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AFFAIRS IN THE SOUTH UP Τ Ο F E B BU A RY, 1862. JEFFERSON DAVIS'
MESSAGE OF NOVEMBER 18TH, 1861. ADMISSION OF MISSOURI AND KENTUCKY
THE CONFEDERACY. IMPROPRIETY OF THE WHOLE PROCEEDING. SPIRIT OF VINDICTIVENESS IN THE SOUTI. VOICE OF THE GOVERNORS. INTEREST ING REVELATIONS BY GOVERNOR LETCHER.
AFFAIRS in the Confede- course it did not prevent Fast Day.
Vindictiveness torate States during the last the South from being de
wards the North. months of the year 1861 were, if “the pa-pendent on that very class pers” are authority, neither hopeless nor un- for their best schools, their best teachers and satisfactory. President Davis in his procla- preachers, their best commerce and their best mation setting apart November 15th as a Fast hopes for the future. Their terms of opproday, used the terms “ fasting, humiliation and brium simply served to indicate that underprayer;" but, the general tone of the invoca- tone of scurrility and insolence which a slave tion was one of thanks for victory won. As ownership ever has and ever will engender. compared with his first proclamation for a But, no matter what the cause, the effect was Fast day (June 13th, 1861) the second gave none the less deplorable. The vocabulary evidence of a slight progress toward a con- of vile terms was exhausted-new words were sciousness of sin, for it embodied the word coined and phrases compounded—all in the “humiliation.” The first did not—it prayed endeavor to give utterance to their sentistanding; the second brought the Confeder- ments towarcs the Northern people. When ates to their knees, and, in that respect, leaves words and utterance failed Southern “laus to infer that there was less confidence in dies” would spit upon such 'Yankees' as their hearts than their words of victories won came in their way-would lift their skirts would imply.
in passing that they should not be contamiThe tone of the South- ted by the touch of Yankee breeches. It was Vindictiveness toward
ern press was not improved laughable yet painful, proving as it did the
-it literally could be no existence of a demoralization in Southern somore malignant. In this it reflected the para- ciety incompatible with personal dignity and mount feeling apparently prevalent in all public purity. We leave it for others to white circles. From the lips of the highest speculate on the influences which contributeri and the lowest, from male and female, from to effect such a demoralization; it is enough old and young, burst volcano of epithet and for us to chronicle the fact of its presence. imprecation upon the Yankees' that would
This general defamation have been appalling to one not well versed in of the North, of the FederSouthern idioms; but, that was less an evi- al Executive and of its agents was sedulously dence of devotion to their cause than of encouraged by the leaders and the press of hate of rivals. For many years the growing the South, for the good reason that it filled power and prosperity of the Free States had the ranks of their army, and inspired their been resented by an openly expressed scorn troops with that kind of courage which springs of a free society; “ Yankee” became a word from hate. Keep the people up to the point to imply something mean and inferior. Of (of detestation and it would be easy to raise
The Secret of it.
The Secret of it.
troops, to extort taxes, to the border. Wheu the war com
Message of impose burdens, and to ex. menced, the enemy were posact obedience. For any feeling of respect sessed of certain strategic toward their enemy to gain even a momenta- points and strong places in the Confederate Statcs.
They greatly exceeded us in numbers, in available re. ry ascendancy was worse than a defeat;
sources, and in the supplies necessary for war. hence, we are not surprised that no occasion
Military establishments had long been organized, was left unimproved where misrepresentation, and were completed. The navy, and, for the most defamation and false inference could avail to part, the army, once common to both, were in their influence the public mind. There was reason possession. To meet all this we had to create not in their madness but, alas, the people of the only an army in the face of war itself, but also miliSouth did not perceive the subtle influences tary establishments necessary to equip and place it at work upon them.
in the field. It ought, indeed, to be a subject of The Message of Jefferson gratulation that the spirit of the volunteer, and the Message of
Davis to the Confederate patriotism of the people, have enabled us, ander Jefferson Davis. Congress which re-issem
Providence, to grapple successfully with these diffi
culties. bled in adjourned session, at Richmond, Nov.
“ A succession of glorious victories, at Bethel, 18th, gave the Confederate views and sum
Bull Run, Manassas, Springfield, Lexington, Lees. mary of events. We may transfer it at length, burg and Belmont, has checked the wicked invasion that our readers may have before them the which greed of gain and the anhallowed lust of revolutionary side of the story and argument: power brought upon our soil, and has proved that “ TO THE CONGRESS OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES : numbers cease to avail when directed against a peo.
“ The few weeks which have elapsed since your ple fighting for the sacred right of self-government adjournment have brought us so near the close of and the privileges of freemen. the year that we are now able to sum up its general
“ After more than seven months of war, the eperesults. The retrospect is such as should fill the my have not only failed to extend their occupancy hearts of our people with gratitude to Providence, of our soil, but new States and Territories have for his kind interposition in their behalf. Abundant been added to our Confederacy. While, instead of yields have rewarded the labor of the agriculturist, their threatening march of unchecked conquest, whilst the manufacturing industry of the Confederate they have been driven at more than one point to States was never so prosperous as now. The neces
assume the defensive; and upon a fair comparison sities of the times have called into existence new
between the two belligerents as to men, military branches of manufactures, and given a fresh impulse means and financial condition, the Confederate to the activity of those heretofore in operation. States are relatively much stronger now than wher The means of the Confederate States for manufac- the struggle commenced. Since your adjournment, turing the necessaries and comforts of life within the people of Missouri have conducted the war in themselves, increase as the conflict continues, and the face of almost unparalleled difficulties with a we are gradually becoming independent of the rest spirit and success alike worthy of themselves and of the world for the supply of such military stoies
of the great cause in which they are struggling. and munitions as are indispensable for war.
“Since that time Kentucky, too, has become the “The operations of the army, soon to be partially theater of active hostilities. The Federal forces interrupted by the approaching winter, have afford have not only refused to acknowledge her right to ed a protection to the country and shed a glorious be neutral, and have insisted upon making her a luster upon its arms through the trying vicissitudes party to the war, but have invaded her for the par of more than one arduous campaign, which entitle pose of attacking the Confederate States. Out our brave volunteers to our praise and gratitude. rages of the most despotic character have been per From its commencement up to the present period petrated upon her people. Some of her most emi. the war has been enlarging its proportions and ex- nent citizens have been seized and borne away to panding its boundaries so as to include new fields. languish in foreign prisons, without knowing who The conflict now extends from the shores of the were their accusers, or the specific charges made Chesapeake to the confines of Missouri and Arizona, against them, while others have been forced to yet sudden calls from the remotest points for mili- abandon their homes, their families and property. tary aid have been met with promptness enough not and seek a refuge in distant lands. Finding that the only to avert disaster in the face of superior num- Confederate States were about to be invaded bers, but also to roll back the tide of invasion from through Kentucky, and that her people, after being
OF JEFFERSON DAVIS.
deceived into a mistaken securi- | ed in the report of the head of Message of
Message of ty, were unarmed and in danger that department. Jefferson Davis.
Jefferson Davis. of being subjugated by the Fed' “ The condition of the treaseral forces, our armies were marched into that State ury will, doubtless, be a subject of anxious inquiry to repel the enemy and prevent their occupation of on your part. I am happy to say that the financial certain strategic points wbich would have given system already adopted has worked well so far, and ther great advantages in the contest-a step which promises good results for the future. was not only justified by the necessity of self-de- “ To the extent that treasury notes may be issued, fense on the part of the Confederate States, but also the Government is enabled to borrow money with. by a desire to aid the people of Kentucky. It was out interest, and thus facilitate the conduct of the never intended by the Confederate Government to This extent is measured by the portion of the conquer or coerce the people of that State, but, on field of circulation which these notes can be made the contrary, it was declared by our generals that to occupy. The proportion of the field thus occuthey would withdraw their troops if the Federal | pied depends again upon the amount of the debts Government would do likewise. Proclamation was for which they are receivable, and dues, not only also made of our desire to respect the neutrality of
to the Confederate bnt State Governments, but also Kentucky, and the intention to abide by the wishes to corporations and individuals, are payable in this of her people as soon as they were free to express medium. A large amount of it may be circulated their opinions. These declarations were approved at par. There is every reason to believe that the by me, and I should regard it as one of the best ef- Confederate treasury note is fast becoming such a fects of the march of our troops into Kentucky if it medium. The provision that these notes shall be should aid in giving to her people liberty of choice convertible into Confederate stock, bearing eight and a free opportunity to decide their own destiny per cent. interest, at the pleasure of the holder, in. according to their own will.
sures them against a depreciation below the value “ The army has been chiefly instrumental in pros- of that stock, and no considerable fall in that value ecnting the great contest in which we are engaged, need be feared, so long as the interest shall be but the navy has also been effective in full propor- punctually paid. The punctual payment of this in. tion to its means. The naval officers, deprived to
terest has been secured by the act passed by you at a great extent of an opportunity to make their pro
the last session, imposing such a rate of taxation as fessional skill available at sea, have served with
must provide sufficient means for that purpose. commendable zeal and gallantry on shore and upon “For the successful prosecution of this war it is island waters, further detail of which will be found indispensable that the means of transporting troops in the reports of the Secretary of the Navy and the and military supplies be furnished, as far as possible Sccsetary of War.
in such manner as not to interrupt the commercia' “In the transportation of the mails many difficul. intercourse between our people, nor place a check ties have arisen, which will be found fully devel. upon their productive energies. To this end the oped in the report of the Postmaster-General. The means of transportation from one section of our absorption of the ordinary means of transportation country to the other must be carefully guarded and for the movement of troops and military supplies, | improved; and this should be the object of anxious the insufficiency of the rolling stock of railroads for care on the part of the State and Confederate Gov. the accumulation of business, resulting both from ernments, so far as they have power over the subject. military operations and the obstruction of water We have already two main systems of through trans communication by the presence of the enemy's fleet, portation from north to south. One from Richmond, the failure and even refusal of contractors to com. along the seaboard; the other through Western Vir. ply with the terms of their agreements, the difficul- ginia to New Orleans. A third might be secured ties inherent in inaugurating so vast and compli- by completing a link of about forty miles between cated a system as that which requires postal facili. Danville, in Virginia, and Greenborough, North ties for every town and village in a Territory so Carolina. The construction of this comparatively extended as ours, have all combined to impede the short line would give us a through route from north best directed efforts of the Postmaster - General, to south in the interior of the Confederate States, whose zeal, industry and ability, have been taxed and give us access to a population and to military to the utmost extent. Some of these difficulties can resources from which we are now in a great meas. only be overcome by time and an improved condi. ure debarred. We should increase greatly the safetion of the country upon the restoration of peace, ty and capacity of our means for transporting men but others may be remedied by legislation, and your and military supplies. If the construction of the attention is invited to the recommendation contain- | road should, in the judgment of Congress, as it is in
mine, be indispensable for the ty, and injuries of the most wanMessage of most successful prosecution of ton character, even upon non
Message of Jefferson Davis.
Jefferson Davis. the war, the action of the Gov. combatants, have marked their ernment will not be restrained by the constitutional forays along the borders and upon our territory. We objection which would attach to a work for commer- ought to have been admonished by these things that cial purposes; and attention is invited to the practica- they were disposed to make war upon us in the most bility of securing its early completion by giving the cruel and relentless spirit, yet we were not prepared needful aid to the company organized for its con. to see them fit out a large naval expedition with the struction and administration.
confessed purpose not only to pillage, but to incite “ If we husband our means and make a judicious a servile war in our midst. use of our resources, it would be difficult to fix a “If they convert their soldiers into incendiaries limit to the period during which we could conduct and robbers, and involve us in a species of war a war against the adversary whom we now encoun
which claims non-combatants-women and children ter. The very efforts which he makes to desolate -as its victims, they must expect to be treated as and invade us must exhaust his means, whilst they outlaws and enemies of mankind. serve to complete the circle and diversify the pro- There are certain rights of humanity which are ductions of our industrial system. The reconstruc- entitled to respect even in war, and he who refuses tion which he seeks to effect by arms becomes daily to regard them forfeits his claim if captured, to bo more and more palpably impossible. Not only do considered a prisoner of war, and must expect to the causes which induced us to separat e still last in be dealt with as an offender against all law, human full force, but they have been strengthened, and and divine. whatever doubt may have lingered on the minds of “But not content with violating our rights under any must have been completely dispelled by subse the law of nations at home, they have extended quent events. If, instead a dissolution of a league, | these injuries to us within other jurisdictions. The it were indeed a rebellion in which we are engaged, distinguished gentlemen, whom, with your approval we might find ample vindication for the course we
at the last session, I commissioned to represent the have adopted in the scenes which are now being en Confederacy at certain foreign courts, have been acted in the United States.
recently seized by the captain of a United States “ Our people now look with contemptuous aston- ship-of-war while on board a British mail steamer ishment on those with whom they have been so re- on their voyage from the neutral Spanish port of Ha. ceatly associated. They shrink with aversion from vana to England. The United States bave thug the bare idea of renewing such a connection.
claimed a general jurisdiction over the high seas, and “When they see a President making war without entering a British ship, sailing under its country's the assent of Congress--when they behold judges, flag, violated the rights of embassy, for the most threatened because “hey maintain the writ of habeas part held sacred, even among barbarians, by siezing corpus, so sacred to freemen—when they see justice ministers whilst under the protection and within the and law trampled under the armed heel of military dominions of a neutral nation. These gentlemen authority, and upright men and innocent women were as much under the jurisdiction of the British dragged to distant dungeons—when they find all. Government, upon that ship and beneath hat flag, this tolerated and applauded by a people who had as if they had been on its soil, and a claim on the been in the full enjoyment of freedom but a few part of the United States to seize them in the streets months ago, they believe that there must be some of London would have been as well founded as that radical incompatability between such a people and to apprehend them where they were taken. Had themselves. With such a people we may be content they been malefactors, and citizens even of the to live at peace, but our separation from them is United States, they could not have been arrested on final; for the independence we have asserted we a British ship or on British soil, unless under the will accept no alternative.
express provisions of a treaty, and according to the “ The nature of the hostilities which they have forms therein provided for the next extradition of waged against us must be characterized as barba criminals. But rights the most sacred seem to have rous whenever it is understood. They have bom- lost all respect in their eyes. barded undefended villages, without giving notice “When Mr. Faulkner, a former minister of the to women and children to enable them to escape, United States to France, commissioned before the and in one instance selected the night as the period secession of Virginia, his native State, returned in when they might surprise them most effectually good faith to Washington to settle his accounts and whilst asleep and unconscious of danger. Arson and fulfil all the obligations into which he had entered, rapine, the destruction of private houses and proper- | he was perfidiously arrested and imprisoned in New
MESSAGE OF JEFFERSON DAVIS.
York, where he now is. The labor in the Confederate States Message of unsuspecting confidence with should be gradually diverted
Message of Jefferson Davis.
Jefferson Davis. which he reported to his Gov. from those great southern staernment was abused, and his desire to fulfil his trust ples which have given life to so much of the comto them was used to his injury.
merce of mankind into other channels, so as to make “In conducting this war, we have sought no aid them rival producers, instead of profitable customand proffered no alliances offensive and defensive ers, they will not be the only or even the chief abroad. We have asked for a recognized place in losers by this change in the direction of their in. the family of nations; but, in doing so, we have de- dustry. manded nothing for which we did not offer a fair * Although it is true that the cotton supply from equivalent. The advantages of intercourse are mu- the Southern States could only be totally cut off by tual among nations, and in seeking to establish di- the subversion of our social system, yet it is plain plomatic relations we were only endeavoring to that a long continuance of this blockade might, hy a place that intercourse under the regulation of public diversion of labor and investment of capital in other law.
employments, so diminish the supplies as to bring “ Perhaps we had the right, if we had chosen to ruin upon all those interests of foreign countries exercise it, to ask to know whether the principle, which are dependent on that staple. For every lathat blockades to be binding must be effectual, so borer who is diverted from the culture of cotton in solemnly announced by the great powers of Europe the South, perhaps four times as many elsewhere, at Paris, is to be generally enforced or applied only who have found subsistence in the various employ. to particular parties.
ments growing out of its use, will be forced also to “When the Confederate States, at your last ses. change their occupation. sion, became a party to the declaration reaffirming “While the war which is waged to take from us this principle of international law, which has been the right of self-government can never attain that recognized so long by publicists and governments, end, it remains to be seen how far it may work a we certainly supposed that it was to be universally revolution in the industrial system of the world, euforced. The customary law of nations is made up which may carry suffering to other lands as well as of their practice rather than their declarations, and to our own. if such declarations are only to be enforced in par- “In the meantime, we shall continue this strug. ticular instances at the pleasure of those who make gle in humble dependence upon Providence, from them, then the commerce of the world, so far from whose searching scrutiny we cannot conceal tho being placed under the regulation of a general law, secrets of our hearts, and to whose rule we confiwill become subject to the caprice of those who ex. dently submit. For the rest we shall depend upon ecute it or suspend it at will. If such is to be the ourselves. course of nations in regard to this law, it is plain * Liberty is always won where there exists the thet it will thus become a rule for the weak and not unconquerable will to be free, and we have reason for the strong.
to know the strength that is given by a conscious “Feeling that such views must be taken by the sense not only of the magnitude but of the rightneutral nations of the earth, I have caused the evi- eousness of our cause. dence to be collected which proves completely the
“ JEFFERSON DAVIS. utter inefficiency of the proclaimed blockade of our “ Richmond, Nov. 18th, 1861." ooast, and shall direct it to be laid before such gov. This document possessed ernments as shall afford us the means of being a double interest--for what
The Purposes of tho
it said and for what it left “But although we should be benefitted by the en
unsaid. In the first place there was no call forcement of this law, so solemnly declared by the for it—as the Confederate “ Congress” was great powers of Europe, we are not dependent on that enforcement for the successfnl prosecution of yet in old session. It was issued mainly and the war. As long as hostilities continue the Con chietly for a foreign market. The dispatch federate States will exhibit a steady increasing ca
of special agents to Europe was to further pacity to furnish their troops with food, clothing and the cause of intervention, or, at least, of recog. arms. If they should be forced to forego many of nition. Their arrest on the high seas sent a the luxuries and some of the comforts of life, they thrill of disappointment throughout the will at least have the consolation of knowing that South which soon gave place to a thrill of they are thus daily becoming more and more inde- hope that the arrest would embroi] the Fedpendent of the rest of the world. If, in this process, eral Government with England.