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out an effort to preserve it, met in con- anny of the military power, and the vention at Knoxville, May 30th. More still greater tyranny of a corrupt and than a thousand representatives assem- subsidized press. In Memphis, for in

. bled to take counsel in regard to the stance, out of more than 5,000 votes, present crisis. Tke Hon. Thomas Nel- only five freemen, at the risk of their son was chosen president, and addresses lives, cast in Union votes. Numerous were made by Gen. Arnold and Senator other statements were made, showing Johnson. The proceedings were mark- how little of fairness or honesty had ed by earnest, intelligent, outspoken been practised by the leaders in dispatriotism. Secession was denounced, union and rebellion. and the people throughout the state But there was now almost no oppurwere besought to resist it and vote it tunity for redress, or, as was contemdown on the day appointed, June 8th. plated, for separate action. The state

The people of the eastern counties was in the vortex of secession, and nothresponded nobly to the appeal of the ing could rescue it but the strong interconvention. In twenty-nine counties position of the United States govern. the vote reached 32,923 against seces- ment. So far from upholding the indesion, while in its favor were cast 14,780, pendence of their mountain region, the but these were made up fully one-half loyal men of Eastern Tennessee, after by the rebel troops voting without any an ineffectual struggle, were hunted, right whatever. The vote of the entire imprisoned, and driven into exile. state, as proclaimed by Gov. Harris, Thousands crossed the mountains by stood 104,019 för reparation; 47,238 stealth to serve in the ranks of the against. The entire vote in February Union arıny, that they might return to bad been, for rio convention, 70,000, their homes under the flag of the Reagainst, 50,000, and but three secession public, and rescue their families and ists had been elected in the state. friends from the intolerable tyranny Yet, in only four months, Tennessee which oppressed them. The brave and apparently underwent so marvellous a much enduring men of this region were change; fit illustration of what political compelled to bide their time ;* yet it demagogues and schemers can and will was not wholly in silence; for Eastern do to accomplish their wicked ends. Tennessee had men who were able and

The convention was again called to. willing to raise their voices, as well as gether at Greenville, June 17th. A their arnis, in her defence. Besides declaration of grievances was adopted, * When Gen. Schoepf repulsed the rebels at Camp in which was a full recital of the course Wild Cat (see p. 89) the East Tennesseeans espected

him to come to their aid. Deceived by the rebel re pursued by rebels and traitors. In no ports of their great force at Bowling Green, Schoepf, part of the state but East Tennessee, it after advancing two or three days in the direction of

Cumberland Gap, retreated towards the Ohio, strewwas set forth, was the recent election

ing the road with wrecked wagons, dead horses, etc., free, and no where else was the Union and leaving East Tennessee to her fate, much to the allowed to be spoken of and advocated. disappointment of those who loved the cause of

loyalty and devotion to the common interests of our Loyal men were overawed by the tyr. country.

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Ch. III.)

POSITION OF LOYAL MEN AND REBELS.

47

was

Brownlow, Nelson and others, Andrew prepared themselves for this issue by Johnson stood prominently forward. many years' laborious efforts; they had The high position attained by this last, forced it upon the loyal supporters of in consequence of the assassination of the Constitution and laws of the United President Lincoln, in 1865, will justify States; they had driven up to the a brief notice here of his life and career. point of fury and hatred the larger por

Andrew Johnson born at tion of the people of the South, and had Raleigh, N. C., in 1808. While very compelled them to face the inevitable young he lost his father, and was de result. And now it was to be tested, prived of all advantages of education. whether this great Republic was worthy He was apprenticed to a tailor, and of its name and place in the family served out his full term, seren years. of nations, or whether it was to be In 1826, he removed to Greenville, broken in pieces, and become a subject Tennessee, where he served in several for scorn and contempt among the local offices. Having, by the severest enemies of freedom throughout the labor and determination, improved him- world. self in every possible way, reading and Such being the issue, and such, as all studying at night, he was advanced men now saw, being the only mode of still further in popular favor. In 1841, settlement, it may be well here to note he went into the state senate; two briefly the relative position of the paryears later, he entered Congress; was ties concerned in this memorable conelected governor of Tennessee in 1853, flict, and to seek to form a clear concepand again in 1855 ; and in 1857, was tion of the prospects of those who had chosen United States Senator for the ranged themselves on the side of law long term, six years. In politics, John. and order, and on the side of disunion son ranked among the old Jacksonian and revolution. democracy; and when the rebellion As regards population, according broke out, he took his stand firmly on to the census of 1860 (see vol. iii., the side of law and order.

p. 553), the free states and territories Evidently, the sword was now fully contained nineteen millions, the slave drawn. The question at issue was to states something over twelve be settled, not by words, not by appeals millions. In addition to all on either hand, not by menaces or the free states, which were for the threatenings, not at all, in fact, but by Union, of course, Delaware, Mary. the stern, fearful, last arbitrament, that land, Kentucky and Missouri were of blood. They who loved their coun. ranked in the same connection; the try, and its honor and integrity, had no population of the loyal over the secealternative; they had but to accept the ding states was, consequently, rather issue thrust upon them, or see the more than two to one.

In the arts of Union rent in pieces, and national pros- industry, in commerce, trade, manufacperity swallowed up in the abyss. The tures, shipping, etc., the free states were leaders in "he southern conspiracy had largely superior. In these respects, and

1861.

in the universally recognized claim to those particular things in which which all established governments have southern men excelled. The citizen upon the fealty of their people, there soldiers were excellent in their way can be no doubt that the loyal states but they were bred in time of peace, stood, not only before the world, but in and never expected to be employed fact, in the position best calculated to otherwise than in the customary discommand sympathy and enforce the plays in time of peace. requirements of the supreme law of the To this must be added the fact of the land. But, while all this was true, and vastly superior position of the “Conno less important than true, it must be federacy” for self-defence, for direct borne in mind, that the so-called “Con communication with each and all its federacy” had several very decided parts, and for facility of intercourse by advantages over the Union and its means of railroads and telegraphs. defenders.

The secessionists had long been preThe people of the South, principally paring for the contest; they understood owing to the fact of their being slave. thoroughly the topography of the holders, were not only bred up in aris-country; they had made their calculatocratic notions of superiority, and in tions with great shrewdness and abilcontemptuous disregard for labor and ity; and, counting largely upon the its adjuncts, but were trained from boy- sympathy and co-operation of many in hood in the use of fire-arms, and in the North as well as in the old world, various kinds of exercises fitting they were ready to enter with all their them for military life and its excite- heart and soul into the war for disunion ments. In the war of 1812, and in and separation from those whom they that with Mexico, the South furnished professed to, and probably did, hate nearly twice as many soldiers as the and despise. The North was wholly North. So long as the system of un-prepared for war; the government

; slavery prevailed, and the class of labor. had everything, almost, to learn ers was such as rendered it degrading, armies had to be created, in fact; and in their eyes, for a white man to work, the vast distances between various the masters were of course at liberty to points of attack, where to pierce the devote themselves to the fascinating confederacy and break down its miliemployments of hunting, racing; con- tary power, increased immensely the tests of skill, and the like; and “the difficulties in the way of Mr. Lincoln chivalry” of the South was rarely de- and his advisers. And further, believficient in zeal and spirit where its ing, as the rebels did, that“cotton was peculiar qualifications had room for king," they were so persuaded of its display. At the North, on the other importance to the world, especially to hand, the great mass of the population England and France, that they expected were engaged in the peaceful avocations the great powers of Europe to break of life, and had no time, even if they up directly any blockade which might bad the inclination, to devote attention be attempted to be put in force by the

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