, the head towards the speaker, and remained there during his sermon. The French deputation followed, consisting of monks, choir-boys singing a funeral dirge, and a fine responding chorus of men. Others followed, some swinging censers, some bearing silver torches, and two carried broad silver platters. On one of the platters was a gaudily trimmed regalia, and on the other an antique hammer and a pair of pincers. The crucifix was now lifted from the velvet rug on the floor and placed upon the altar. The nails were then drawn from the hands and feet of the figure by a monk, who tenderly kissed each bit of iron. It was then laid upon the altar and covered— a mimicry of the" descent from the cross." The empty cross was allowed to remain standing erect. A sermon in the French language followed this ceremony; then the choral exercises were repeated, while the "body" was placed upon a bier, and amid the strains of another dirge was carried down to the vestibule and laid upon the "stone of unction." This marble slab had been kissed smooth and

out of true by the myriads of pilgrims who had visited it, although the "real stone" upon which the Lord's body lay when anointed for his burial was underneath and out of sight. The ceremony of anointing was performed in Arabic, then the show was ended by carrying the image to the tomb. While all this went on the hooting and shouting and carousing which took place in the body of the church, where thousands of pilgrims had come from all parts of the earth to attend the Easter service, was as shameful as it was dreadful. It continued all night, for next day the "miracle of the holy fire" was promised to occur without fail, and this seething mass of humanity had come thus early in order to secure places for that occasion. To prevent a disturbance a detachment of soldiers was sent from the Turkish garrison, and the men were stationed here and there among the "Christians." Every year is made this collection of friars, monks, priests, nuns, consuls, military officers, soldiers, pilgrims and strangers from all nations-encircled by the Moslem crowd, which gathers to mutter and imprecate so far as it dares without breaking the peace. It was near midnight when the strange procession returned to "Calvary." Then all the lights were turned down, and those who wished to depart found their way the best they could.

Following on now from the scenes of the Temple and the palace, out of the city gate, across the dry valley, up through the green and gray by any one of the three paths we may choose, we come to the little village of Jebel et Tûr, situated upon the flat central summit of the Mount of Olives. Near the center of the town is the Church of the Ascension, erected to mark the spot of earth last touched by the feet of Jesus before he ascended to heaven. The church which first stood here was one of the enterprises of the Empress Helena, the mother of Constantine. It was followed by the present structure and the little mosque which accompanies it. Indeed, the church or dome of the Ascension is located within the court of the mosque. A Christian edifice is tolerated in this land only when a Moslem structure is placed near at hand. "The last foot-print of the Saviour," distorted by the wear of ages and by the kisses of the devout of centuries, is shown upon the rock which forms part of the gloomy interior. Singularly enough the chapel is entirely empty. Driven from our tentslocated a few rods away-by a sudden shower one morning, my companions and I were permitted to seek shelter here. A small fire of charcoal was kindled in a brazier. The fumes, with the smell of lime coming from the damp plastered wall, almost stifled us. When the sun came back the obliging custodian, who also

cries the hour of prayer, took his place in theminaret and permitted the camera to include him in the view made of the buildings. The prospect from the minaret on every side is not only grand, but embraces some of the most interesting of biblical sites.

A wearisome, hard seven-hours' donkey ride is required to reach the Dead Sea, and no little danger accompanies the route through sunless ravines and over bare and desolate heights, where the merry song of the cascade is heard only when the spring torrents come. The hills are of a singular greenish gray color until within a mile or so of the Jordan, when they change to a mingling of pink, yellow, and white, and merge off into the yellows and greens which cover the nearer flat approach to the verdure-clad river. The pink-topped mountains of Moab rise on the other side quite as high as the Mount of Olives, but they do not look so. They reach south and east as far as the eye can see, their bare peaks numbering and unnumbered like those seen from the Furka, but as different in their nature as the whitest snow can be from the most sunscorched of all the earth's surface. To the north the mountains of Gilead rise where Jacob separated his flocks into droves lest his unhappy brother Esau run them off into the wilds beyond. In whatever light one sees them, at daytime or by moonlight, these views are grand.

We turn now to the western prospect. In full front and first of all there is "Jerusalem the Golden," with every detail we have just studied clearly and sharply defined, with hundreds of other points of interest, including the encircling walls. A rough-looking country intervenes, but it is full of sacred interest. There is the path up which David fled from his rebellious son Absalom, weeping as he went up, with his head uncovered and his feet barewhere the kingly fugitive held council of war with his faithful adherents; where good Ziba brought refreshments which saved the royal life; where the ark was rested; where Hushai came affrighted, "with his coat rent, and earth upon his head," to tell of the intrigue of Absalom: pigeons were sold under the trees for temple-offering of purification, close by the pool where the unclean performed their ablutions before presenting themselves to the Lord. The long incline was submerged by the smoke which came from the burning of the red heifer, the ashes of which were preserved for the purification of the people; the glory of the Lord crowned the summit; upon the bare rocks the watchmen stood eager to catch the first glimmer of the torch-light signal from their fellows stationed upon the mountains of Moab, and quickly repeated the sign to the priests at the Temple that they might know when the new

moon made its appearance above the eastern horizon.

There are perhaps three places where one may see "stones" that were here when Jesus was crucified. One of these is near the south-west corner of the Temple area, and is known as the "Jews' Wailing-Place." There are five courses of stones, one above the other, with the beveled joints of Solomon's day forming part of the wall. Here every Friday the resident Hebrews come to mourn the destruction of the Temple and the fall of the city of their fathers. Earthquake has slightly displaced the stones, and the kisses of the pilgrims of many centuries have worn away the quarrymen's chisel-marks, yet they look as though they might serve for many ages to come. At the extreme south-west angle of the Haram wall is a stone measuring thirty-one feet in length, seven feet in width, and five feet in height. It is the chief corner-stone, and is undoubtedly the one placed there by the order of Solomon to help inclose his Temple. Scant forty feet north of this, half hidden by bushes, which had to be partly cut away to make room for the camera, is another place where we may believe the handiwork of Solomon's masons is to be seen. There are three courses of huge stones in such curious position that they seem to have been fired out from the inside through a breach in the wall, and there caught and wedged fast, instead of falling to the ground. A careful view leaves no doubt that they formed the segment of an arch, for their outer surfaces are hewn to a true curve. Each one measures from twenty to twenty-four feet in length and from five to six feet in height. They must indeed have formed part of one of the arches of the great bridge, more than three hundred and fifty feet in length, over which Solomon, attended by his splendid retinue, must have often passed. Centuries later Jesus too passed over this public way. This strangely interesting relic of the past is known as "Robinson's Arch," so called after Dr. Edward Robinson, who discovered it. In his own account the distinguished traveler says:

The existence of these remains of the ancient bridge seems to remove all doubt as to the identity of this part of the inclosure of the mosque with that of the ancient Temple. How they can have remained for so many ages unseen or unnoticed by any writer or traveler is a problem which I would not undertake fully to solve. indisputable remains of Jewish antiquity, consisting of an important portion of the western wall of the Temple area. They are probably to be referred to

Here we have

a period long antecedent to the days of Herod; for the labors of this splendor-loving tyrant appear to have been confined to the body of the Temple and the porticos around the court. The magnitude of the stones also and the workmanship as compared with other remaining monuments of Herod seem to point to an earlier origin. . . . Proceeding to the south-east corner, we find its character to be precisely similar to that of the south-west; the same immense stones as already described, both towards the east and the south, on the brink of the Valley of Jehoshaphat, and the line of the southern wall at this point corresponding with that at the tremities of the ancient southern wall, which, as We have, then, the two exJosephus informs us, extended from the eastern to the western valley, and could not be prolonged further. Thus we are led irresistibly to the conclusion that the area of the Jewish Temple was identical on its western, eastern, and southern sides with the present inclosure of the Haram.

south-west corner.

The fourth and last point to be considered as supplying a construction which must have been familiar to our Saviour is the Tower of Hippicus, or the Tower of David, so called. When Herod built his great wall about Jerusalem, he built these strong towers towards the north-west. One of these was Hippicus; the second was Phasælus, named after his friend; and the third was called Mariamne, after his favorite wife. These strongholds were connected with one another and with the royal palace. The first named seems to have been spared at every siege, and may be looked upon now as a splendid example of the masonry of antiquity. It is located a little south of the Joppa gate and still serves—or its adjacent buildings serve as the citadel of Jerusalem. The sturdy, sloping bulwark is said to be solid. No entrance has ever been discovered.

Returning to the summit of the Golden Gate on Good Friday, a last review was had of the country round about. The sun had just sunk behind the domes of the old church. The crimson glow left the heights and the broad shadows fell. The moon arose beyond Olivet as red as blood. Soon its gentle influence was felt in the wild gorges and rocky glens which run down Olivet to the Vale of Kidron; the olive-trees glistened more than they do in the sunshine. The languid air was made fresher by the breeze which blew from the Sea of Galilee. How the wind wailed among the tombs below! What a strange unison between this placid hour and the sacred associations on every side! It must have been just such a night when the three wise men sat watching for "his star in the east."

Edward L. Wilson.

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