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C. III.]





and protection to treason only, General infamous and degrading sway of its Harney's course was promptly re- wicked minions in this state. No brave pudiated at Washington, and General and true-hearted Missourian will obey Lyon, ou the 1st of June, was placed the one or submit to the other. Rise, in command of the department. This then, and drive out ignominiously the active and energetic officer, at an inter: invaders, who have dared to desecrate view with Governor Jackson and the soil which your labors have made General Price, on the 11th, positively fruitful, and which is consecrated by refused to agree to any measures other your homes." than those which he had thus far Gen. Lyon, in carrying out his in. steadily been carrying out. He put nostructions from headquarters, not only faith in the professions of the governor issued a proclamation, denouncing the and his sympathizers, and he would action of the governor as setnot listen for a moment to any proposal ting at defiance the authoriwhich looked towards giving up the ties of the United States and consum

vantage ground already held mating his treasonable purposes, but

by the government. He fur- he also resolved to arrest the rebel auther demanded the disarming of the thorities and break up their military state militia and the rejection of the preparations. He moved at once on obnoxious militia bill, and insisted Jefferson City, which was reached on upon the full and unrestricted right of the 15th of June; but he found that the government to take any steps it Jackson had retreated some forty miles deemed necessary, in order to protect above, to Booneville, cutting off the Union men and repress insurrection. telegraph and destroying the railroad

Governor Jackson, thinking these bridges on the route. Gen. Lyon folterms to be “degrading," as be phrased lowed him, and two days afterwards it, issued a proclamation, calling for defeated and dispersed the hostile forces. 50,000 state militia to repel federal in. At the same time, in a proclamation vasion, and to protect life, liberty and the next day, he avowed the most property in Missouri. He acknow. liberal and conciliatory policy towards ledged that the state was still one of all quiet and orderly persons in Misthe United States, and to a certain ex. souri. tent bound to obey the government; It is interesting, in this connection, to but he closed in the following words, take note of the position of affairs in which show plainly the animus at the Western Virginia and Eastern Tennesbottom :-“It is my duty to advise see. Virginia, as previously related, you that your first allegiance is due to (sce p. 22) had, through its unscrupul. your own state, and that you are under ous governor and legislature, been carno obligation whatever to obey the ried into the arms of secession. But unconstitutional edicts of the military there was, notwithstanding, a large despotism which has enthroned itself portion of the people who abhorred the at Wasbington, nor to submit to the course which had been forced upon the

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VOL. IV.-6.

state, and who resolved to resist to the counties west of the Alleghanies, and utmost the designs of the rebels, and to a convention was held at Wheeling, stand by the Union in its integrity. Espe. May 13th, to consider and determine cially was this the case in Western Vir- upon the action requisite in the existginia. In the counties west of the Blue ing crisis. Resolutions were passed, Ridge there were some 10,000 slaves, condemning the ordinance of secession, while in those on the east the number as “unconstitutional, null and void,”

" reached to nearly half a million. The and declaring the annexation to the white population was decidedly more southern confederacy “a plain and numerous in the western part of the palpable violation of the constitution state than elsewhere, and rapid ad of the state, and utterly subversive of vances were being made in the develop the rights and liberties of the good ment of its agricultural and industrial people thereof." Provision was also resources, in comparison with the stag. made for a convention of representanation in the counties more favored in tives of the people, to be held at many respects on the seaboard. That Wheeling, June 11th, in case the ordinextensive western region, bounded by ance of secession should be ratified, as the Alleghany Mountains and the Ohio was proposed, on the 23d of May, River, and bordering on the north upon (see p. 23). Pennsylvania, had little indeed in com- On the day appointed the convention mon with the slave-holding, slave-trad. assembled. Forty counties (five to the ing interests and southern sympathies of east of the Alleghanies) were reprethe eastern division. Thus socially and sented, and the delegates entered upon industrially, as well as geographically, their work, first taking an oath to sup situated, they felt the pressure of taxa- port the Constitution and laws of the tion to be very unequal as compared United States. It was maintained, that with the more favored slave-holders, and the government at Richmond, having they were not prepared to give them- violated the constitution of the state, selves up to joining the secessionists in its authority was thereby annulled, and their mad and wicked purposes against that the offices of all who adhered to the very life of the Republic.

the usurping convention and executive Acting on their convictions, these were, ipso facto, vacant. After a few patriotic Virginians denounced the pro- days' discussion, this view was found ceedings of Governor Letcher and the to prevail, and a declaration, setting secession leaders. A meeting was held forth the motives of the decision, and at Clarksburg, in Harrison county, on an ordinance for the reorganization of

the 22d of April, and the the state government, were passed by

initial step was taken to sepa- a nearly unanimous vote. The declara- . rate Western Virginia from any part or tion was forcible and clear in its statelot in the evil counsels prevailing ments as to the necessity of energetic throughout the rest of the state. Dele action. The ordinance, reorganizing gates were chosen from the various | the state government, provided for the





appointment, by the convention, of a mental authority of the state. And, governor, lieutenant-governor, council, fellow-citizens, it is the assumption of and legislature, composed of the dele that authority upon which we are now gates to the general assembly chosen in about to enter.'' May, and the senators entitled under The legislature met on the 22d of existing laws to seats in the next gene. July; the new government was recog. ral assembly, who should qualify them- nized by the president; two senators, selves by taking a prescribed oath, Messrs. J. S. Carlisle and W. T. Willey, pledging their support to the Constitu- were chosen to take the place of the tion of the United States and the laws seceders, Mason and Hunter (which made in pursuance thereof as the they did on the 13th of July); and the supreme law of the land, anything various enactments were made suitable in the ordinances of the Richmond to the present condition of things. convention to the contrary notwith- Previous to this, General McClellan, standing, and to uphold and defend having resigned his connection with the the government ordained by the con- Ohio and Mississippi Railroad in order vention at Wheeling. F. H. Pierrepont to serve in the army, had been ordered was chosen governor, and inaugurated by the president, to take charge of the next day, June 20th.

military operations west of the AlleIn the governor's inaugural address ghanies; consequently, the defence of he took occasion to speak very plainly Western Virginia was promptly looked of the conduct of the secessionists, and after. On the 26th of May, immedialso of the imperative need of the ately subsequent to the vote on the course which had been adopted by the secession ordinance, General McClellan loyal inhabitants. “We have been issued a stirring proclamation from Cin. driven into the position we occupy to cinnati

, Ohio, setting forth his intenday, by the usurpers at the South, who tions, and urging the people of Virginia have inaugurated this war upon the to join the Union standard. Forces soil of Virginia, and have made it the

* Governor Letcher, on the 14th of June, issued a great Crimea of this, contest. We, re- proclamation to the people of North Western Virginia. presenting the loyal citizens of Virginia, among other things, he besought them to join bim and

the secession party, in such phrase as this :-“By all have been bound to assume the position the sacred ties of consanguinity, by the intermixtures we have assumed to-day, for the pro- of the blood of East and West, by common paternity, tection of ourselves, our wives, our collections and memories of the past, by the relics of

by friendships hallowed by a thousand cherished rechildren and our property. We, I re- the great men of other days, come to Virginia's banpeat, have been driven to assume this ner, and drive the invader from your soil.”

John Letcher's appeals were in vain; the people position; and now we are but recurring rallied under the old dag and defended it on every to the great fundamental principle of occasion.

| One passage from this proclamation may here be our fathers, that to the loyal people of quoted, as bearing on a subject of great perplexity to a state belongs the law-making power the government :-“Your houses, your families, and of that state. The loyal people are property are safe under our protection. All your

rights shall be religiously protected. Notwithstanding entitled to tbe government and

govern. | all that has been said by the traitors to induce you to

But 1861,

were pushed forward, and in conjunc. in front of the rebel entrenchments on tion with Virginia troops entered upon the road. So well was the enemy's active operations against the rebels. position defended by art and natural Colonel Kelly's movement upon Graf. advantages, that a direct attack was ton and Philippi we have already considered impracticable without the noticed (see p. 34), as also that of certainty of great loss. )

Colonel Colonel Wallace across Hampshire Rosecrans, with about 3,000 men, was County.

then sent across the hills southeasterly Gen. McClellan ascertaining that the to attack the enemy's rear, while enemy had taken post at Laurel Hill, McClellan was to attack the front, so near Beverly, so as to command the soon as he heard froin Rosecrans. road to the southern part of the state Colonel Pegram, the rebel commander

and secure supplies, determin- did not, however, wait for the assault,

ed to drive them out, and if but moved off in the night, hoping to possible capture the enemy's forces. join his forces to those of Garnett. On His plan was to occupy the attention finding his rear entirely exposed by this of the rebels under Gen. Garnett (for retreat of Pegram, Gen. Garnett evamerly a United States officer), by seem. cuated his camp, intending to reach ing to make a direct attack, while a Beverly in advance of McClellan, and strong force was marching round to his to withdraw by the road to Southern rear, in order to gain possession of the Virginia. This was soon found to be

. road above spoken of. On the 7th of impossible, and escape was sought in July, Gen. Morris, taking about 4,000 another direction. Col. Pegram surren. men, moved from Philippi to Bealing. dered with his entire force, on the 12th ton in front, Gen. McClellan having of July; and Gen. Garnett, striving to previously, with the main body, con cross the mountains into the valley of sisting of 10,000 men, advanced from Virginia, was hotly pursued, on the Clarksburg; hy way of Buckhannon, 13th, by the Union troops under Captain from the west, so as to attack the Benbam. At Carrick's Ford, on the enemy's left at Rich Mountain. This Cheat River, the enemy attempted was on the 1st of July. Skirmishing to make a stand; but Gen. Garnett ensued for several days in various was killed, and his forces were routed directions and with varied success. completely, only a small proportion

On the 11th of July, General Mc. out of several thousands making their Clellan, making his way toward Bever- escape. “Our success," says General

" ly, was encamped with his forces a short

* Pollard, in his “ First Year of the War," p. 84, distance to the west of Rich Mountain, estimates Garnett's force at less than 5,000 infantry

with four companies of cavalry, and Pegram's at about

1,600 men. McClellan is stated to have had with him believe that our advent among you will he signalized a force of 20,000. Some Union writers make Garnett's by interference with your slaves, understand one thing force to have been nearly 10.000, and Pegram's about clearly: not only will we abstain from all interference, 2,000, while McClellan's 's set down at 10,000. We but we will, on the contrary, with an iron hand, crush give the numbers, on what appears to be the best any attempt at insurrection on their part.”

authority, without vouching for their accuracy.

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McClellan in his dispatch, July 14th, Harris, equally reckless and far more “ is complete, and secession is killed in tyrannical

. In both states there was this country.'

indeed a show of submitting the ques. On the 19th of July, McClellan issued tion of secession to a popular vote, but an address to his soldiers, full of glow. in both instances a treaty was formed ing and encouraging words, inciting to with the rebel government, and the milfuture victory. On the 22d, however, itary resources of the state were placed (the day after the Bull Run disaster), at the command of Jefferson Davis behe was summoned by the president to fore the vote was taken.

Of course command the Army of the Potomac, coercion and terrorism prevailed alike, and the army of occupation in Western with a deeper shade of malignity, howVirginia was assigned to Gen. Rose ever, in Tennessee, in proportion to the crans. By the activity of McClellan nearness of that state to tlie seat of the the Cheat Mountain Gaps, which form. rebel government.

Eastern Virginia, ed the key to Western Virginia, were though deriving part of her wealth entrenched and held by a strong force from the raising and selling slaves to of loyal troops.

the cotton planters, was yet dependent In regard to Eastern Tennessee, it upon the skill and labor obtained from was not unnatural or unreasonable to the North for developing her capacities find there a spirit and determination of improvement; while Western Tensimilar to those prevailing among loyal nessee was not simply related to the Virginians. The inhabitants were South in manners and culture, but might mostly agricultural, and less dependent be considered an integral part of the upon slave labor than those in the South itself. It was, consequently, a western portion of the state, and they much harder task for the mountaineers were ardently attached to the Union of the Cumberland to contend with and its privileges. In both Virginia the wealthy slave proprietors on the and Tennessee there was a hostile, Mississippi, than for a vigorous rural dominant power, and both were betray- population bordering on Pennsylvania ed by the arts and treachery of those to hold their own against the dwellers who held the supremacy in local affairs. on the James and the Rappahannock. It The situation, however, of Eastern Ten the chances in both cases had been nessee was less advantageous for the within their borders, the contiguity maintenance of the liberties of the peo- of the more southern state to the desple than that of her northern neighbor. peradoes of Alabama, Mississippi, ArkEach had a bold, unscrupulous governor ansas and Louisiana, to say nothing of and legislature, ready and willing to the refugee enemies of the Union in

act the traitor, and force the Kentucky, would have turned the scale

state into the embraces of seces- against the efforts of the patriots of sion. The one had its Letcher, a man East Tennessee. thoroughly versed in political arts The loyal citizens of this region, unaud appliances ; the other had its willing to give up their birthright with.




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