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Nature of the North

Carolina Coast.




GENERAL Wool relieved | All of this fleet except the The Hatteras Expe

General Butler Aug. 16th, Susquehanna and Cumber

1861, of the command at land arrived off Hatteras Fortress Munroe. Butler detailed Inlet during Tuesday, August 27th. Not unto active duty. The War and Navy til the vessels were at sea were any but the Departments having arranged the first of a directors of the enterprize aware of the point series of expeditions against the Southern of attack. Forts Hatteras and Clark comcoast, the command of the land forces was manded the entrance to the Sounds of Pamconferred upon Butler-Commodore S. H. lico and Albermarle, whose waters were a Stringham directing the naval arm. Materi- great rendezvous for traders running the als for the adventure were rapidly gathered blockade. Newbern, Washington, Plymouth, at Fortress Munroe from the date of August all drove a brisk business in the contraband 16th to the 26th, on which day the fleet took trade, affording vast supplies to the Confedits departure. It consisted of the following erate armies, as well as to the people of the vessels : frigate Minnesota, flag-ship, carrying South. The dangerous character of the fifty guns; frigate Wabash, fifty guns ; frigate coast, with its long lines of sand bars, and Cumberland, fifty guns; Susquehanna, eleven beaches reaching out into the sea, rendered guns; Painee, eight guns, besides a pivot that locality one particularly favorable to gun; Harriet Lane, five guns, new rifled can- vessels running the blockade; while North non; propeller Monticello, six guns; steamers Carolina 'tar, turpentine and cotton offered Adelaide and George Peabody, transports, car rich returns to the adventurous speculator. rying eight hundred troops, of whom eighty It was mainly to break up this commerce were regulars (artillery) under command of that the expedition was organized; though Captain Learned. The volunteer force was the ultimate purpose of a permanent occupacomposed of one hundred and forty men from tion of North Carolina soil had much to do the Naval brigade, under command of Captain in encouraging the demonstration. The Nixon; three companies from the Ninth New latent Union sentiment in the State, it was York volunteers, under command of Colonel supposed, only needed the presence of Hawkins; and a detachment from Colonel Federal arms to make it felt once more. Max Weber's regiment, under command of

Fort Hatteras was Colonel W. Two or three old hulks and one exceedingly

Fort Hatterass.

formidable or two schooners were taken in tow, with the battery. It was nearly surrounded by water, design of sinking them at the mouths of and was only approached by a (circuitous inlets, for the purpose of obstructing naviga- and narrow neck of land, five hundred yards tion at the points where rebel craft were in length-that entire distance being within known to congregate. The tug-boats Fanny easy musket range from the fort. The causeand Tempest also accompanied the expedition. way entering the fort was commanded by



Fort Clark,


two 32-pounders, loaded with grape and can- / attempted. Fort Hatteras

The First Day's nister. The battery had a well protected replied with great vigor, bomb proof and magazine. There was found, but with little avail. Its as its armament, ten guns mounted, four un- gunners evidently were not skilled men in mounted and one large columbiad, ready for target practice. The shot and shell of the mounting. The secresy and rapidity of pre- flect made great breaches in the battery, and paration by the Federals caught the rebels cut huge holes in the entire section within somewhat unprepared for the attack-other- the enclosure. The failure to effect a landing wise a more obstinate resistance must have of the assaulting force compelled the feet to followed the attempt for its capture.

keep up its fire until darkness closed around. Fort Clark lay about Then the premonitions of a coming storm

seven hundred yards away added anxiety to the impatience of the Fedeto the North. It was a small square struc- ral commanders; while the hope of enlisting ture, mounting five guns, 32-pounders, with the resistless winds and the hidden shoals in two 6-pounders for land protection.

their defense sent a thrill of joy through the In and around these structures the enemy hearts of the Confederates. had gathered a force of over seven hundred Of the day's operations General Butler, in men, under the chief command of Commodore his official report, said: S. Barron, late of the United States navy.

“I was on board the Harriet Lane, directing the The Seventh North Carolina volunteers, in disembarkation of the troops by means of signals,

and was about landing with them at the time the camp and fort, were commanded by Colonel

boats were stove. We were induced to desist from Wm. F. Martin. The bombardment


further attempts at landing troops by the rising of 'The First Day's

the wind, and because in the meantime the fleet had ed Wednesday morning, at

opened fire upon the nearest fort, which was finally ten o'clock, preparatory to

silenced and its flag struck. No firing had been the landing of the land forces on the beach opened upon our troops from the other fort, and its above Fort Hatteras. The Susquehanna, hav- flag was also struck. Supposing this to be a signal ing arrived, led off in the grand tragedy- of surrender, Colonel Weber advanced his troops her tremendous shells cutting the air into | already landed upon the beach. hissing arcs, to bury themselves in the sand “ The Harriet Lane, Captain Faunce, by my direc. of the beach for a moment, then to burst and tion, tried to cross the bar to get in the smooth Clarken the very heavens with their wild water of the inlet, when fire was opened upon the havoc, The Wabash followed with a solia Monticello, which had preceded in advance of us, shot, which flew shrieking close over the fort. from the other fort. Several shots struck her, but In a short time most of the vessels were pour-So well convinced were the officers of both navy and

without causing any casualties, as I am informed. ing their fearful hail into and around the

army that the forts had surrendered at that time, battery, while the Harriet Lane hauled close that the Susquehanna had towed the Cumberland to into shore to cover the landing of troops from

an offing. The fire was then reopened, as there was the transports at a point about four miles no signal from either, upon both forts. In the mean. above the small battery. A heavy surf rolled time a few men of the Coast Guard 'had advanced

the treacherous sands. After infinite up the beach, with Mr. Wiegel, who was acting as labor, and the beaching of three small boats, volunteer aid, and whose gallantry and services I the landing was suspended for the day. wish to commend, and took possession of the small. Those already on shore-three hundred and

er fort, which was found to have been abandoned fifteen in number-were safe under the

by the enemy, and raised the American flag thereon.

guns of the fleet. With two picees of artilley a

“ It had become necessary, owing to the threatportion of them bivouacked on the beach all should make an offing, which was done with reluct

ening appearance of the weather, that all the ships night ofthe 28th. A section of the Coast Guard

ance, from necessity, thus leaving the troops upon found its way early the next day into Fort shore, a part in possession of the small fort, Clark-discovered to have been abandoned.

about seven hundred yards from the large one, and The bombardment continued during the the rest bivouacked upon the beach near the place entire first day. Ne land assault was

of landing, about two miles north of the forts."

in upon

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On the morning of the with him Commodore BarThe Second Day's

The Surrender of the 29th, the cannonade open- ron, Major Andrews and

ed early. A cloudless sky Colonel Martin. They came and a clear sea blessed the cause of the as- to accept the terms, and to surrender themsailants. During the night a transport hea- selves, their forts and forces, to the Federal vily ladened with troops reenforced the fort, commander. Articles of capitulation were running down the Sound which was yet signed on board the flag - ship Minnesota. open. Fort Clark was occupied by the Butler then landed and took formal possesFederal forces, and refused its aid to assist sion of the largest fortification. The number its late confederate. The conflict soon of prisoners surrendered was six hundred and raged with extreme vigor on both sides. At fifteen, who were all placed on the Minnesota. eleven o'clock the Confederate flag fluttered In four days time they were in New York uneasily a moment—then ran down the hal harbor. Butler stated his captures and measyards and a white flag was slowly ran to the ures, in the following congratulatory strain, peak. Butler put ashore in the tug Fanny in his report to General Wool: to learn the Confederates' wish. He said: “I may congratulate you and the country upon a

“ I then went with the Fanny over the bar into glorious victory in your department, in which we the inlet. At the same time the troops under captured more than seven hundred prisoners, twenty Colonel Wilder marched up the beach, and signal five pieces of artillery, a thousand stand of arms, & was made from the flagship to cease firing.

large quantity of ordnance stores, provisions, three “ As the Fanny rounded in over the bar, the rebel valuable prizes, two lightboats and four stands of steamer Winslow went up the channel having a large colors, one of which had been presented within a nunber of rebel troops on board, which she had week by the ladies of Newbern, N. C., to the North not landed. We threw a shot at her from the Fanny, Carolina defenders. but she proved to be out of range.

I then sent “ By the goodness of that Providence which Lieutenant Crosby on shore to demand the meaning | watches over our nation, no one, either of the fleet of the white flag. The boat soon returned, bring- or army, was in the least degree injured. The eneing Mr. Wiegel, with the following written commu- my's loss was not officially reported to us, but was nication from Samuel Barron, late Captain in the ascertained to be twelve or fifteen killed and died United States Navy:

of wounds, and thirty-five wounded."

The first design, it would appear, was to « 1 Fling officer Samuel Barron, Confederate States Navy: destroy the forts, stop up the channel with offers to surrender Fort Hatteras, with all arms and munitions of war, the officers allowed to go out with side arms

old hulks and to return, temporarily at least,

S. BARRON. to Fortress Monroe with the entire force; "Commanding Naval Defense Virginia and North Caro

but, the place proved to be so strong that “ • Fort HATTEBAS, Aug. 29th, 1861.'

Butler left Weber and Hawkins' commands “ Also a verbal communication stating that he had in possession. The Paronee and Monticello in the fort six bundred and fifteen men, and a thou- drew inside, over the bar, to provide against sand more within an hour's call, but that he was any attempt by the Confederates to recapture anxious to spare the effusion of blood.

their lost prize. No immediate effort, how“ To both the written and verbal communication, ever, was made by the rebels to regain the I made the reply which follows, and sent it by Lieu- place. The loss of the six hundred men, and tenant Crosby.

the fear of further advances up and down the ““ Benjamin F. Butler, Major General United States Sounds, threw the Confederates, for some Ariny commanding, in reply to the communication of Samuel time, on the defensive. Barron, commanding forces at Fort Hatteras, cannot admit

For a number of days the terms proposed. The terms offered are these : 14" Full capitulation.

succeeding the capture, 16. The officers and men to be treated as prisoners of war. vessels running the blockade continued to (46 No other terms admissable.

reach the Inlet with their valuable cargoes. "Commanding officers to meet on board flugship Minne

In all cases they fell a prey to the gunboats sota to arrange details. “* August 29th, 1861.'"

snugly moored inside. The losses of English It was three quarters of an hour before merchants, and of their “Southern friends” Lieutenant Crosby returned. He brouglit | whose headquarters were at Nassau and Hali


and the men without arms to retire.




The Privateer Sumter.


Blockade of the Po


fax, were serious. A fine ship, loaded with the Sumter again skimmed the water to the cotton, was found in the Inlet and seized on great destruction of shipping and goods. the 29th. Seven vessels slipped into Federal | After much endeavor to force her into close hands in the course of the two weeks fol- quarters, the U. S. gunboat Tuscarora suclowing.

ceeded in catching the privateer in the Eng. The blockade continued to be enforced as lish harbor of Gibraltar, where she had put well as the extensive and intricate coast line in for supplies and to communicate with her would permit; but August and September friends. The Federal gunboat anchored in saw a great number of rebel merchantmen the harbor of Algesiras, opposite, where she abroad, while the occasional capture of ves- lay for many weeks, holding the pirate craft sels floating the stars and stripes proved that a close prisoner. The T'uscarora, was after Jefferson Davis' Letters of Marque were ren- several weeks, relieved of her guard duty by dered available to legalize piracy and mur

the Kearsage' and betook herself to English der on the high seas.

harbors to watch the course of the Nashville On the 1st of July, 1861, / —with what success we detail in the foot.

the privateer Sumter, Cap- note below. The Sumter, thus confined, was tain Semmes, cleared the blockading squad. abandoned by her captain and crew, who ron, off the Mississippi river passes, to enter sought for and found in English ship yards upon a career of unexampled boldness and another craft with which to prey upon com

She made captures in the waters merce. It is consoling to know that Captain of the West Indies to the number of twelve Semmes' second ship, the Alabama, destroyed or fifteen, in three weeks time; then stood much property belonging to Her Majesty's in for the English port of Nassau, New Prov- subjects, afloat in American bottoms. idence, wliere she was kindly permitted to

The Confederates hasttake in coals and all necessary supplies, at ened, after their success at the same time disgorging her hold of its Bull Run, to the lines of the heavy treasures. She then put to sea to be- Potomac below Washington, erecting powercome quite a terror to commerce. Several

ful batteries at Acquia Creek, Pig Point, and fast steamers were dispatched in her pursuit at other positions commanding the approach -one of which found her at Nassau, but to the Capital by the river. The navigation was refused the rights of harbor tarry; avd of the river, in consequence, soon became the pirate, after leisurely coaling and refitting, dangerous, though the Union gunboats, by passed out to sea one dark night-an Eng their constant vigilance, kept the Confederlish steamer, similar in appearance, putting ates, up to the middle of October, from closout before her to datw away the vigilant ing the stream to transportation. The vast Federal cruiser.* The ruse succeeded, and army around the Capital required supplies

which the river was requisite to furnish with The English authorities openly served “the economy and dispatch. Its blockade, therecause" on another more remarkable occasion, when fore, became a serious matter to the Commisthe rebel steamer Nashville was permitted to leave sariat; yet, week after week witnessed the Southampton, and the Federal gunboat Tuscurora growth of batteries and the gradual sealing was detuined for the space of twenty-four hours to of the stream and no special effort was made give the rebel craft an opportunity for escape. An

to check their progress. By October 20th English frigate lay alongside the Tuscarora, with fires

the blockade was quite complete, and so reup and guns shotted, to prevent the gunboat from

mained until after the evacuation of Manaspursuit. This act was by decision of the Ministry. It was only one of many instances where neutrality sight of the English coast, (November 19th,) was was practiced to aid the rebel cause. Without hav allowed to sail February 3d, 1862 ; the rebel Com. ing formally recognized the Southern States as a missioners, Mason and Slidell, arrived in London power, the English Government conceded them all | January 30th. Their friends pointed to their release the rights of a belligerent. The Nashville having by English threats, and to the Federal gunboat ly. put into Southampton November 21st, 1861. after ing under British guns, as evidence of the spirit of having burnt the clipper ship Larvey Birch, within the Ministry.





Blockade of the Po

Affairs at Pensacola.


The Attack on Wilson's Zouaves.

sas (February 8th. 1862)— 1 Pensacola harbor, for
a period of over three many months after the fall

months-during which time of Sumter, became a point the savigation of the Potomac was almost of unabated interest. Fort Pickens, nder entirely suspended. Only an occasional ad-command of Colonel Harvey Brown, assumed venturer, favored by wind and tide and cov- a position of efficiency which defied the powered by darkness, passed up or down. Even er of General Bragg and his batteries. Linthe powerful gunboats were driven from their ing the low sand beach for several miles with old haunts--so completely were the Confed- powerful guns, the rebel General made Pickerates entrenched. As the line of the Balti- ens the centre of a circle into which to pour more and Ohio railway was in Confederate his hail of iron; but, the storm, though hands, at Harper's Ferry the isolation of threatened and expected, never occurredWashington became a painful reality—the why, is among the unwritten mysteries of remaining avenues of approach being by the Bragg's Pensacola campaign. single railway from Baltimore and by the out- The dreary monotony of that sleepy region of-the-way Annapolis track-both located in was disturbed on the night of October 9th, a State secure from insurrection by the con- (1861,) when the Confederates, about fifteen stant presence of heavy Federal columus at hundred strong, crossed to Santa Rosa island commanding points. Who was responsible for the purpose of destroying the camp of for the blockade ? Not the Navy Depart. Wilson's Zouaves (the Sixth New York volment, since its gunboats and tugs struggled unteers) lying about two miles away from against the batteries, unaided, until power- Fort Pickens. The enterless before the multitude of guns. The hope prise was regarded as an of the War Department was to open the Po- offset to the bold affair of tomac by forcing the rebels back from Manas- Sept. 13th, when Lieutenant Russel, with his sas; but, the long delay in obtaining Manas-boat's crew, destroyed the privateer Judah, sas proved disastrous to that hope, and to the under the guns of the Navy Yard. The rebel General-in-Chief of the Army wholly belongs design was to rout the Zouaves, and, if sucthe credit or discredit of that long continued cessful, to make a 'bold dash for the Fort, and mortifying blockade.

from the east or land side, spiking the outDuring all the hot sea- lying batteries and following the Zouaves Operations of the Blockading Squadron.

son, when it was supposed into the fortification. The night chosen was

operations on the Gulf one of inky darkness, during which the Con-, coast were impossible to unacclimated men, fetlerates passed over, and, having landed at the blockade was not intermitted. Off New a point some eight miles away, came down Orleans, Galveston, Mobile, Pensacola, Apa- cautiously upon the camp. The transports lachicola, as well as up the Atlantic coast to remained close in upon the beach, in order to Beaufort, North Carolina, the squadrons hov- be on band for emergencies. The camp conered, everywhere striving to do their arduous tained but two hundred and fifteen of the duty. If many fleet steamers, with valuable Zouaves--the remainder of the regiment cargoes of supplies to the Confederate army being absent at Tortugas and intermediate and people, passed in and out--if an occa- localities. The attack was made by the enemy sional privateer eluded the vigilance of the in three columns of about five hundred each. Federal look-outs—it was owing to the intri- The soft sand of the island so deadened the cate nature of a coast line numbering hun- sound of approaching feet that the sentinels dreds of harbors—many of them having sev- were engaged at their posts and the camp eral entrances. A fleet, numerous enough to assailed at three points before they were kave guarded every inlet, pass, bayou, gult, aroused. Colonel Wilson and his men inand river mouth, would have counted its stantly turned out, and measures were taken keels by hundreds. The many captures made to repel the assault. Detachments were deall along the coast, attested the alertness of tailed to meet the flanking columns, while those on the wearisome duty.

another body prepared to meet the centre.

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