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10. All bills appropriating money shall specify in federal currency the exact amount of each appropriation, and the purposes for which it is made; and Congress shall grant no extra compensation to any public contractor, officer, agent, or servant, after such contract shall have been made or such service rendered.

11. No title of nobility shall be granted by the Confederate States; and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emoluments, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign State.

12. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

13. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

14. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

15. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by an oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

16. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life and limb; nor be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

17. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

controversy shall exceed $20, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact so tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the Confederacy, than according to the rules of the common law.

19. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual pun. ishments inflicted.

20. Every law, or resolution having the force of law, shall relate to but one subject, and that shall be expressed in the title.


1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, or law impair ing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of nobility.

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on im ports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the Confederate States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of Congress.

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tunnage, except on sea-going vessels, for the improvement of its rivers and har bors navigated by the said vessels; but such duties shall not conflict with any treaties of the Confederate States with foreign nations; and any surplus of revenue thus derived shall, after making such improvement, be paid into the common treasury; nor shall any State keep troops or ships-of-war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or en gage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. But, when any river divides or flows through two or more States, they may enter into compacts with each other to improve the navigation thereof.


1. The executive power shall be invested in a President of the Confederate States of America. He and the Vice-President shall hold their offices for the term of six years; but the President shall not be re-eligible. The President and Vice-President shall be elected as follows:

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled 18. In suits at common law, where the value in in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative,


or person holding an office of trust or profit under the Confederate States, shall be appointed an elector. 3. The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for President and VicePresident, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the Government of the Confederate States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then, from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

4. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then, from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. 5. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of VicePresident of the Confederate States.


of December, 1860, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the limits of the Confederate States, as they may exist at the time of his election.

8. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President; and the Congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

9. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected; and he shall not receive, within that period, any other emolument from the Confederate States, or any of them.

10. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the Confederate States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution thereof."


1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the army and navy of the Confederate States, and of the militia of the several States when called into the actual service of the Confederate States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the Executive Departments upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the Confederate States, except in cases of impeachment.

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint Embassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the Confederate States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be estab

6. The Congress may determine the time of choos-lished by law; but the Congress may, by law, vest ing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the Confederate States.

7. No person except a natural-born citizen of the Confederate States, or a citizen thereof at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, or a citizen thereof born in the United States prior to the 20th

the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the Heads of Departments.

3. The principal officer in each of the Executive Departments, and all persons connected with the diplomatic service, may be removed from office at the pleasure of the President. All other civil

officers of the Executive Department may be re- 2. In all cases affecting Embassadors, other pubmoved at any time by the President, or other ap-lic Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State pointing power, when their services are unnecessary, or for dishonesty, incapacity, inefficiency, misconduct, or neglect of duty; and when so removed, the removal shall be reported to the Senate, together with the reasons therefor.

4. The President shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session; but no person rejected by the Senate shall be reappointed to the same office during their ensuing recess.


1. The President shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of the state of the Confederacy, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them; and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Embassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the Confederate States. SECTION 4.

1. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the Confederate States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misde



1. The judicial power of the Confederate States shall be vested in one Superior Court, and in such Inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and Inferior Courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. SECTION 2.

1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases arising under this Constitution, the laws of the Confederate States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting Embassadors, and other public Ministers and Consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the Confederate States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more States; between a State and citizens of another State where the State is plaintiff'; between citizens claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens or subjects; but no State shall be sued by a citizen or subject of any foreign State.

shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.


1. Treason against the Confederate States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and com fort. No person shall be convicted of treason un less on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.


1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.


1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States, and shall have the right of transit and sojourn in any State of this Confederacy, with their slaves and other property; and the right of property in said slaves shall not be thereby im paired.

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime against the laws of such State, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. 3. No slave or other person held to service or la bor in any State or Territory of the Confederate States, under the laws thereof, escaping or lawfully carried into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such ser vice or labor; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such slave belongs, or to whom such service or labor may be due.


1. Other States may be admitted into this Confede




racy by a vote of two-thirds of the whole House of
Representatives, and two-thirds of the Senate, the
Senate voting by States; but no new State shall be
formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any
other State; nor any State be formed by the junc-
tion of two or more States, or parts of States, with-fied, or the offices abolished.
out the consent of the Legislatures of the States
concerned as well as of the Congress.

of the Confederate States of America, and all the
laws passed by the latter shall continue in force un
til the same shall be repealed or modified; and all
the officers appointed by the same shall remain in
office until their successors are appointed and quali

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations concerning the property of the Confederate States, including the lands thereof.

3. The Confederate States may acquire new territory; and Congress shall have power to legislate and provide governments for the inhabitants of all territory belonging to the Confederate States, lying without the limits of the several States; and may permit them, at such times and in such manner as it may by law provide, to form States to be admitted into the Confederacy. In all such territory, the institution of negro slavery, as it now exists in the Confederate States, shall be recognized and protected by Congress, and by the territorial government; and the inhabitants of the several Confederate States and Territories shall have the right to take to such territory any slaves, lawfully held by them in any of the States or Territories of the Confederate States.

4. The Confederate States shall guarantee to every State that now is, or hereafter may become, a member of this Confederacy, a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the Legislature (or of the Executive when the Legislature is not in session), against domestic violence.


2. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the Confederate States under this Constitution as under the Provisional Government.

3. This Constitution, and the laws of the Confederate States, made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the Confederate States, shall be the su preme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

4. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the Confederate States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the Confederate States.

5. The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people of the several States.

6. The powers not delegated to the Confederate States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people thereof.


1. The ratification of the Conventions of five

1. Upon the demand of any three States, legally States shall be sufficient for the establishment of

this Constitution between the States so ratifying the


assembled in their several Conventions, the Congress shall summon a Convention of all the States, to take into consideration such amendments to the Constitution as the said States shall concur in suggesting at the time when the said demand is made; and should any of the proposed amendments to the Constitution be agreed on by the said Convention voting by States-and the same be ratified by the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, or by Conventions in two-thirds thereof-as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the General Convention-they shall thenceforward form a part of the Constitution. But no State shall, without its consent, be deprived of its equal repre-sembling of such Congress, the Congress under the

sentation in the Senate.


1. The Government established by this Constitution is the successor of the Provisional Government

2. When five States shall have ratified this Constitution, in the manner before specified, the Congress, under the Provisional Constitution, shall prescribe the time for holding the election of Presi dent and Vice-President; and for the meeting of the Electoral College; and for counting the votes, and inaugurating the President. They shall, also, prescribe the time for holding the first election of members of Congress under this Constitution, and the time for assembling the same. Until the as

Provisional Constitution shall continue to exercise the legislative powers granted them; not extending beyond the time limited by the Constitution of the Provisional Government.

Adopted, unanimously, March 11th, 1861.

THE "PERSONAL LIBERTY" LAWS OF THE witnesses testifying falsely liable to $5,000 fine and five years' imprisonment.


THE following are the various enactments of the Legislatures of the Free States, which the Southern States urged as one of their chief causes of complaint:

"MAINE-Provides that no sheriff, or other officer of the State, arrest or detain any person on claim that he is a fugitive slave. The penalty for violating the law is a fine not exceeding $1,000, or imprisonment not less than one year in the county jail.

"NEW HAMPSHIRE-Laws of 1857-Admits all persons of every color to the rights and privileges of a citizen; declares slaves, coming or brought into the State, by or with the consent of master, free; declares the attempt to hold any person as a slave within the State, a felony, with a penalty of imprisonment not less than one nor more than five years; provided, that the provisions of this section shall not apply to any act lawfully done by any officer of the United States, or other person, in the execution of any legal process.

VERMONT-Provides that no court, justice of the peace, or magistrate, shall take cognizance of any certificate, warrant or process under the Fugitive Slave Law; provides that no officer, or citizen of the State, shall arrest, or aid or assist in arresting, any person for the reason that he is claimed as a fugitive slave; provides that no officer, or citizen, shall aid or assist in the removal from the State, of any person claimed as a fugitive slave; provides a penalty of $1,000, or imprisonment five years in State prison, for violating this act. This act shall not be construed to extend to any citizen of this State acting as a Judge of the Circuit or District Court of the United States, or as Marshal or Deputy Marshal of the District of Vermont, or to any person acting under the command or authority of said courts or marshal. Requires the State attorneys to act as counsel for alleged fugitives; provides for issuing habeas corpus, and the trial by jury of all questions of fact in issue between the parties.

“CONNECTICUT.--- Every person who shall falsely and maliciously declare, represent, or pretend that any free person, entitled to freedom, is a slave, or owes service or labor to any person or persons, with intent to procure, or to aid or assist in procuring, the forcible removal of such free person from this State, as a slave, shall pay a fine of $5,000, and be imprisoned five years in the Connecticut State prison;' requires two witnesses to prove that any person is a slave, or owes labor; a penalty of $5,000 against any person seizing, or causing to be seized, any free person, with intent to reduce him to slavery; depositions not to be admitted as evidence;


RHODE ISLAND-Forbids the carrying away of any person by force out of the State; forbids any judge, justice, magistrate, or court, from officially aiding in the arrest of a fugitive slave under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 or 1850; forbids any sheriff or other officer from arresting or detaining any person claimed as a fugitive slave; provides a penalty of $500, or imprisonment not exceeding six months, for violating the act.

"NEW JERSEY-Laws of 1846-Provides for the issuing of a warrant by claimant of fugitive slave; provides that the application of the agent of claimant shall be accompanied by the affidavit of claimant; prescribes the duties of the magistrate; provides for the trial before the magistrate, but excludes the testimony of the owner or other persons interested; grants trial by jury to either party; prescribes the proceeding on trial, and the mode of surrender or discharge of the fugitive; provides a penalty of not more than $1,000, and imprisonment not more than two years, or both, for violating this act.

"PENNSYLVANIA-Laws of 1847-Provides that no judge or magistrate shall take cognizance of any case under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, under s penalty of not less than $500, nor more than $1000; forbids any claimant from seizing and carrying away any person in a violent and tumultuous manner, so as to break the peace, under a penalty of not less than $100, nor more than $1,000, and imprisonment not more than six months; secures the right of habeas corpus; provides a punishment of not less than five, nor more than twelve years for kidnapping; provides a penalty of not less than $500, nor more than $2,000, for selling free negroes, and imprisonment not less than five, nor more than twelve years; sales of fugitives within the State declared void, and whoever makes such sales for feits $500.

"OHIO-Act of Feb. 15th, 1831, prohibits the kid. napping of any free black or mulatto with intent to transport him out of the State on any pretense whatever, under a penalty of imprisonment not less than three, nor more than seven years. Laws of 1857, April 17th: An act to prevent kidnapping' prohibits any person from arresting, imprisoning, or kidnapping, or forcibly, fraudulently carrying off, or decoying out of the State, any free black of mulatto; requires all persons claiming any black or mulatto person as a fugitive from labor, to take such fugitive before the proper United States officer, and to prove such claim; and forbids the forcibly kidnapping, or carrying or decoying away of any fugitive without such proof; affixes a penalty for

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