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of the benefits of your wise counsels and sage experience. It has been my good fortune to enjoy a personal acquaintance with you for over thirty years, and the pleasant relations of that long time have been greatly strengthened by your cordial and entire co-operation in all the great questions which have occupied the department and convulsed the country for the last six months. In parting from you, I can only express the hope that a merciful Providence that has protected you amid so many trials will improve your health, and continue your life long after the people of the country shall have been restored to their former happiness and prosperity.

"I am, General, very sincerely, your friend and servant,

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"HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, WASHINGTON, Nov. 1st, 1861. "In accordance with General Order No. 94, from the War Department, I hereby assume command of the armies of the United States.

"In the midst of the difficulties which encompass and divide the nation, hesitation and self-distrust may well accompany the assumption of so vast a responsibility; but, confiding as I do in the loyalty, discipline and courage of our troops, and believing as I do that Providence will favor ours as the just cause, I cannot doubt that success will crown our

efforts and sacrifices.

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sanctified with his blood, who in more mature years proved to the world that American skill and valor could repeat, if not eclipse, the exploits of Cortez in the land of the Montezumas, whose whole life had been devoted to the service of his country, whose whole efforts have been directed to uphold our honor at the smallest sacrifice of life; a warrior who scorned the selfish glories of the battle field when his great qualities as a statesman could be employed more profitably for his country; a citizen whose declining years have given to the world the most shining instances of loyalty in disregarding all ties of birth and clinging still to the cause of truth and honor. Such has been the career and character of Winfield Scott, whom it has long been the delight of the nation to honor, both as a man and as a soldier. While we regret his loss there is one thing we cannot regret the bright example he has left for our emulation. Let us all hope and pray that his declining years may be passed in peace and happiness, and that they may be cheered by the suc

cess of the country and the cause he has fought for and loved so well. Beyond all that, let us do nothing that can cause him to blush for us; let no defeat of the army he has so long commanded embitter his last years, but let our victories illuminate the close of a life so grand.

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"GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN, "Major-General Commanding U. S. A." This indicated the extent of the young General's powers; - - he was virtual Com mander-in-Chief of the entire Army of the Union. The destiny of the country was committed to his keeping. A greater trust never was confided to a younger man; nor does his tory show a greater trust reposed in one who had done comparatively so little to prove his

The army will unite with me in the feeling of regret that the weight of many years, and the effect of increasing infirmities, contracted and intensified in his country's service, should just now remove from our head the great soldier of our nation, the hero who, in his youth, raised high the reputation termine if he was equal to his responsibilities of his country in the fields of Canada, which he—if he was the leader for the crisis.

fitness for the trust. Time alone could de

NOTE. In reference to the Ball's Bluff disaster we state (page 343) that General Stone determined upon the movement over the Potomac on his own responsibility. This statement will be qualified only by the orders under which the General assumed to have acted. They read:


"General McClellan desires me to inform you that General McCall occupied Dranesville yesterday and is still there. He will send out reconnoissances to-day in all directions from that point. The General dasires that you keep a good look out from Leesburg, to see if the movement has the effect to drive them away. Perhaps a slight demonstration on your part would have the effect to move them."

This was signed by A. V. Colburn, McClellan's Adjutant-General. Stone replied, late the same day, (Oct. 20th,) that he had started a reconnoissance, &c. The advance of Gorman's force under Baker, was the " slight demonstration" of which Stone assumed the responsibility. See page 465 for McClellan's repudiation of the movement.

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The Hatteras Expedition.

GENERAL Wool relieved | All of this fleet except the General Butler Aug. 16th, 1861, of the command at Fortress Munroe. Butler was detailed to active duty. The War and Navy Departments having arranged the first of a series of expeditions against the Southern coast, the command of the land forces was conferred upon Butler-Commodore S. H. Stringham directing the naval arm. Materials for the adventure were rapidly gathered at Fortress Munroe from the date of August 16th to the 26th, on which day the fleet took its departure. It consisted of the following vessels: frigate Minnesota, flag-ship, carrying fifty guns; frigate Wabash, fifty guns; frigate Cumberland, fifty guns; Susquehanna, eleven guns; Pawnee, eight guns, besides a pivot gun; Harriet Lane, five guns, new rifled cannon; propeller Monticello, six guns; steamers Adelaide and George Peabody, transports, car rying eight hundred troops, of whom eighty were regulars (artillery) under command of Captain Learned. The volunteer force was composed of one hundred and forty men from the Naval brigade, under command of Captain Nixon; three companies from the Ninth New York volunteers, under command of Colonel Hawkins; and a detachment from Colonel Max Weber's regiment, under command of Colonel W. Two or three old hulks and one or two schooners were taken in tow, with the design of sinking them at the mouths of inlets, for the purpose of obstructing navigation at the points where rebel craft were known to congregate. The tug-boats Fanny and Tempest also accompanied the expedition.

Nature of the North
Carolina Coast.

Susquehanna and Cumber-
land arrived off Hatteras
Inlet during Tuesday, August 27th. Not un-
til the vessels were at sea were any but the
directors of the enterprize aware of the point
of attack. Forts Hatteras and Clark com-
manded the entrance to the Sounds of Pam-
lico and Albermarle, whose waters were a
great rendezvous for traders running the
blockade. Newbern, Washington, Plymouth,
all drove a brisk business in the contraband
trade, affording vast supplies to the Confed-
erate armies, as well as to the people of the
South. The dangerous character of the
coast, with its long lines of sand bars, and
beaches reaching out into the sea, rendered
that locality one particularly favorable to
vessels running the blockade; while North
Carolina 'tar, turpentine and cotton offered
rich returns to the adventurous speculator.
It was mainly to break up this commerce
that the expedition was organized; though
the ultimate purpose of a permanent occupa-
tion of North Carolina soil had much to do
in encouraging the demonstration. The
latent Union sentiment in the State, it was
supposed, only needed the presence of
Federal arms to make it felt once more.
Fort Hatteras was an
exceedingly formidable
battery. It was nearly surrounded by water,
and was only approached by a circuitous
and narrow neck of land, five hundred yards
in length-that entire distance being within
easy musket range from the fort. The cause-
way entering the fort was commanded by

Fort Hatterass.

The First Day's Bombardment.

two 32-pounders, loaded with grape and can- | attempted. Fort Hatteras nister. The battery had a well protected replied with great vigor, bomb proof and magazine. There was found, but with little avail. Its as its armament, ten guns mounted, four un- gunners evidently were not skilled men in mounted and one large columbiad, ready for target practice. The shot and shell of the mounting. The secresy and rapidity of pre-flect made great breaches in the battery, and paration by the Federals caught the rebels somewhat unprepared for the attack-otherwise a more obstinate resistance must have followed the attempt for its capture.

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The First Day's Bombardment.

The bombardment opened Wednesday morning, at ten o'clock, preparatory to the landing of the land forces on the beach above Fort Hatteras. The Susquehanna, having arrived, led off in the grand tragedy her tremendous shells cutting the air into hissing arcs, to bury themselves in the sand of the beach for a moment, then to burst and darken the very heavens with their wild havoc. The Wabash followed with a solid shot, which flew shrieking close over the fort. In a short time most of the vessels were pouring their fearful hail into and around the battery, while the Harriet Lane hauled close into shore to cover the landing of troops from the transports at a point about four miles above the small battery. A heavy surf rolled in upon the treacherous sands. After infinite labor, and the beaching of three small boats, the landing was suspended for the day. Those already on shore-three hundred and fifteen in number-were safe under the guns of the fleet. With two picees of artilley a portion of them bivouacked on the beach all night of the 28th. A section of the Coast Guard found its way early the next day into Fort Clark-discovered to have been abandoned. The bombardment continued during the entire first day. No land assault was

cut huge holes in the entire section within the enclosure. The failure to effect a landing of the assaulting force compelled the fleet to keep up its fire until darkness closed around. Then the premonitions of a coming storm added anxiety to the impatience of the Federal commanders; while the hope of enlisting the resistless winds and the hidden shoals in their defense sent a thrill of joy through the hearts of the Confederates.

Of the day's operations General Butler, in his official report, said:

"I was on board the Harriet Lane, directing the disembarkation of the troops by means of signals, and was about landing with them at the time the boats were stove. We were induced to desist from further attempts at landing troops by the rising of the wind, and because in the meantime the fleet had opened fire upon the nearest fort, which was finally silenced and its flag struck. No firing had been

opened upon our troops from the other fort, and its flag was also struck. Supposing this to be a signal of surrender, Colonel Weber advanced his troops already landed upon the beach.

"The Harriet Lane, Captain Faunce, by my direction, tried to cross the bar to get in the smooth water of the inlet, when fire was opened upon the Monticello, which had preceded in advance of us, from the other fort. Several shots struck her, but So well convinced were the officers of both navy and without causing any casualties, as I am informed. army that the forts had surrendered at that time, that the Susquehanna had towed the Cumberland to an offing. The fire was then reopened, as there was no signal from either, upon both forts. In the meantime a few men of the Coast Guard had advanced up the beach, with Mr. Wiegel, who was acting as volunteer aid, and whose gallantry and services I wish to commend, and took possession of the smaller fort, which was found to have been abandoned by the enemy, and raised the American flag thereon.

"It had become necessary, owing to the threatening appearance of the weather, that all the ships

should make an offing, which was done with reluct

ance, from necessity, thus leaving the troops upon shore, a part in possession of the small fort, about seven hundred yards from the large one, and the rest bivouacked upon the beach near the place of landing, about two miles north of the forts."

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