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abandonment of this contest-an aban- only indicate a few of the more importdonment of the grounds upon which ant acts, and must refer the reader, it had been undertaken. If this is so, who desires full information, to the who is to answer for the hundreds of works containing the official reports thousands of men who had been slain and documents. Nothing of moment in the war? Who was to answer for occurred during the month of Decemthem before the bar of heaven?" ber.* In January, 1865, a resolution

The measure was decided upon by was passed, requesting the president to the action of Virginia; and the reply give notice of the termination of the to all contradiction and inconsistency Reciprocity treaty with Canada. Other was, the stern necessity of the case. topics occupied the attention of both Unpalatable as was the fact, it was Houses during the balance of the sesnevertheless the last resource. White sion; such as military arrests, habeas men could not be had; the blacks must corpus, confiscation, reconstruction, etc. be tried; and so the blacks were called The Freedman's Bureau was establish. upon to volunteer; the slaves were in- ed, after considerable debate and convited to fight for the people who had ference, just at the close of the session. doomed them to everlasting bondage! The tariff bill was modified, a bill for The slaves, however, manifested any. a loan of $600,000,000 was passed, and thing but alacrity to engage in the con various other bills of less consequence, test; and the rebel leaders had to en- received due attention. dure not only this mortifying result, By far, however, the most important but also the conviction that the day had action of Congress, during the 'session, passed when their humiliation on this was the passage, on the 31st of Janupoint could be of any avail towards ary, of the resolution for the filling up the ranks of Lee's depleted Constitutional amendment abol

ishing slavery. This resolution had As we have stated (p. 507), the passed the Senate, early in the previous Thirty-eighth Congress began its se session, February 10th, 1864; but cond session in December, 1864. This coming up in the House in June, had was the short session of only about failed to receive the requisite two-thirds three months in extent, and the vote (p. 465). A motion for reconsidtime was spent in the usual course of eration was made, and laid upon the legislative proceedings. It is not ne table. It was again brought before cessary to go into details here; we can the House early in the present session,


and was debated with much earnestness * The rebel congress, just before its breaking up in March, issued a long, supplicating appeal, in which and at great length. It was finally they sought to infuse fresh courage into the hearts of adopted by a vote of 119 to 56, and those who sympathised with them, and in which also, while using language of the most confident character, they plainly betrayed to the observant reader, that * On the 19th of December, 1864, Mr. Lincoln issued their words were words merely and nothing else. For a proclamation, calling for 200,000 men. this document, see Appleton's American Annual to provide for deficiencies in the former call in July, Cyclopædiafor 1865, pp. 195–198.

and also for possible needs in the spring campaign.


This was

was expressed in the following terms: legislatures met. Before the 4th of

Be it resolved by the Senate and March, the close of Mr. Lincoln's first House of Representatives of the United term of office, eighteen states had given States of America in Congress assem- their approval of the amendment. bled, two-thirds of both houses concur- Three states, Delaware, Kentucky, and ring, That the following article be pro. New Jersey rejected it.* posed to the legislatures of the several About the middle of February, Mr. states as an amendment to the Consti- Fessenden, secretary of the treasury, tution of the United States, which, made the following statement in regard when ratified by three-fourths of said to the national debt: Aggregate debt, legislatures, shall be valid, to all in. bearing interest in coin, $1,087,556,438 tents and purposes, as a part of the 80; interest, $63,433,131 45. Debt said Constitution, namely:

bearing interest in lawful money, $608, 570,952 44; interest, $29,698,770 41.

Debt on which interest has ceased, Sec. 1. Neither slavery nor involun. $350,570 09. Legal tender debt, beartary servitude, except as a punishment ing no interest, $433,160,569. Fracfor crime, whereof the party shall have tional currency, $24,960,913 93. Total, been duly convicted, shall exist within $2,153,735,444 26. Total interest, the United States, or any place subject $93,131,901 86. Early in the follow. to their jurisdiction. Sec. 2. Congress ing month, Mr. Fessenden having reshall have power to enforce this article signed, the Hon. Hugh McCulloch, of by appropriate legislation."*

Indiana, was appointed secretary of This important matter was now the treasury. transferred to the people, who, acting We may fitly put on record, in closthrough the legislatures of the several ing the present chapter, the assumpstates were to confirm or reject the tion, by Andrew Johnson, of his posiamendment to the Constitution. The votes of twenty-seven states were needed

* On the 18th of December, 1865, Mr. Seward offici.

ally announced from the state department that the to complete the required three-fourths amendment to the Constitution had been adopted. of the whole, in order to make the From this document it appears, that the states of Nli. amendment a part of the law of the West Virginia, Ohio, Missouri, Nevada, Indiana, Lou

, land. We


mention here, that isiana, Minnesota, Winconsin, Vermont, Tennessee, ArIllinois took the lead, on the 1st of kansas, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Maine, Kansas,

Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Caro February, in ratifying the amendment, lina, Alabama, North Carolina, and Georgia, by their and was followed by Maryland, the legislatures ratified the proposed amendment. The same day, and by other states as their twenty-seven, as just named, being three-fourths, had

whole number of states being thirty-six, of which

ratified the amendment, Mr. Seward, in accordance * The House was crowded with expectant observers, with the duties of his office, “ certified that the amend. and when the speaker announced the vote, it was re- ment aforesaid has become valid, to all intents and ceived with enthusiasm, and despite of all parliamen- purposes, as part of the Constitution of the United tary rules, clapping of hands, cheering, waving of hats States.” For Mr. Sumner's resolution, in the Senate, and handkerchiefs prevailed for some time. On mo on this subject, see Appleton's " American Annual Oy tion the House at once adjourned.

clopædia" for 1866, p. 125.





tion as vice-president of the United hang above his head, and the sunlight States, and also the inaugural ceremo- broke through the clouds and fell upon nies connected with Mr. Lincoln's him with a glory, afterwards felt to entrance upon the expected four years have been an emblem of the martyr's of additional service to his country as crown, which was soon to rest upon his president of the United States. On head.” The oath of office was adthe 4th of March, the Senate being ministered by Chief-justice Chase, in

then in extra session, Mr. John- the presence of the cabinet officers

son indulged himself in a speech heads of bureaus, members of Con before taking the oath. Of this gress, officers of the army and navy, speech, in which he spoke several times and the diplomatic corps. The presi of his “plebeian " origin and position, dent then delivered his inaugural adand of other things quite as imperti- dress from the balcony, the usual place nent to the occasion, the best we can for such a purpose. As this was among say is, that it was in bad taste, and the last documents proceeding from Mr. might much better have been dispensed Lincoln's pen, and as it is rather rewith. “I, a plebian, elected by the markable for its tone and spirit, we give people vice-president of these United the address in full. States, am here to enter upon the dis- “FELLOW-COUNTRYMEN—At this secharge of my duties. . ... I, though cond appearing to take the oath of the a plebeian boy, am authorized by the presidential office, there is less occasion principles of the government under for an extended address than there was which I live, to feel proudly conscious at the first. Then, a statement, some. that I am a man," etc. Mr. Johnson what in detail, of a course to be pur. thereupon took the oath of office and sued, seemed very fitting and proper. the Senate adjourned.

Now, at the expiration of four years, The scene presented at the second during which public declarations have inaguration of Abraham Lincoln was been constantly called forth on every noted as a very striking one. “The point and phase in the great contest morning had been inclement,” says Mr. which still absorbs the attention and Raymond, "storming so violently that engrosses the energies of the nation, up

to a few minutes before twelve o'clock little that is new could be presented. it was supposed that the inaugural ad. The progress of our arms, upon which dress would have to be delivered in the all else chiefly depends, is as well known Senate chamber. But the people had to the public as to myself, and it is, I gathered in immense numbers before trust, reasonably satisfactory and enthe capitol in spite of the storm, and couraging to all. With high hope for just before noon the rain ceased and the future, no prediction in regard to it the clouds broke away, and, as the is ventured. president took the oath of office, the “On the occasion corresponding to blue sky appeared above, a small white this four years ago, all thoughts were cloud, like a hovering bird, seemed to anxiously directed to an impending

1 865.

civil war. All dreaded it; all sought to swered; that of neither has been an. avoid it. While the inaugural address swered fully. The Almighty has His was being delivered from this place, own purposes. 'Woe unto the world bedevoted altogether to saving the Union cause of offences ! for it must needs be without war, insurgent agents were in that offences come, but woe to that man the city seeking to destroy it without by whom the offence cometh. If we

war—seeking to dissolve the shall suppose that American slavery is

Union, and divide the effects, by one of these offences which, in the negotiation. Both parties deprecated providence of God, must needs come, war; but one of them would make but which, having continued through war rather than let the nation survive; His appointed time, He now wills to reand the other would accept war rather move, and that he gives to both North than let it perish ; and the war came. and South this terrible war, as the woe

“One-eighth of the whole popula- due to those by whom the offence came, tion were colored slaves, not distributed shall we discern therein any departure generally over the Union, but localized from those Divine attributes which the in the southern part of it. These believers in a living God always ascribe slaves constituted a peculiar and power to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently ful interest. All knew that this inter: |do we pray, that this mighty scourge of est was, somehow, the cause of the war. war may speedily pass away. Yet, if To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend God wills that it continue until all the this interest, was the object for which wealth piled by the bondman's two the insurgents would rend the Union by hundred and fifty years of unrequited war; while the government claimed no toil, shall be sunk, and until every drop right to do more than to restrict the of blood drawn with the lash shall be territorial enlargement of it. Neither paid by another drawn with the sword, party expected for the war the magni. as was said three thousand years ago, tude or the duration which it has al- so, still it must be said, the judgments ready attained. Neither anticipated of the Lord are true and righteous altothat the cause of the conflict might gether.' cease with, or even before, the conflict “ With malice toward none, with itself should cease. Each looked for an charity for all, with firmness in the easier triumph, and a result less funda- right, as God gives us to see the right, mental and astounding. Both read the let us strive on to finish the work we same Bible, and pray to the same God; are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; and each invokes His aid against the to care for him who shall have borne other. It may seem strange that any the battle, and for his widow, and his men should dare to ask a just God's as orphans; to do all which may

achieve sistance in wringing their bread from and cherish a just and a lasting peace the sweat of other men's faces; but let among ourselves and with all nations." us judge not, that we be not judged. This brief but touching address havThe prayer of both could not be an. | ing been delivered, a national salute




was fired, and Mr. Lincoln, seated in an off quietly and calmly, and the presiopen barouche with Senator Foster, of dent had good reason to look forward the committee of arrangements, was to a successful issue of the great conescorted through Pennsylvania Avenue test and a return of peace, for which to the White House. Everything passed he and all true patriots ardently longed.


18 6 5.


Grant's orders to Sherman and his reply - Further orders — Arrangements in regard to Schofield and his co

operating force — Sherman's preliminary movements - March begun on the 1st of February – Advance of the army across the Salkahatchie, to Orangeburg, and thence to Columbia, S. C. — The city burned and pillaged by rebel cavalry — Charleston evacuated by Hardee, February 18th - State and condition of the city – Fort Anderson on Cape Fear River - Attack - Abandoned by the rebels — Wilmington captured – Results of the capture – Grant's directions to Gen. Thomas — Further movements of the right and left wings of Sherman's army towards Fayetteville, N. C. — The town entered, March 11th – Sherman's views as to his position – Movement towards Goldsborough - Advance of Schofield and Terry - Hardee, and contest at Averysborough - Battle at Bentonville with Johnston - Losses — Goldsborough taken Sherman's conference with Grant - The march and its results - Excellent conduct of the army.


GEN. SHERMAN, as we have already | Raleigh, N. C., and thence to report to noted (see p. 492), having reached and Grant, which, he estimated, would take occupied Savannab, on the 21st of De about six weeks' time; but that he cember, 1864, was ready almost at once would obey the lieutenant-general's for any further movement toward se order at once, and could reach him by

curing the triumph of our arms. sea as early as the middle of January.

Early in the month, December Grant thereupon, on the 28th of De6th, Gen. Grant, regarding the capture cember, ordered Sherman to make preof Lee's army as the most important parations to start as he proposed, with. operation which required attention, sent out delay, to break up the railroads orders to Sherman, “that, after estab. in North and South Carolina, and join lishing a base on the sea coast, with the armies operating against Richmond necessary garrison, to include all his as soon as he could. artillery and cavalry, to come by water As tending to facilitate his moveto City Point with the balance of his ments, Grant informed Sherman, on command." Sherman, in reply, De the 21st of January, that he had ordercember 16th, stated, that he had ex. ed east, from Tennessee, the 23d corps, pected, on reducing Savannah, to under Gen. Schofield; that that corps march to Columbia, S. C., thence to numbered about 21,000 men; that there

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