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Ch. XIX.]



doubt, would attract the attention of destroying the bridge at that point. all the force the enemy could collect Ammunition, stores, railroad trestles, and facilitate the execution of this. etc., found here were destroyed. Stoneman was so late in making his The columns were again put in mo start on this expedition, February 27th, tion, directed on Fayetteville, N. C., and Sherman having passed out of the the right wing crossing the Pedee at state of South Carolina, Grant directed Cheraw, and the left wing and cavalry Thomas to change his course, and or at Sneedsborough. The weather condered him to repeat his raid of last fall, tinued bad, and the roads were any. destroying the railroad toward Lynch. thing but good; but the 14th and 17th burg as far as he could. This would corps reached Fayetteville on the 11th keep him between our garrisons in East of March, skirmishing with Hampton's Tennessee and the enemy. It was re- cavalry, that covered the rear of Hargarded as not impossible that, in the dee’s retreating troops. The three fol. event of the enemy being driven from lowing days were passed at Fayetteville, Richmond, he might fall back to Lynch-destroying absolutely the United States burg, and attempt a raid north through arsenal and the vast amount of machinEast Tennessee. About the middle of ery which had formerly belonged to the February, Thomas was directed to start old Harper's Ferry United States arsethe expedition, consisting of 4,000 to nal. Every building was knocked down 5,000 cavalry, as soon as he could get and burned, and every piece of ma.

chinery utterly broken up and ruined Columbia having fallen on the 17th by the engineers, under the immediate of February, Slocum moved on Winns- supervision of Col. Poe, chief engineer. borough, which was reached on the Much valuable property of great use to 21st, the roads being destroyed, and a the enemy was here destroyed or cast further movement made to Rocky Mount into the river. “Up to this period,” on the Catawba River. This was cross- says Sherman, in his report, “I had per

. ed on the 23d, and the cavalry marched fectly succeeded in interposing my supe. to Lancaster, to keep up the delusion rior army between the scattered parts of a movement on Charlotte, N. C., to of the enemy. But I was then aware wbich Beauregard, with all the rebel that the fragments that had left Cocavalry, had retreated from Columbia. lumbia, under Beauregard, had been Very heavy rains caused considerable reinforced by Cheatham's corps delay in advancing; on the 26th of from the west, and the garrison February, however, the Catawba was of Augusta, and that ample time had crossed, and the left wing put in motion been given to move them to my front for Cheraw. The right wing was also and flank about Raleigh. Hardee had delayed by bad roads, and by skirmish- also succeeded in getting across Cape es with the rebel cavalry. On the 3d Fear River ahead of me, and could of March, Cheraw was entered, the en- therefore complete the junction with the emy retreating across the Pedee, and other armies of Johnston and Hoke in

it under way


North Carolina. And the whole, under Smithfield, or Goldsborough. Slocum the command of the skilful and experi. was ordered to dislodge Hardee, and enced Joe Johnston, made up an army clear the road for the advance. This superior to me in cavalry, and formida. was done, after a severe contest, at a ble enough in artillery and infantry to place called Averysborough, our loss justify me in extreme caution in making being about 600. The rebel loss was the last step necessary to complete the probably much greater. march I had undertaken."

On the 18th of March, when near Sherman next sent word to Terry at Bentonville, the rebels attacked SloWilmington, and Schofield at Newbern, cum's head of column, gaining a tempothat, on Wednesday, March 15th, he rary advantage, and took three guns would move for Goldsborough, feign- and caissons, driving the two leading ing on Raleigh, and giving them orders brigades back on the main body. As to march straight for Goldsborough, soon as Gen. Slocum realized that be which place he expected to reach about had in his front the whole rebel force the 20th. The column from Newbern, under Johnston, he promptly deployed we may here mention, was attacked on the two divisions of the 14th corps, the 8th of March, at Wise's Forks, and Gen. Davis, and rapidly brought up driven back with the loss of several on their left the two divisions of the hundred prisoners. On the 11th, the 20th corps, Gen. Williams. These he rebels renewed the attack on our en arranged on the defensive, and hastily trenched position, but were repulsed prepared a line of barricades. Gen. with severe loss, and fell back during Kilpatrick also came up at the sound the night. On the 14th, the Neuse of artillery, and massed on the left. In River was crossed and Kinston occu- this position the left received six dis. pied, and on the 21st, Goldsborough tinct assaults by the combined forces was entered. The column from Wil. of Hoke, Hardee, and Cheatham, under mington reached Cox's bridge, on the the immediate command of Johnston Neuse River, ten miles above Goldsbo- himself, without giving an inch of rough, on the 22d of March. On the ground, and doing good execution on 15th, as above indicated, Sherman re- the enemy's ranks, especially with our sumed his advance on Goldsborough. artillery, the enemy having little or The weather continued unfavorable, none. Reinforcements were brought and the roads were proportionably bad up during the night of the 19th and and difficult to travel over. Hardee, on the 20th of March. The next night on retreating from Fayetteville, had the enemy retreated to Smithfield, leavhalted in the swampy district between ing the dead and wounded in the hands Cape Fear and South Rivers, having, of our men. Slocum reported the loss it was supposed, about 20,000 men, and on the left wing at 1,250, he having being in hope of delaying Sherman, so taken 338 prisoners

. Howard's loss as to gain time for Johnston to concen. on the right was reported at 400; pritrate the rebel troops either at Raleigh, soners taken, about 1,200. Thus, as

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Sherman states, “we had completed our April, fully equipped and rationed for march on the 21st of March, and had twenty days, if it should become necesfull possession of Goldsborough, the sary to bring his command to bear real'objective,' with its two railroads against Lee's army, in co-operation with back to the seaport of Wilmington and our forces in front of Richmond and Reaufort, N. C. These were being ra- Petersburg. Gen. Sherman proposed, in

pidly repaired by strong work. this movement, to threaten Raleigh, and

ing parties, directed by Col. then, by turning suddenly to the right, W. Wright, of the railroad department. reach the Roanoke at Gaston or thereA large number of supplies had already abouts, whence he could move on to been brought forward to Kinston, to the Richmond and Danville Railroad, which place our wagons had been sent striking it in the vicinity of Burkesto receive them. I therefore directed ville, or join the armies operating Gen. Howard and the cavalry to remain against Richmond, as might be deemed at Bentonville during the 22d, to bury best. This plan he was directed to the dead and remove the wounded, and carry into execution, if he received no on the following day all the armies to further directions in the meantime. I move to the camps assigned them about explained to him the movement I had Goldsborough, there to rest and receive ordered to commence on the 29th of the clothing and supplies of which they March. That if it should not prove as stood in need."

entirely successful as I hoped, I would Sherman entered Goldsborough in cut the cavalry loose to destroy the person, on the 23d of March, where he Danville and Southside Railroads, and met Schofield and his army. The left thus deprive the enemy of further supwing came in during the same day and plies, and also prevent the rapid connext morning, and the right wing fol. centration of Lee's and Johnston's lowed on the 24th, on which day the armies." cavalry moved to Mount Olive Station, Thus, as we have briefly narrated, and Gen. Terry back from Cox's Bridge Sherman's army traversed the country to Falson's. On the 25th, the Newbern from Savannah to Goldsborough, with Railroad was finished, and the first an average breadth of forty miles, contrain of cars came in, thus furnishing suming all the forage, cattle, hogs, sheep, the means of bringing from the depot poultry, cured meats, corn meal, etc., at Morehead City full supplies to the and compelling the rebels to seek for army. Anxious to see and consult with food for the inhabitants from other the commander-in-chief, Sherman, on quarters. “Of course,” Sherman states, the 27th of March, visited Grant at in his report, “the abandonment to us City Point, returning to his headquart- by the enemy of the whole sea-coast ers at Goldshorough, on the 30th. He from Savannah to Newbern, North Castated, says Grant, in his report, “ that rolina, with its forts, dock-yards, gun he would be ready to move, as he had boats, etc., was a necessary incident to previously written me, by the 10th of our occupation and destruction of the

inland routes of travel and supply. But In closing his communication to Gen. the real object of this march was to Halleck, under date of April 4th, Sher place this army in a position easy of man speaks in the highest terms of supply, whence it could take an appro- praise of his officers and men, and com priate part in the spring and summer mends them all for the soldierly quali campaign of 1865. This was completely ties of obedience to orders, and the accomplished on March 21st, by the utmost alacrity which was always mani. junction of the three armies and the fested when danger summoned them to occupation of Goldsborough."

the front.




Grant's anxiety as to Lee's movements — Sends Sheridan to cut off Lee's communications — Sheridan's success

ful raid, starting from Winchester - Position of military affairs — Grant's instructions Lee's attack on Fort Steadman – How repulsed — Important success — Grant orders the army to move - Grant's note to Sheridan – Movement from Dinwiddie Court House — Further steps — Attack on Warren's corps — Battle of Five Forks — Attack on Petersburg, April 1st - Rebel defeat - Lee notifies Davis that Peters. burg and Richmond must be given up — Both places occupied by our troops - Andrew Johnson's speech - Jeff. Davis's flight from Richmond — His style of talking - Lee's retreat and hopes — No supplies at Amelia Court House — Lee in haste to escape - Hotly pursued by Sheridan - The latter secures the posi. tion at Farmville — Battle at Sailor's Creek — Rebel loss avy — Race nearly at an end - Grant's corres pondence with Lee — Sheridan at Appomattox Station -- The surrender of Lee – Terms liberal — How carried out — The “Confederacy” in ruins Sherman and Johnston — Latter surrenders — Dick Taylor and K. Smith surrender.

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GEN. Grant, well aware of the posi- all Grant's efforts were devoted to the tion of affairs in the “Confederacy,” as encircling and enclosing Lee in suchwell as in the loyal states, was desirous wise as that he could not


and of carrying forward operations so as to must, of course, speedily surrender; and bring the war to an effectual conclusion with his surrender, as every one knew,

by the capture of Lee's army, the rebellion would be crushed for. 1865.

and he took his measures ac- ever. cordingly. He was very anxious lest leave his strong lines about Petersburg and Richmond,

. Lee, finding the case hopeless, should for the purpose of uniting with Johnston, before he

was driven from them by battle, or I was prepared to abandon his position, and before Grant make an effectual pursuit

. ... I had spent could prevent it, form a junction with days of anxiety lest each morning should bring the re Johnston's force, and thus protract the port that the enemy had retreated the night before


I was firmly convinced that Sherman's crossing the contest still further elsewhere. * Hence, Roanoke would be the signal for Lee to leave; with

Johnston and him combined, a long, tedious, and ex. *“At this time (March, 1865) the greatest source of pensive compaign, consuming most of the summer, uneasiness to me was the fear that the enemy would | might become necessary."--Grant's "Report,” pp. 61-64 CH. XX.]




It was deemed of the utmost import- seventeen battle-flags, were captured. ance by Grant that, before a general | The prisoners, under an escort of 1,500 movement of the armies operating men, were sent back to Winchester. against Richmond, all communications Thence Sheridan marched on Charlotwith the city, north of James River, tesville, destroying effectually the railshould be cut off. The rebels had with road and bridges as he went, which drawn the bulk of their force from the place he reached on the 3d of March. Shenandoah Valley and sent it south, Here he remained two days, destroying or replaced troops sent from Richmond, the railroad toward Richmond and and as Grant desired to reinforce Sher. Lynchburg, including the large iron man, if practicable, whose cavalry was bridges over the north and south forks greatly inferior in numbers to that of of the Rivanna River, and awaiting the the enemy,

he determined to make a arrival of his trains. This necessary move from the Shenandoah, which, if delay caused him to abandon the idea successful, would accomplish the first of capturing Lynchburg. On the mornat least, and very possibly the latter of ing of the 6th of March, divid. these objects. Sheridan, accordingly, ing his force into two columns, received orders, February 20th, to start Sheridan sent one to Scottsville, whence on his great raid against Lee's commu- it marched up the James River Canal to nications, by way of Lynchburg, and New Market, destroying every lock, and thence to destroy the railroad and in many places the bank of the canal. canal in every direction, so as to render From here a force was pushed out from them useless to the rebels.

this column to Duiguidsville, to ob. Sheridan moved from Winchester on tain possession of the bridge across the the 27th of February, with two divi. James River at that place, but it failed. sions of cavalry, numbering about 5,000 The enemy burned it on the approach each. On the 1st of March, he secured of our troops. They also hurned the the bridge, which the rebels attempted bridge across the river at Hardwicksto destroy, across the middle fork of ville. The other column moved down the Shenandoah, at Mount Crawford, the railroad toward Lynchburg, destroyand entered Staunton on the 2d, the ing it as far as Amherst Court House, enemy having retreated on Waynes- sixteen miles from Lynchburg; thence borough. Thence he pushed on to across the country, uniting with the Waynesborough, where he found the column at New Market. The river enemy in force in an entrenched posi- being very high, Sheridan's pontoons tion, under Gen. Early. Without stop would not reach across it; and the ping even to make a reconnaissance, an rebels having destroyed the bridges by immediate attack was begun, the posi- which he had hoped to cross the river tion was carried, and 1,600 prisoners, and get on the Southside Railroad eleven pieces of artillery, with horses about Farmville, and destroy it to Apand caissons complete, 200 wagons and pomattox Court House, the only thing teams loaded with subsistence, and I left for him was to return to Winchester,

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