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schools have been maintained, until number of students preparing for the now practically the entire Indian ministry, but statistics do not warrant school population is provided for, and, the assumption, for there has been a except in some mission schools, under steady growth through all this period, governmental control. In 1911 there though not so large an increase in prowere 11,000 Indian children in the portion to the population as many public schools of the country; 24,500 other schools show. In law schools in 223 day schools, 79 reservation the increase, over the same years, has boarding schools and 35 non-reserva- been from 28 to 116; in the number of tion schools, and 4,300 in mission students, from 1,653 to 19,615. Medschools - a total of 39,800, an in
ical schools, all classes, increased from crease of 2,000 in one year. The 90 in 1880 to 122 in 1911; students, whole policy of the Government is from 6,194 in 1870 to 19,146 in 1911. now directed toward a fusion of In
In 1873 there were opened 5 schools dian educational methods with those for the training of nurses, in connecof the general educational system, in tion with general hospitals in as many view of the fact that, in a few genera- cities; in 1911 there were 1,129 traintions, the Indian will be entirely fused ing schools, and 32,636 pupils. Dental into citizenship.
and pharmacy schools show an inThe number of pupils in private crease of about 6,000 students each, elementary schools, in 1910, was over the number in their opening 1,316,900; and in the 1,979 private high ;
years; veterinary schools show an inschools and academies, in 1911, 130,- crease of 2,000. 649 — 61,298 boys and 69,351 girls. Industrial schools began with the In college preparatory schools there opening of the Rensselaer Polytechnic were 16,301 boys and 6,245 girls; total Institute in 1824; the founding of 22,546. Religious denominations con- Cooper Institute in 1859, the Pratt trol 1,280 of the 1,979 schools. It will Institute in 1887; and hundreds of be readily seen how, whatever the schools of like character have folraison d'etre that originally prompted lowed. The introduction into schools the establishment of private schools, and colleges of scientific, engineering, religious preferences and the natural technological and industrial departdesire of many churches for sec- ments or courses, have made the last tarian instruction for their children, half-century an era of industrial trainare now prevailing motives.
ing. Trade schools, apprenticeship Of professional schools, the 193 the- schools, coöperative schools, continuological seminaries had, in 1911, 10,- ation schools,* Young Men's Chris834 students, as against 3,254 students,
* Arthur J. Jones, The Continuation in 80 seminaries, in 1870. One hears
the United States, Bulletin Bureau of Education a great deal about the decreasing (1907).
tian Association classes, textile emies. There should be added beschools, and correspondence schools tween 7,000 and 8,000 students taking have followed one another in bewil- business courses in normal schools, dering array, and stand as a witness colleges and universities. A new evoto the enormous demand of modern lution is taking place which carries: industry for trained workers. The commercial education into advanced agricultural and mechanical col- fields
fields — the School of Commerce and leges," the outgrowth of the Morrill Finance in New York City and the Act of 1862, have had an almost revo- Wharton School in the University of lutionary effect along the lines indi- Pennsylvania. cated. The number of students in this There is time only for allusion class of colleges alone was 89,188, an to the rapid and remarkable spread of increase of 10.6 per cent. in one year. the domestic science,* or“ home makIndeed, the augmented interest in all ing,” idea; to the incorporation of phases of agricultural education is military training into public schools one of the most significant and hope- and colleges, and the interesting New ful movements in our recent history. York City Nautical School, which, In forestry, only short inconsequential since 1875, has been conducted on courses were given in a few agricul- board the St. Mary's sloop-of-war, an tural schools previous to the estab- annual trans-Atlantic summer cruise lishment of the Yale Forest School in constituting part of the course of 1900. In 1911 there were 18 colleges, training; to the marvelous and far5 graduate schools, and 2 professional reaching ramifications of art and muschools giving instruction in forestrysical education in various courses and exclusively, while there were at least schools — there being 55,000 students
25 college courses in forestry included in private schools alone, in 1911; nor under the general names of botany or to the humane work for the deaf horticulture.
and blind - Miss Winifred Holt's From the time when President Gar- “ Lighthouse" at New York City befield — as college president, not Pres- ing a peculiarly beneficent phase of ident of the United States - declared care for the latter class. that there was room in the educational It was about a quarter of a censystem for the practical “ business
tury ago that James Bryce wrote of college,” the standard, as well as the the American colleges and universinumber, has steadily increased. In
ties: " Of all the institutions of the 1911 there were 278,125 enrolled stu- country
they are making dents in 2,966 different schools - 600 the swiftest progress and have the regular commercial schools, 614 pri- brightest promise for the future. vate high schools and academies, and
* Anna M. Cooley, Domestic Art in Women's 1,752 public high schools and acad- Education (1911).
They are supplying exactly those Vassar College was founded, has things which European critics have been the rise of colleges for women, hitherto found lacking to America, the admission of women to annexes, and are contributing to her political and the development of the co-educaas well as to her contemplative life tional policy.* elements of inestimable worth."* Indirect education, or the exten
What he remarked then is infinitely sion of educational advantages to nearer the mark to-day, which mere the home and community is of benestatistics for 1911 cannot do more ficent and far-reaching purpose. It than skeletonize when they state that is responsible for the origin of the in the 145 colleges for men there was slogan, “a wider use of the school an undergraduate attendance of 37, plant,”'t for the present time-waste 144; in the 97 colleges for women,
of idle schoolhouses was, in 1912, 18,985; and in the 339 co-educational about 64 per cent., which is not only institutions 116,585 -- 74,305 men and a waste but a positive deterioration. 42,280 women. In graduate depart- But a happy change is taking place, ments there were 10,858 resident stu
for when the children scamper gleedents and 970 non-resident. The fully out of many a schoolhouse number of colleges has more than
door, other and perhaps more appredoubled since the Civil War; the to
ciative classes of persons are ready tal is now 581. The standards of to take their place to the rhythm admission have been advanced; the
of another slogan —“ the wider course of study has been radically use of the school idea.” The growth changed from the early prescribed, of the “social centre," the “civic single course to the elective systems centre,” the " recreation centre" of infinite variety, and some recog
is nothing short of marvelous, and nized defects of electives are being its practical applications almost remedied by the well-organized numberless. Evening schools, both grouping of subjects, in which Yale public and private, were multiplied took the initiative in 1911; entirely with startling rapidity when once new fields for research work have begun, the pupils in the city public been occupied in the universities; evening schools alone numbering and efficiency of management has 374,364 in 1910. Evening schools been greatly promoted — the selec
were started in a crude way, in the tion of presidents, for instance, hav
50's, but their famous and modern ing passed through the clerical and variant, the “ Continuation School ” scholastic stages to the present ex
began with the Twentieth century. ecutive qualification. Probably the
* Marion Talbot, The Education of Women most notable change since 1865, when (1910).
* See the book bearing this title, by Clarence The American Commonwealth, vol. ii., p. 553. E. Perry of The Russell Sage Foundation (1910).
or colonial possessions. And it is within the last half century that the educational forces of Christian missions* have been developed — an increase not unworthy of comparison with our internal, National expansion of education; so that it may now be truly said that, in the pregnant period we have been reviewing, the United States has indeed become a great world-power as an educator.
Summer and vacation schools of all kinds are attended not only by teachers but by multitudes of others who can find no other leisure for study. Free public lectures, designed primarily for working men and working women, have been established in many cities — the first in New York City dating back to 1888; in 1910, over a thousand different courses and subjects were attended by nearly a million people. Study clubs and reading circles at home and in schoolrooms are, again, of almost infinite variety and are directed by school authorities, the university extension system or correspondence schools — the latter, which is perhaps better adapted to individual teaching, being started or at least vitalized by the Chautauqua movement in 1879, and given special effectiveness by President Harper about the same time; teaching by correspondence is now carried on both by such schools, pure and simple, and by many colleges and universities as a subordinate department. With all these and many other opportunities for education of every description, there is no longer a reason why any individual, home, or community should go untaught or uncultured.
And may there not be a third amplification of
slogan — the wider influence of American Education,” which is fast extending educational benefits to Alaska, Porto Rico, the Philippines, in fact to all our
territorial or colonial
* Charles F. Thwing, Education in the Far East (1909), and Education in the United States Since the Civil War, chap. xiv., pp. 280-304.
† Besides the books and reports already referred to, a few among the hundreds of works of value to all interested in education may be mentioned: G. Stanley Hall, Youth: Its Education, Regimen and Hygiene (1907) and Educa. tional Problems (1911); Charles W. Eliot, Educational Reform (1905); Herman H. Horne, The Philosophy of Education (1904); Charles De. Garmo, Principles of Secondary Education (3 vols., 1907–1910); G. W. A. Luckey, The Professional Training of Secondary Teachers in the United States (1903); Samuel T. Dutton, School Management (1908); James R. Hughes and L. R. Klemm, Progress of Education in the Century (1907); Eugene Davenport, Education for Efficiency (1909); Paul Monroe, A Text-Book in the History of Education (1905); Charles F. Thwing, A History of Higher Education in America (1906); J. J. Findlay, The School: An Introduction to the Study of Education (1912); Lida B. Earhart, Teaching Children to Study (1909); Edwin A. Kirkpatrick, The Individual in the Making (1911); Ernest N. Henderson, A TextBook in the Principles of Education (1910); William C. Ruediger, The Principles of Education (1910); Elmer E. Brown, The Making of our Middle Schools (1907); Jeremiah W. Jenks, Citizenship and the Schools (1906); Warren R. Briggs, Modern American School Buildings (1902); Fletcher B. Dressler, American Schoolhouses (1910); Edmund M. Wheelwright, School Architecture (1901); Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. xxxiii., no. i. (1909); F. T. Carleton, Education and Industrial Evolution (1908).
1865 – 1912.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF RELIGIOUS IDEALS AND THE GROWTH OF RELIGIOUS
Our third religious revival and its effects - The religious revival of 1875–1880 — Materialism, rationalism, and
scepticism as modifiers of religious thought — The consequent change in church activity – Relative denominational growth — Religious statistics.
Religion had entered so thoroughly movement was the union of the leadinto our National life during the first ing evangelical denominations in its half of the Nineteenth century that it support, a union the like of which had was not disturbed by the Civil War not been known since the beginning as it had been by the Revolution of '76. of the century. One effect of this reThere were, to be sure, sharp cleav- vival was that it placed the churches ages North and South in most of the in an advanced position of general denominations, owing to the slavery religious interest and enabled them question, and, when the final appeal to better to withstand the generally subarms came, the dissevered branches
versive influences of war in the years were found standing in political align- immediately following. The exigenment with the section in which they cies of the war served also to awaken existed; but both were still in unison Christian sympathy and to unite the in their religious faiths and doctrines.
Nation in the bonds of mutual interest A little before the outbreaking of the and activity in humanitarian measwar (in 1858) occurred what is con- ures for the care of the soldiers in the sidered as the third great religious field. Remarkable work of this kind, revival in the history of this country. on a scale never before known in It was marked by all the intensity of modern warfare, was carried on by purpose that characterized the two the various State soldiers' aid associapreceding revivals (in 1740 and 1792), tions, the Christian Commission, the but it differed from them as the people National Sanitary Association in beof the Nineteenth century differed half of the Union army, and by simifrom those of the Eighteenth. With lar organizations for the soldiers of no less earnestness and devotion on the Confederacy. the part of its promoters, it was more
Another effect of this revival was self-restrained and less demonstra- the increased fraternity of the great tive. A particular feature of this religious bodies, and this, too, was