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in such admixtures. On the other hand, a history may be quite accurate in dates and matters of fact, yet, taken as a whole, may convey an enormous lie. We are accustomed in modern times to this latter style of history. Our canon of the 'historical' excludes everything but literal facts. But mankind, in primitive times, acknowledged no such canon. Where we philosophize in reflections, they philosophized in symbols. This, of course, creates a difficulty in dealing with early writers. It renders it necessary for the interpreter to be constantly on his guard. We have to enter, not merely into words, but if possible into mind, quite different in all its habits from the mere modern mind. Our great effort, in short, is, in dealing with ancient writings, to put ourselves to the utmost at the ancient point of view. And if those writings should be sacred, as well as ancient, the difficulty in some points may, for a long time at least, be absolutely insuperable. "Now, Bishop Colenso, like other skeptics, allows for nothing of this sort. He assumes a modern, rationalistic, matter-of-fact point of view. From that he frames his own theory of Inspiration. From that he lays down his own canons of the 'historical.' What accords not with these canons he calls 'unhistorical.' What he calls 'unhistorical,' he therefore judges to be uninspired." PP. 20, 21.

It is to the elucidation of these general principles in a special application to the objections of Bishop Colenso, that he devotes himself in this volume. This is, however, in the way of possible suggestions, rather than in that of confident opinion. The only difficulty recognized to be at all serious, is that which arises from the alleged numbers of the Israelites. This "only real difficulty" is set aside by the suggestion of a possible mystic signification, as well as by the hypothesis of corruptions of the orginal text.

"Moderns are averse to the mystic science, and prefer the hypothesis of 'cor ruptions' or 'interpolations.' The Hebrew letters which stand for numerals may be corrupted by a line or dot. Many of them, we know from the evidence of Manuscripts, have been so corrupted. Where there is a real discrepancy, then, either among the numbers themselves, or between the numbers and the general drift of the text, it is easier to suppose that Manuscripts have suffered in the lapse of ages, than that a sensible writer, like Moses, should have committed an egregious blunder.

"I think there is room for all these hpyotheses: for, of the figures employed in Scripture, some are doubtless corrupt; some are vague; some are mystic; and to decide which is which in any given case requires all the tact and learning that Interpretation, as a science, can bring to bear on the subject." pp. 81, 82.


Whatever may be thought of the success or the want of success achieved by Dr. Mahan, all readers will agree that he has written with a devout faith in the supernatural origin and conduct of the Mosaic records, as well as from a candid and earnest desire to find the true ground by which they are to be adjusted and defended.

We cannot feel the force of all that he avows, but we honor his bold and Christian spirit.

BISHOP COLENSO ON ROMANS.*-We observe that in some of the London journals, the publishers of Colenso's mathematical works are advertising them with great zeal, hoping that the notoriety of his views respecting the Pentateuch will bring a sale for everything that he has written. We presume that for similar reasons this commentary was reprinted by the Messrs. Appleton. In itself it is a much less exceptionable book than his work on the Old Testament, indeed it is not unworthy of attention and respect for the force with which important principles are enforced, and for the general spirit and intent with which the writer seeks to enter into the mind of the apostle, and to reproduce his argument. That he mistakes him on some most material points is true, as respect to the right and varied rendering of the word "righteousness." That from what the apostle says in the 8th chapter, he draws unauthorized inferences in respect to the doctrine of the future restoration of all man is also true. On the other hand he gives deserved prominence to the general doctrine of the gracious and redeeming system under which we live, and enforces it with so much earnestness and true Christian feeling as to relieve our minds in some measure from the vexation, mingled with contempt, we have felt for the miserable and shallow naturalism which his book seems to teach.

Scholars who wish to find in brief compass the theology that is derived from the Pauline Epistles by a not inconsiderable number of the divines of the English Church at the present day, will be rewarded by the perusal of this volume.

SERMONS AND MISCELLANEOUS WORKS OF DR. JONAS KING.Although it is now some time since their issue, we desire to call atten

St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans: newly translated and explained from a missionary point of view. By the Rev. J. W. COLENSO, D. D., Bishop of Natal. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1863. 12mo. pp. 261. For sale in New Haven by Peck, White & Peck. Price, $1.25. † OMIAIAI IRNA KINT.

(Sermons of Jonas King, preached at different times in Athens. Athens: 1859). Two Volumes. Svo. pp. 280 and 260. AIAPOPA INNA KINT. (Miscellaneous Works of Jonas King, composed at different times and places. Athens: 1859). 8vo. pp. 843.

tion to these publications of our esteemed American missionary at Athens. The forty-eight short sermons contained in these volumes give the public a much desired view of the character of his Sabbath ministrations. Besides a series on the ten commandments, there are discourses on Baptism, Salvation by Faith, Fasting, True Liberty, The Temptations of Christ, Duties of Parents, Dancing, Repentance, Praise of Men, &c. The truths presented are simple and self-evident enough to our minds, but are accompanied with a fullness of illustration and Scripture proof intended to make them intelligible and acceptable to hearers to whom they were novelties.

Dr. King's Miscellaneous Works include those chiefly which have been the occasion of complaint against him by the Greeks. The various newspaper attacks and legal indictments to which they gave rise are published in the same volume, and these, with notes and appendixes, make altogether a documentary history of his labors and persecutions in Greece. From 1828 to 1844, he met with constant favor, distributing in that period more than three hundred thousand books. One cannot read the record without seeing how unreasonable and fanatical has been the opposition against him; which has, since that time, so often interrupted his chosen employment, and sought to drive him from his post by slander and by violence. He has been spared to live down that prejudice in a great measure, and to see in his old age many signs of religious and political progress in the nation to whose welfare he has devoted his life.


CRAIK'S MANUAL OF ENGLISH LITERATURE.*-This book is an abridgment of the larger work on this subject by the same author, and has nearly all of its merits and few of its faults. The division, however, of the English language into three periods, of Original or First English, or Anglo-Saxon; Broken or Second English or Semi-Saxon, from the middle of the eleventh to the middle of the thirteenth centuries; and Mixed, or Third English, from that time

* A Manual of English Literature, and of the History of the English Language, from the Norman Conquest. With numerous specimens. By GEORGE L. CRAIK, LL. D., Professor of History and English Literature in Queen's College, Belfast. Crown, 8vo. London: Griffin, Bohn & Co. New York: Chas. Scribner.

on, does not seem sufficiently precise, as the latter period embraces the language in quite different stages. But it is perhaps accurate enough for the purposes of the book. The literature is treated in both a chronological and generic order; and well-selected examples are given under each prominent writer, except three or four, such as Shakespeare and Milton, whose works are in everybody's hands. Those writers who mark an epoch in the history of our literature are treated at considerable length, and the articles on Chaucer, Spencer, and Burke are particularly excellent. Occasionally too much space is given to an inferior writer; Darwin, for instance, is treated at as great length as Dryden, but as a general thing the relative importance of the author is well marked. We think that Bacon is very much underrated by the author, who seems to be on the very opposite tack from the indiscriminate. laudation with which his name is usually greeted, when he denies him either novelty or merit in his Novum Organon, and affirms that the reign of the old philosophy would probably have passed away quite as soon had his writings never appeared. Seemingly from a mistaken fear of moral influence he has done Byron injustice in not alluding to his Don Juan, although in his larger work he calls it, without doubt, the finest poem of this or the preceding century.

Occasionally, too, there are signs of hasty work, as when on page 164, Trevisa is given in the heading, and also on page 169, referred to as previously mentioned, but the paragraphs on him are entirely omitted.

The greatest fault of all is-one that in the larger work is unpardonable the modernizing of the spelling, so that we only see the sense of some passages, and lose all that flavor of the antique which comes from old spelling and grammar. On the whole, the book is a valuable and excellent manual for students, and we are glad to learn that it has been already introduced into some of the schools of New York.

ARNOLD'S ENGLISH LITERATURE* differs in plan from most

A Manual of English Literature, Historical and Critical, with an Appendix on English Metres. By THOMAS ARNOLD, B. A., formerly Scholar of University College, Oxford, and late Professor of English Literature in the Catholic University of Ireland. Small 8vo. London: Longman & Co. 1862. New York: Chas. Scribner.

other books of this kind. The critical and historical sides of the literature are treated separately. This arrangement promises the advantage of giving the student a knowledge of the different forms of literature, as well as of the relative value of the various works in each class. At the same time there is a disadvantage in this arrangement for a work of this size; that as everything must be treated in a cursory manner the student is apt to get very confused and indefinite notions of the various authors and their works.

The critical remarks are in the main judicious, although one cannot help thinking that the classification of the various kinds of poetry is a little too minute and formal. The examination of "Paradise Lost" is perhaps the best of the criticisms.

There is one reason why Mr. Arnold's work will not be used as extensively as it otherwise might be, and that is that the author is a Catholic. Although he professes his endeavor to "carefully respect religious sensibilities," and although he treats great Protestant theologians with all fairness, still his Catholicism is prominent throughout. Now a work on literature, especially, should never show the religious ideas of its writer. But at the end of every period, Mr. Arnold always treats separately of the Catholic writers, and gives them a disproportionate share of attention in so small a work.

And, again, after praising Lingard's history, he says, "Macaulay's volumes commenced to appear in 1848," which is all the mention that this great writer and historian obtains in the work.

The Appendix on English Metres is a very satisfactory treatment of a subject which is usually either slurred over or entirely omitted in works of this kind, and even in works on English grammar. Although it is not indispensable to an enjoyment of poetry to have a knowledge of metre-in some respects a seemingly mechanical art-yet, a thorough acquaintance with the subject adds much to the appreciation of poetry, especially of good poetry.


DANA'S MANUAL OF GEOLOGY.* Geology, as presented in this masterly treatise, has attractions not merely for students of science,

* Manual of Geology: Treating of the Principles of the Science with special reference to American Geological History, for the use of colleges, academies, and

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