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civil war. All dreaded it; all sought to swered; that of neither has been an. avoid it. While the inaugural address swered fully. The Almighty has His was being delivered from this place, own purposes. “Woe unto the world bedevoted altogether to saving the Union cause of offences ! for it must needs be without war, insurgent agents were in that offences come, but woe to that man the city seeking to destroy it without by whom the offence cometh. If we

war-seeking to dissolve the shall suppose that American slavery is

Union, and divide the effects, by one of these offences which, in the negotiation. Both parties deprecated providence of God, must needs come, war; but one of them would make but which, having continued through war rather than let the nation survive; His appointed time, He now wills to reand the other would accept war rather move, and that he gives to both North than let it perish ; and the war came. and South this terrible war, as the woe

“ One-eighth of the whole popula- due to those by whom the offence came, tion were colored slaves, not distributed shall we discern therein any departure generally orer the Union, but localized from those Divine attributes which the in the southern part of it. These believers in a living God always ascribe slaves constituted a peculiar and power to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently ful interest. All knew that this inter: do we pray, that this mighty scourge

of est was, somehow, the cause of the war. war may speedily pass away. Yet, if To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend God wills that it continue until all the this interest, was the object for which wealth piled by the bondman's two the insurgents would rend the Union by hundred and fifty years of unrequited war; while the government claimed no toil, shall be sunk, and until every drop right to do more than to restrict the of blood drawn with the lash shall be territorial enlargement of it. Neither paid by another drawn with the sword, party expected for the war the magni- as was said three thousand years ago, tude or the duration which it has al. so, still it must be said," the judgments ready attained. Neither anticipated of the Lord are true and righteous altothat the cause of the conflict might gether.' cease with, or even before, the conflict “ With malice toward none, with itself should cease. Each looked for an charity for all, with firmness in the easier triumph, and a result less funda- right, as God gives us to see the right, mental and astounding. Both read the let us strive on to finish the work we same Bible, and pray to the same God; are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; and each invokes His aid against the to care for him who shall have borne other. It may seem strange that any the battle, and for his widow, and his

. men should dare to ask a just God's as- orphans; to do all which may achieve sistance in wringing their bread from and cherish a just and a lasting peace the sweat of other men's faces; but let among ourselves and with all nations.” us judge not, that we be not judged. This brief but touching address hav. The prayer of both could not be an- ing been delivered, a national salute




was fired, and Mr. Lincoln, seated in an off quietly and calmly, and the presiopen barouche with Senator Foster, of dent had good reason to look forward the committee of arrangements, was to a successful issue of the great conescorted through Pennsylvania Avenue test and a return of peace, for which to the White House. Everything passed he and all true patriots ardently longed.




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Grant's orders to Sherman and his reply — Further orders — Arrangements in regard to Schofield and his co

operating force — Sherman's preliminary movements — March begun on the 1st of February – Advance of the army across the Salkahatchie, to Orangeburg, and thence to Columbia, S. C. — The city burned and pillaged by rebel cavalry - Charleston evacuated by Hardee, February 18th - State and condition of the city – Fort Anderson on Cape Fear River - Attack Abandoned by the rebels — Wilmington captured – Results of the capture - Grant's directions to Gen. Thomas — Further movements of the right and left wings of Sherman's army towards Fayetteville, N. C.- The town entered, March 11th Sherman's views as to his position - Movement towards Goldsborough - Advance of Schofield and Terry – Hardee, and contest at Averysborough — Battle at Bentonville with Johnston - Losses – Goldsborough taken Sherman's conference with Grant - The march and its results -- Excellent conduct of the army.

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GEN. SHERMAN, as we have already | Raleigh, N. C., and thence to report to noted (see p. 492), having reached and Grant, which, he estimated, would take occupied Savannah, on the 21st of De about six weeks' time; but that he cember, 1864, was ready almost at once would obey the lieutenant-general's for any further movement toward se order at once, and could reach him

curing the triumph of our arms. sea as early as the middle of January.

Early in the month, December Grant thereupon, on the 28th of De6th, Gen. Grant, regarding the capture cember, ordered Sherman to make preof Lee's army as the most important parations to start as he proposed, with. operation which required attention, sent out delay, to break up the railroads orders to Sherman, “that, after estab- in North and South Carolina, and join lishing a base on the sea coast, with the armies operating against Richmond necessary garrison, to include all his as soon as he could. artillery and cavalry, to come by water As tending to facilitate his moveto City Point with the balance of his ments, Grant informed Sherman, on command.” Sherman, in reply, De. the 21st of January, that he had ordercember 16th, stated, that he had ex ed east, from Tennessee, the 23d corps, pected, on reducing Savannah, to under Gen. Schofield; that that corps march to Columbia, S. C., thence to numbered about 21,000 men; that there


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was a garrison at Fort Fisher of about Sister's Ferry, on the 2d of February. 8,000, and at Newbern of about 4,000 Kilpatrick's cavalry also was crossed men; that if Wilmington was captured, on pontoon bridges. General Schofield would go there; if not, he Howard, with the right wing, would be sent to Newbern; that in was directed to cross the Salkahatchie, either event, all the surplus force at and push rapidly for the South Caroboth points would move to the interior lina Railroad, at or near Midway. The towards Goldsborough, in co-operation rebels held the line of the Salkahatchie, with his movement; that from either in force; but, on the 3d of February, point railroad communication could be Mower's and Giles's divisions of the run out; and that all these troops 17th corps crossed the swamp nearly would be subject to Sherman's orders as three miles wide, and with the water he came into communication with them. nearly up to the waist, and drove the

Sherman having recruited his men, enemy towards Branchville. The reand made all the needful preparations bels retreated behind the Edisto, and for his advance, sent the 17th corps being threatened at Branchville, burned under Blair, January 15th, by way of the railroad bridge, and Walker's Beaufort, S. C., to make a lodgment on bridge below, across the Edisto. From the Charleston Railroad, at or near the 7th to the 10th of February, the Pocataligo. This was accomplished, 17th corps was occupied in thoroughly and a depot for supplies was establish- destroying the railroad track. The ed near the mouth of Pocataligo Creek. left wing was similarly occupied with A demonstration was made in the di- the South Carolina Railroad, from rection of Charleston, so as to divert Branchville to Windsor. Having dithe attention of the rebels, and cause vided the enemy's forces by these ope. them, under apprehension of an attack rations, a movement was begun on on that city, to keep a considerable Orangeburg. On the 12th of February, force there prepared to defend it. Sher- the rebels attempted resistance at the man, however, had no intention of bridge, and it was partially burred; stopping for this purpose; Charleston but they were soon repulsed, the bridge would fall of itself in due time; and was repaired, and our troops entered Sherman's blow against the “ Confede- Orangeburg late in the afternoon. racy” was to be much heavier than Blair was ordered to destroy this road would result from taking the rebel city effectually up to Lewisville, and to

' where was fired the first gun at the push the enemy across the Congaree, opening of the rebellion.

and force him to burn the bridges, The march of Sherman's army was which le did on the 14th of Feb. begun on the 1st of February. Gun.ruary. Having forced the passage Slocum, with the left wing, had been of the Little Congaree, the head delayed, by the heavy rains and floods, of the column, early on the 16th from crossing the Savannah River; but of February, reached the Congaree, ophe was enabled to gain a passage at 1 posite Columbia, but too late to save

C11. XIX.)




the fine bridge which spanned the river of above, rendered the evacuation of at that point. It was destroyed by the Charleston a necessity. With its suprebels.

plies cut off, with the army of Sherman Sherman directed the crossing not to in the rear, closely beset on James Isbe made in front of Columbia, but three land by the forces of the department miles above, and the town thus to be of the South, with Admiral Dahltaken from the north. There were gren's powerful navy in front, it was great astonishment and fright in Co- no longer tenable as a military lumbia; and on the 17th of February, post. It was only left to Harit was surrendered by the mayor to our dee, who was in command, to escape forces. The rebel general, Wade Hamp. while he could by the single northerly ton, in command, had ordered all the coast line of railroad still open to him.

. cotton to be moved into the street and Prominent citizens had already left, fired, which was done. Our men tried the army and stores were being reto put out the conflagration, but were moved, and on the 18th of February, only partially successful. “I disclaim,” the city was surrendered. Gillmore says Sherman, in his report, “ on the announced the fact in a dispatch to part of my army, any agency in the fire, Washington of the same date. All but on the contrary claim that we saved that could be destroyed by the rebels what of Columbia remains unconsumed. was set on fire or blown up; cotton And without hesitation, I charge Gen. warehouses, arsenal, bridges, vessels in Wade Hampton with having burned the ship yard, stores, locomotives, etc., his own city of Columbia, not with a shared a common fate. The cotton de. malicious intent, or as the manifestation stroyed was estimated at 4,000 bales. of a silly Roman stoicism,' but from Gillmore reported a capture of 450 folly and want of sense, in filling it pieces of ordnance and a large quantity with lint, cotton, and tinder.” During of ammunition; but the city itself was the 18th and 19th of February, the in a deplorable state. It was almost arsenal, railroad depots, machine shops, desolate, and far the greater part of the foundries, and other buildings were pro- inhabitants which were left, were the perly destroyed by detailed working poor and destitute who could not get parties, and the railroad track torn up away.

Hardee retreated in the direcand destroyed down to Kingsville and * A correspondent of one of the journals gives a grathe Waterce Bridge, and up in the di- phic account of the state of affairs in Charleston when

our troops took possession. “It is an indescribable rection of Winnsborough.*

scene of desolation and ruin, of roofless, doorless, win. The capture of Branchville, spoken dowless houses, crumbling walls, upheaved pavements,

and grassgrown streets-silent to all sounds of busi

ness, and voiceless only to the woe-begone, poverty. * The thieving and pillaging done by Wheeler's stricken, haggard people, who wander up and down cavalry before Columbia was taken was bitterly moaned amid the ruins, looking to a jubilant past, a disappointover by the rebels; and when was added to this, theed present, and a hopeless future. They are in rags, fierce conflagration and the terror and dismay of the and their boots are out at the toes, their shoes down inhabitants, it became evident that the capital of South at the heels. There is no longer a manifestation of Carolina was paying fearfully for its share in the re

arrogance, lordly insolence, and conscious superiority over the Yankees on the part of the whites."


VOL. IV.-66

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tion of North Carolina, having with This stronghold having been lost, him about 12,000 men.

Hoke speedily evacuated Wilmington, Gen. Schofield, who had received in- which, after some fighting, on the 20th structions from Grant, as noted on a and 21st of February, was entered, on previous page (p. 519), acting in concert the morning of the 22d, by the troops with Admiral Porter, entered vigorously under Gen. Terry. The rebels retreatupon the work with which he was charg. ed towards Goldsborough during the ed. After the capture of Fort Fisher (p. night, having destroyed before they 500) the chief obstacle hindering an left about 1,000 bales of cotton, 15,000 advance by water to Wilmington, N. barrels of rosin, a large cotton shed and C., was Fort Anderson, on the Cape presses, an iron-clad partly completed, Fear River, guarding the approach to three extensive turpentine works, and the city. It was said to be a work of various bridges. About 700 prisoners immense strength and extent, enclosing were captured, and also some thirty to an area of about four square miles. forty pieces of artillery. The movement up the river was begun The taking of Wilmington was lookon the 11th of February, with a recon- ed upon as very valuable and importnaissance which was pushed to the re- ant, with reference to further operations bel lines on the left bank of the river on the part of Sherman, and preparaopposite the fort and about twelve tions were at once made for a movemiles from Wilmington. There was ment on Goldsborough in two columns, some sharp skirmishing at the enemy's the one from Wilmington, and the other outposts, Gen. Hoke being in command from Newbern. Preparations were of the rebel forces, in which the negro also made for repairing the railroad troops were actively engaged, while the leading to Goldsborough, from each of Monitor Montauk bombarded the fort. | the places just named, as well as to These preliminary movements were fol supply Sherman by Cape Fear River lowed up, on the 16th of February, by toward Fayetteville, if it should bethe transfer by Gen. Schofield of Cox's come necessary. division of the 23d corps across from On the last day of January, Grant Federal Point to Smithfield, whence directed Gen. Thomas to send a cavalry they advanced on the right bank of expedition, under Gen. Stoneman, from the river through swampy and difficult East Tennessee to penetrate South Carground to the rear of Fort Anderson. olina, well down toward Columbia, to Early on the morning of the 18th of destroy the railroads and miliFebruary, Porter began and kept up tary resources of the country, during the day a heavy fire upon the and return, if he was able, to East Tenfort. Schofield, meanwhile, was work- nessee by way of Salisbury, N. C., reing in the rear of the rebels, to cut leasing our prisoners tiere, if possible. them off; but during the night they Of the feasibility of : his latter, howabandoned the fort, which was occu- ever, Gen. Stoneman was to judge. pied by our forces the next morning. Sherman's movements, Grant had no

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