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pear until 1855) is the result of a systematic exploration of the ancient remains of that State, undertaken by the direction and at the expense of the American Antiquarian Society; although Mr. Lapham received no other compensation for his services than the expenses actually incurred during the survey. After the survey had been completed, the Smithsonian Institution defrayed the cost of printing the work. Mr. Lapham claims to have been the first discoverer of the effigy mounds of Wisconsin, and the same year (1836) in which he noticed these structures he called public attention to them through the newspapers. He devotes six chapters to a consideration and description of the ancient mounds on the Western shore of Lake Michigan, the basins of the Pishtaka, Rock, Neenah, and Wisconsin Rivers, and the works in the vicinity of Lake Superior and other localities; chapter seven describes the contents of the mounds, gives a phrenological examination of the crania, and illustrations of aboriginal art. In the last chapter (VIII.) we have the conclusions of the author derived from the study of the works. This work forms a very important addition to the literature and study of the subject.
In the same year Schoolcraft's great work on the "History of the Indian Tribes" was published by act of Congress. This work is in six volumes, profusely illustrated. Although expressly devoted to a consideration of the prospects and condition of the Indian tribes, yet considerable space is given to antiquities. Although this work is a national one, and of world-wide reputation, it is only valuable in so far as it relates to the general subject which it is designed to portray. He regards the Western earth-works to be the remains of an Indian empire which fell by division, anarchy, and mutual distrust, (Vol. IV., p 148).
References, in certain publications, to Capt. L. Sitgreave's Report on the Zuni and Colorado Rivers, published by Act of Congress, 10 leave an impression that this work contains valu10 Report of an Expedition down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers, by Captain L. Sitgreaves. Accompanied by maps, sketches, views, and illustrations. Washington: Robert Armstrong, Public Printer. 1853. pp. 198. Plates 82.
able information to archæologist. It is a valuable report on local natural history, but possesses no other interest. Of its many excellent plates only one illustrates antiquity.
The second great work which has gained respect abroad for American erudition is "Types of Mankind," " first published in 1854. The object or design of this work is set forth in the title-page, and the names associated with its production are a sufficient guarantee that it is of more than usual value. The authors were engaged in an old field of investigation, although they proceeded upon new lines of thought, largely discarding previous methods of research, and amassed a vast amount of evidence, which alone would cause it to remain a standard work of reference. The conclusions drawn by the authors have been challenged, and many of them still must be assigned to debatable ground. The book is of great value to both the anthropologist and archæologist. It belongs to the era of generalization, and has assisted in establishing facts, or drawing accepted conclusions. Chapter nine, consisting of twenty.seven pages, treats of the aboriginal races of America; that part relating to the mound-builders is taken from "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley ;" and chapter thirteen (54 pages) treats of comparative anatomy of the races, giving anatomical deductions of ancient as well as tribal races ofAmerica. Dr. Nott concluded that the earth-works, shellbanks, &c., furnished evidence of a very high antiquity, and that the condition in which the skeletons of the mounds is found, together with the peculiar anatomical structure of the few remaining crania, prove that the mound-builders were both ancient and indigenous to this country.12
11 Types of Mankind: or, Ethnological Researches, based upon the Ancient Monuments, Paintings, Sculptures, and Crania of Races, and upon their Natural, Geographical, Philological, and Biblical History: illustrated by selections from the inedited papers of Samuel George Morton, M.D., and by additional contributions from Prof. Agassiz; W. Usher, M. D.; and Prof. H. S. Patterson, M. D.; By J. C. Nott and Geo. R. Gliddon. Tenth Edition. Philadelphia and London. 1871. pp. 738. Wood-cuts 862. Maps and charts 3.
12 Three years later Nott and G iddo followed up the "Types of Mankind" with another work entitled "Indigenous Races of the Earth; or, new chapters of Ethnological Inquiry; including monographs on special departments of Philology, Iconography,
Haven's" Archæology of the United States" 13 appeared in 1856. It is a résumé of the books which had been previously written on United States Archæology. It is important in that it gives a history of the literature on the subject. The writer displays a thorough knowledge in the department he has so ably presented, and while the work makes no attempt to occupy the room of any other, it affords much information and is a safe guide to the student in selecting his works of referThe first part gives an outline of the general opinions respecting the origin of population in the new world; part two gives an account of the early discoveries of ancient remains together with the literature on the subject, and the last part is a recapitulation of the principal points of archæological deductions that have been with reasonable certainty established.
Dr. Wilson's "Prehistoric Man" 14 first appeared in 1862, revised in 1865, again revised and enlarged and published in two volumes in 1876. The last or third edition has much of the original work rewritten, some chapters replaced with new matter, others re-cast, and a general re-arrangement of the whole. This standard and well-known work displays exact scholarship and shows the author well versed and thoroughly competent to speak, although many exceptions are taken to some of his points. He discusses the mound-builders and other questions of special importance to the American archæologist.
Craniascopy, Paleontology, Pathology, Archæology. Comparative Geography, and Natural History: contributed by Alfred Maury, Francis Pulszky, and J. Arthur Meigs, M.D. With communications from Profs. Leidz and Agassiz. Presenting fresh investigations, documents, and materials; by J. C. Nott, M.D., and Geo. R. Gliddon. Philadelphia and London. 1857. pp. 650. Wood-cuts 189. Plates 9. This work has not been as well received as the previous one. It contains nothing particularly new on American Archæology, although it is well worth possessing.
13 Archæology of the United States. Or Sketches, Historical and Bibliographical, or the progress of information and opinion respecting vestiges of Antiquity in the United States. By Samuel F. Haven. Accepted for publication, January, 1855. pp. 168. Smithsonian Contribution.
14 Prehistoric Man. Researches into the Origin of Civilization in the Old and New World. By Daniel Wilson, LL.D. Second edition. London: Macmillan and Co. 1865. pp. 635. 69 illustrations.
Col. Whittlesey's "Ancient Mining " 15 was published in 1863 by the Smithsonian. Publications on ancient mining are not numerous. This work of Col. Whittlesey's is quoted as authority on that subject, and is the only work on the ancient mining of the lakes that is generally known. A history of early references to the use of copper among the Indians of that region is given under the introductory remarks. Then follows a detailed description of the ancient mines, together with the implements found in them. The mines are divided. into three groups, and each receives full attention. The mines particularly interesting are the Waterbury, Central, and Minnesota. Col. Whittlesey being a very close observer, we find that he notes every particular which would add to the interest, as well as help solve the problem.
Sir John Lubbock's "Prehistoric Times " 16 is a valuable hand-book on general archæology. It has been favorably received by all archæologists, and, probably, for its size, contains as much information as any book ever published. Chapter seven (39 pages) is devoted to North American antiquities. It is principally made up from Squier and Davis' " Ancient Monuments," although due credit is given to other works used in the compilation.
Col. Whittlesey's "Ancient Earthworks of the Cuyahoga Valley" has not received the notice it justly merits. This may be owing to its not having been placed on the market. It gives in brief a history of some of the surveys of Ohio, the ancient inhabitants of the Mississippi Valley, the eras of primitive man in Europe and America, describes eleven forts, speaks of domiciles of mound-builders, ancient pits, isolated mounds, rock inscriptions, serpent effigies, flint quarries, and relics. The first plate illustrates the course of the Cuyahoga,
15 Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior. By Charles Whittlesey. Accepted for publication, April, 1862. Map. 21 illustrations and 29 pages.
16 Prehistoric Times, as illustrated by the Ancient Remains, and the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages. By John Lubbock, F.R.S. London and Edinburgh. 1865. pp. 512. Figures 156.
17 Ancient Earth Forts of the Cuyahogo Valley Ohio, by Col. Chas. Whittlesey, President of the Western Reserve and Northern Ohio Historical Society. Published for the Society by a Gentleman of Cleveland. Cleveland, O. 1871. pp. 40. Plates 9.
and marks the localities of the ancient remains along its borders. The surveys here given were made in 1847, '50, '69, and '70.
During the year 1871 J. D. Baldwin finished preparing for the press his "Ancient America." 18 The object of the work was to give a summary of all that was known concerning North and South American antiquities. The first four chapters, comprising sixty-three pages, are assigned to the moundbuilders; nine pages of the appendix to notes on the Northmen and Welsh in America, and the remaining portion of the book to the ruins of Mexico, Central America, and Peru. This work is now of no particular value as it has been supplanted by larger, better and more accurate works.
Following the above came "How the World was Peopled," 19 presenting no new facts, evidently intended to stem the tide of scientific conclusions; but it did not cause even a ripple, for the steady flow of scientific discovery buried it under the waves. Although the work contains some things worth noticing, still it is to be classed with the speculations of Rafinesque and other burlesques on science. In speaking of the ruins of the mound-builders he says, "The Pimos of the Gila, and the other Puebla Indians of New Mexico and Arizona, are living descendants of the builders of some of these casas grandes (great edifices), none of whose progeny are now found farther east, and north of the Rio Grande. But the general character of all these ancient ruins resembles those which are scattered over Mongolia and other parts of Central Asia, and their outlines identify them as the work of the same race" (page 154). No difficulty deters him, as may be illustrated in the following extract. "The first inhabitants of America were, I think, of Scythian descent. The descendants of Japheth, who occupied all Central Asia, and the great plains of Southeastern Europe, through the influence of cli
18 Ancient America, in notes on American Archæology. By John D. Baldwin, A.M. With illustrations. New York. Harper and Brothers. 1872. pp. 299. 70 illustrations, 19 How the World was Peopled. Ethnological Lectures by Rev. Edward Fontaine. New York. D. Appleton & Co. 1872. pp. 341. 15 wood cuts.