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origin and the human limitations of the Biblical record of the creation, especially, that such record, while consistent with scientific truth, must necessarily be given in the language and conceptions of the writer and of his age, the author proceeds:—
"The order of events in the Scripture cosmogony corresponds essentially with that which has been given. There was first a void and formless earth: this was literally true of the 'heavens and the earth,' if they were in the condition of a gaseous fluid. The succession is as follows:-(1.) Light. (2.) The dividing of the waters below from the waters above the earth, (the word translated waters may mean fluid). (3.) The dividing of the land and water on the earth. (4.) Vegetation; which Moses, appreciating the philosophical characteristics of the new creation, distinguishing it from previous inorganic substances, defines as that which has seed in itself.' (5.) The sun, moon, and stars. (6.) The lower animals, those that swarm in the waters, and the creeping and flying species of the land. (7.) Beasts of prey ('creeping' here meaning 'prowling'). (8.) Man. In this succession, we observe not merely an order of events like that deduced from science; there is a system in the arrangement, and a far-reaching prophecy to which philosophy could not have attained, however instructed.
"The account recognizes in creation two great eras of three days each,—an Inorganic and an Organic. Each of these eras opens with the appearance of light; the first, light cosmical; the second, light from the sun for the special uses of the earth. Each era ends in a 'day' of two great works;-the two shown to be distinct by being severally pronounced 'good.' On the third day, that closing the Inorganic era, there was first the dividing of the land from the waters, and afterwards the creation of vegetation, or the institution of the Kingdom of Life,a work widely diverse from all preceding it in the era. So on the sixth 'day,' there was, first, the creation of Mammals, and then a second far greater work, totally new in its grandest element, the creation of Man.
2d Day. The earth divided from the fluid around it, or individualized.
"In addition, the last day of each era included one work typical of the era, and another related to it in essential points, but also prophetic of the future. Vegetation, while for physical reasons, a part of the creation of the third day, was also prophetic of the future Organic era, in which the progress of life was the grand characteristic. The record thus accords with the fundamental principle in history that the characteristic of an age has its beginnings within the age preceding.
So, again, Man, while like other Mammals in structure, even to the homologies of every bone and muscle, was endowed with a spiritual nature, which looked forward to another era, that of spiritual existence. The seventh day,' the day of rest from the work of creation, is man's period of preparation for that new existence; and it is to promote this special end that-in strict parallelism—the Sabbath follows man's six days of work.
"The record in the Bible is, therefore, profoundly philosophical in the scheme of creation which it presents. It is both true and divine. It is a declaration of authorship, both of Creation and the Bible, on the first page of the sacred volume. There can be no real conflict between the two Books of the GREAT AUTHOR. Both are revelations made by Him to man,—the earlier telling of God-made harmonies coming up from the deep past, and rising to their hight when man appeared, the later teaching man's relations to his Maker, and speaking of loftier harmonies in the eternal future."
Several valuable appendices, and a copious index of twenty-six pages, fitly conclude the work; which is at once an honor to Amercan science, and calulated greatly to enhance the already worldwide reputation of its author.
HELLAS.* This is the most satisfactory book of travels in Greece with which we are acquainted. The author, a pupil and friend of President Felton of Harvard, and imbued with the same love for the arts and letters of Greece, made a scholar's pilgrimage to it in the spring of 1853. Genial, enthusiastic, and well informed, he knew by instinct what to see, and how. He has now given the results of his adventures and impressions in this little book, or which we must make one complaint, that it is much too small. It is a book to reawaken in the old graduates of our colleges the glow of feeling with which years ago they pondered over the annals of that "land of battle and of song;" and it should be read by every young man who is now a student of the "immortal tongue," that he may rise to full sympathy with the splendor of its ancient renown. The titles of the chapters are: From Naples to Athens; Argolis; From Athens to Parnassus; Ascent of Parnassus; From Delphi to Athens; Marathon; The Ruins of Athens; Ægina; Pentelicus; The Modern Capital and Kingdom; The Discoveries at Athens and Mycena in 1862.
Hellas. Her Monuments and Scenery. By THOMAS CHASE, M. A. Cambridge: Sever & Francis. 1863. 18mo. pp. 220. For sale in New Haven by Judd & Clark. Price, $1.00.
COCHIN'S RESULTS OF EMANCIPATION.* This is a work which it is difficult to speak of as it deserves within the limits of such a notice as we can here give it. Dealing as it does with the great question of our time, a question which we are inevitably settling with more or less of wisdom, the work of M. Cochin is eminently timely. But this is saying little of it. It is a grand thesaurus of facts in regard to the history and practical results of Emancipation, wherever slavery has as yet been abolished. And facts are what we now want. Of the evils, the wrong of slavery, few in our land are unconvinced. Argument on this subject has been exhausted. As M. Cochin says, "Reason has taken its stand, prejudice has lost what did not belong to it. We are in the presence of facts, in the presence of practical realities. It would be too easy to enter into a pathetic appeal; we must turn aside from tears and consult figures." Few comparatively among us have any such knowledge of the facts involved in the history of Emancipation in other countries, but that the question now presented to us as a nation, and brought suddenly to an issue by the rebellion, stands before them as a new question, and they without any lights from experience to guide in its solution. To such the work of M. Cochin brings the testimony of other nations who have had the same question to meet and to solve, though under somewhat different circumstances, of course, from those which attend it with us. We are not sailing, amid the storm that is upon us, over an untried sea, nor without charts to aid us. M. Cochin here presents us with one that is well calculated to allay our anxieties and fortify our courage in behalf of the eternal right of freedom. And for its production he has had peculiar facilities. Himself formerly a functionary of the French Government and a man of the highest respectability of character and position, he has had thrown open to him, in addition to the ordinary sources of information, those of an official character. The colonial offices of France and Great
*Results of Emancipation. By AUGUSTIN COCHIN, Ex-Maire and Municipal Councillor of Paris. Translated by Mary L. Booth. Boston: Walker, Wise & Co. 1863. 12mo. pp. 412. For sale in New Haven by Peck, White & Peck. Price, $1.50.
Britain, the published and unpublished papers and records of every ministry of Europe, the records of Boards of Trade, all these have been placed at his disposal. These he has diligently searched, and from them drawn the fullest array of facts yet presented to the general public in connection with the history of Emancipation. These facts, moreover, are handled not in the dry way of the statistician, but in the manner at once of the statesman, philosopher, and Christian.
The present work is but the first part of a comprehensive inquiry on the comparative results of Emancipation in the countries which have proclaimed it, and of slavery in the countries where it is maintained." As might naturally be expected, the history of Emancipation is treated most fully and in detail in reference to the French Colonies. The author, however, justifies himself in dwelling thus at length upon emancipation in the comparatively few colonies belonging to France, on the ground that, as he says, "Their example is a doubly shining demonstration, a triumphant condemnation of slavery, an irrefragable justification of emancipation. Never, in fact, will better conditions be encountered to soften, regulate, and in some sort, civilize slavery, never could it be abolished in worse conditions." These conditions resulted from the Revolution of 1848, which, while it generously struck the chains from the bondmen in the colonies, carried among the colonies the political distractions of revolution, and thus greatly complicated the problem of emancipation. It is very interesting to trace with M. Cochin the history of freedom in such circumstances. He takes us from colony to colony, and we see the problem of enfranchisement wrought out with varying incidents, but, marvelous to say, with unvarying results. There is everywhere opposition on the part of planters. There are dire forebodings of violence; and if not of violence, of idleness. There are unhesitating predictions that productive industry and the commercial interests of the colonies and of the mother country will suffer, and society be thrown into inextricable confusion. Commissions of the wisest men report the necessity of the enactment of special and stringent laws with reference to the slaves about to be emancipated, and of an increased military and police force. But when emancipation comes, it is found in every colony that the fears entertained have been groundless. If there are transient outbreaks, they are but the result of the political revolution rather than of the social one taking
place at the same time.. There are some idle, vagabond negroes, and these, no longer subject to the compulsion of the lash, of course fall out of the laboring ranks. But the mass are found ready to work; and as fast as the planters are ready to make fair terms with them, are willing, as a general thing, to take their places on the plantations, though many choose to establish homes and freeholds for themselves. They club together and buy and divide among themselves estates and plantations. Labor continues, only changing its form and conditions. As to crime, while petty thefts for a while increase-as slavery has done all it could, by depriving the slave of property, to make him ready to take whatever he might need wherever he could find it-crimes against the person begin at once to decrease with the declaration of emancipation. And, so far from visiting their former masters and oppressors with violence, the emancipated, in some cases, are found inviting the masters to return to the secure and unmolested occupancy of the estates from which they have fled in fear. As M. Cochin says, "The negro race is so gentle, that under the yoke it makes no resistance; free from the yoke, it commits no abuses." Before emancipation it required 8,642 soldiers to guard the slaves in the French Colonies. After emancipation 4,791 soldiers effectuually guarded the released slaves and their former masters.
M. Cochin takes up the question of Emancipation in its relations to Labor and Production; Wages and Property; Population; the Family; Religion and Education. The matter of Indemnity to the Masters is fully treated. But we have only space to name these features of the book before us.
With less fullness, but with equal research, he traces the history of Emancipation in the English, Dutch, Danish, and Swedish Colonies. The Sugar Question is also discussed by itself, and a full array of statistical information is supplied upon this subject.
One of the most interesting features of the book to us at the present time is its testimony, drawn from such a large induction of facts as the history of Emancipation in more than forty colonies, that the best mode of emancipation is that which is immediate in distinction from that which is gradual or which interposes a state of apprenticeship between that of Slavery and Freedom. As M. Cochin says, "By waiting, we obtain nothing; by venturing, we risk nothing." And again, "Doubtless, the ancient kings, who were Christian, humane, and sincere, said to themselves in