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CH. II.]



or grants, were freely supplied; and and order, and with those, of happiearly in May, there were at least 100,- ness and prosperity throughout our 000 men in active preparation for the country." field. The promptitude and enthusi asm of the people were ably seconded by the governors of the states, and it was a truly noble and inspiriting spectacle to behold the heartiness and unselfishness of those who had resolved that the Union should never perish through their neglect or lack of devotion to its best interests.*

It was not, however, in the loyal states alone that active and energetic measures were pursued. The southern leaders, who had long before marked out their course of proceedings, pushed forward operations in every direction. The work of public spoliation, which was begun at Charleston, Savannah and New Orleans, was also vigorously carOn the 3d of May, the president is ried on in other regions of the country. sued a proclamation, calling for troops, Within a few days of the fall of Sumter, to serve for three years, unless sooner the steam transport Star of the West, discharged. Forty-two thousand vol- loaded with provisions, sent for the unteers were thus called for, while the relief of the United States troops in regular army was directed to be in Texas, was treacherously seized at Increased by the addition of eight regi- dianola by a body of insurgents, under ments of infantry, one of cavalry, and Colonel Van Dorn; the arsenals at one of artillery, making an aggregate Liberty in Missouri, Fayetteville in of nearly 23,000 officers and men. North Carolina, and Napoleon in ArEighteen thousand seamen were, at the kansas, with stores of arms and ammunsame time, ordered to be enlisted for ition, were plundered by the rebels; the naval service of the United States. Fort Smith, in Arkansas, was taken posHaving stated that these requisitions session of by Colonel Solon Borland, and acts would be submitted to Con- the leader of a volunteer band of secesgress, as soon it assembled, the presi- sionists. In consequence of the var dent said "In the meantime, I earn-ious acts of robbery and violence in estly invoke the co-operation of all good Virginia and North Carolina, defeating citizens in the measures hereby adopted the exercise of the proper powers of the for the effectual suppression of unlaw. federal government, President Lincoln, ful violence, for the impartial enforce- on the 27th of April, by proclamation, ment of constitutional laws, and for the extended the blockade of the southern speediest possible restoration of peace coast to those states.*

* The activity, zeal, and courage of the governors of the loyal states, deserve especial mention. Not only in the older states, but in the great West, these qualities were nobly exemplified. In Indiana, for instance, Governor Morton called for the troops apportioned to that state by the president's proclamation. In less than eight days, more than 12,000 men, three times the number asked for, tendered their services in behalf of their country

As Washington was now considered

* On the 20th of May, the United States marshals, by order of the government, seized upon all the dispatches and communications in the leading telegraph offices in the North. This was done in order to discover secret confederate allies and sympathizers in the loyal states, and thus to defeat their plans and pur|poses.


to be safe from any rebel attack, it was man by the name of Jackson, met him, but natural that some active steps and seeing what had been done, fired should be called for, in order to put an into his bosom. Ellsworth fell dead, end to the insolent pretensions and Jackson immediately after was of secessionists and violators of killed by one of the zouaves in comthe law. Arlington Heights might be, pany. The funeral ceremonies in conand probably would be, taken posses- nection with Ellsworth's death were sion of by the rebels, if time were impressive and largely attended, both allowed them; and then, what roused in Washington and New York. On the blood of many a patriotic citizen the other hand, the southern press laudand soldier, there, just across the river, ed Jackson's act as a noble deed, and in full sight from the capital, the seces- worthy of perpetual memory.* At the sion flag was displayed, as if in mockery North, Ellsworth was looked upon as of the majesty and dignity of that gov- having been assassinated; at the South, ernment which the father of his country Jackson was called a hero and a martyr. gave his whole life to uphold. It was However the incident may be viewed, therefore resolved to make a forward it certainly indicated at the time, that movement into Virginia. This was ac- there was likely to be a terrible earncomplished on the night of the 23d of estness on both sides; that the contest May, under the direction of Gen. Mans was a real one which was now inaug. field. The force which crossed the Poto- urated; that the day of words had mac consisted of some 13,000 in all, and passed; and that the hour for deeds had immediate possession was taken of Ar- arrived. lington Heights and of Alexandria. At this latter place, Colonel Ellsworth, with his noted New York Fire Zouaves, arrived by water, very early in the morning of the 24th of May. His first impulse was to destroy the railroad communication, and to seize upon the telegraph office, both of them measures of importance; but, as he was on his way to the office of the telegraph, he espied flying from the Marshall House, a second class hotel, a confederate flag. Although accompanied by only three or four persons, Ellsworth, with more enthusiasm than discretion, rushed into the house, mounted to the roof, cut down the flag, and having wrapped it round his body was coming down the stairs. The proprietor of the house, a

The determination of the government to use such force as was at its command, in order to suppress the rebellion, caused no little alarm to the secession leaders; and notwithstanding much boasting on their part as to their superior prowess, it was felt that the North was now fully roused, and settled in its conviction in regard to the duty owed to our native land in this hour of trial. All the hopes and expectations based on the alliance and aid looked for from north ern sources were futile and valueless,†

* See Duyckinck's "War for the Union," vol. i., pp. 195 to 202, for a full account of Ellsworth's death and

the circumstances attending it. For the "fire-eating" statement, overflowing with furious words, see Pollard's "First Year of the War," vol. i., pp. 72–76, and

the "Charleston Mercury," of that date.

Franklin Pierce, formerly president of the United



and if the rebel states were to fight at all, they found that they must rely on their own resources in the present emergency. Jefferson Davis, the astute politician and fit leader in a bad cause, was well aware of all this; and consequently, every effort was made to nerve the deluded people, who had been drawn into secession and rebellion, to enter with all their might into the contest. At Harper's Ferry, Manassas, Hampton, and Richmond, the rebels were strongly posted, and it was the plan of the leaders to make Virginia, as far as possible, the battle-ground on which to test the cause they had adopted, against the force of arms wielded by Union hands. Davis and his co-workers knew that, on every account, it was important as well as desirable for them and their so-called government to be in Virginia; and accordingly, they made arrangements to this effect as speedily as possible.


sophism of sovereign state rights and the secession of any state at pleasure, the Union being a mere rope of sand. The apology was intended for effect abroad quite as much as at home; and subsequent events showed that Davis had made his calculations to good purpose. On the 6th of May, the Montgomery Congress formally declared war on the United States, as a foreign power. An enlistment act was passed; an issue of $50,000,000 treasury notes was authorized; debtors were forbidden to pay their northern creditors, etc. By request, Davis appointed a fast day, and on the 21st of May, the congress adjourned, to meet July 20th, in Richmond, Virginia, which was henceforth to be the capital of the Confederate States of America. Immediately Davis left Montgomery, and, on arriving at Richmond, on the 28th, was received with due honor and attention. Some of his words may be quoted here, as manifesting the spirit which actuated the head of the rebel organization. Speaking of the loyal population in the free states, he said: "They have al lowed an ignorant usurper to trample upon all the prerogatives of citizenship, and to exercise powers never delegated

At the close of April, (see vol. iii. p. 562,) the Confederate Congress met at Montgomery, Alabama, and Davis, in his address, made an elaborate apology for southern secession. It was prepared with undoubted ability and skill; but, like all papers of the kind, emanating emanating from that source, it was based upon the necessary to him; and it has been reserved to


States, wrote to Jefferson Davis, January 6th, 1860, en

couraging him and others in their fell designs, in language such as this: "Without discussing the question of right, of abstract power to secede, I have

your own state, so lately one of the original thirteen, but now, thank God, fully separated from them, to become the theatre of a great central camp, occur without blood; and if through the madness of from which will pour forth thousands northern abolitionism that dire calamity must come, of brave hearts to roll back the tide of

never believed that actual disruption of the Union can

the fighting will not be along Mason's and Dixon's

line merely. It will be within our own borders, in our own streets, between the two classes of citizens to whom I have referred. Those who defy law and sacred

constitutional obligations, will, if ever we reach the

this despotism. Apart from that gratification we may well feel at being separated from such a connection, is the

arbitrament of arms, find occupation enough at home." pride that upon you devolves the task

VOL. IV.-5.

of maintaining and defending our new fortunes and your lives, are involved government." in this momentous contest." With this, and more such like stuff Beaure gard entered upon his work in Vir

Beauregard reached Richmond a few days afterwards, to take command in Virginia. Before leaving Charleston, ginia. Troops from every quarter were he gave expression to the disappoint- gathered together, and generals and ment and spite entertained at the South other officers of various grades, who towards Gen. Scott, because the brave had forsworn themselves by desertold hero held to his loyalty without ing the flag of the United States, wavering. On the 5th of June, Beaure- were busily engaged in fortifying varigard issued a proclamation, which, for ous points, and in bringing the troops its ridiculous bluster and foul-mouthed into as high a state of discipline and insinuations, was not surpassed by any efficiency as was in their power. of the southern rebels, military or otherwise. "A reckless and unprincipled tyrant has invaded your soil. Abraham Lincoln, regardless of all moral, legal, and constitutional restraints, has thrown his abolition hosts among you, who are murdering and imprisoning your citizens, confisca ting and destroying your property, and committing other acts of violence and outrage, too shocking and revolting to humanity to be enumerated. All rules of civilized warfare are abandoned, and they proclaim by their acts, if not on their banners, that their war-cry is, Beauty and Booty! All that is dear to man-your honor and that of your wives and daughters-your

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The rebels saw no opportunity now of assaulting Washington, or carrying the war, as they had been led to hope, into the loyal states. Their main efforts were now directed to the sustaining and holding the positions already occupied, and to the repulsing the advances of the Union troops. Numerous skir mishes and collisions, of no great moment, occurred at several points in Virginia; and the gunboats began to prove their value at Sewall's Point, Acquia Creek, Matthias Point, etc. On the 1st of June, Lieutenant Tompkins with a company of cavalry, made a bold dash into Fairfax CourtHouse, and defeated a detachment of the enemy whom he found there. Two days later, a camp of some 1,500 secessionists at Philippi, Barbour Co., in Western Virginia, was assaulted by Union troops under Colonels Kelly and Dumont. A heavy storm interfer ed with their operations; Col. Kelly was dangerously wounded; but the rebels were routed and ran away, leaving everything behind. A spirited advance of an Indiana regiment, under Colonel Wallace, was made on the 11th

CH. II.]



took each other for enemies, and fired both musketry and cannon, killing two and wounding nineteen. The rebels received warning of the approaching expedition and profited by it; so that, when towards noon the assault was made by the Union troops, it proved unsuccessful, and the order was given to retreat. Major Winthrop and Lieut. Greble were killed, together with quite a large number of the troops, and the expedition turned out to be a failure. On the 17th of June, Gen. Schenck, by order of Gen. McDowell, went on a

ɔf June, in a rapid march across Hampshire County; a body of secessionists at Romney was dispersed and compelled to retreat. On the 9th of June, Gen. Patterson at Chambersburg, Penn., advanced towards Harper's Ferry with a considerable force; the result of which movement was, that on the 14th, the rebels abandoned that position, after having burned the railroad bridge over the Potomac, destroyed all the property they could, and torn up the track of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad for about twelve miles from the Ferry. Gen. Butler, having in command, at reconnoitring expedition with the 1st Fortress Monroe, about 6,000 men, Ohio regiment. The troops left Alexlearned that the enemy had fortified andria in the cars on the Leesburg themselves strongly at Big Bethel, Railroad, and soon after reached some twelve miles from the fortress.* A secret expedition was thereupon prepared to drive them out. Late on the night of the 19th of June, boats conveyed troops, under Col. Duryea, across Hampton Creek, to take the advance. These reached Little Bethel, a few miles from Big Bethel, about four o'clock in the morning, and made prisoners of a picket guard of the enemy. Every thing promised success; but unhappily, the main body, consisting of two regiments, in the darkness of the night mis* The facilities afforded to the rebels by slave labor in erecting fortifications, etc., brought up a novel and rather difficult question. At Hampton, when the whites fled, the negroes came into camp near Fortress Monroe. What was to be done with them? Gen. Butler could not think it right to send them back to

their masters to work against the Union and its cause;

so, with great cleverness, he pronounced them contra band of war. When a certain lawyer, named Mallory, sent for three fugitives, the above was the answer he

received; with the privilege, however, of coming in,

and on taking the oath of allegiance, receiving back his slaves. The government sustained the action of Gen.

Butler, whose letter to Gen. Scott, May 27th, is worth reading even at this day.


the little village of Vienna.
Here a masked battery was opened
upon them with fearful destructiveness;
and although the Ohio men stood their
ground.bravely, they were at last com-
pelled to retire. Their loss was five
killed, six wounded and seven missing;
the enemy, it was reported, suffered no
loss whatever. At the same date, June
16th, Gen. Thomas crossed the Potomac
at Williamsport, Maryland, but was
ordered to recross on the 18th, which
gave the rebels a fresh chance for des
truction at Harper's Ferry. General
Patterson, in command, crossed at Wil-
liamsport on July 2d; and it was esti
mated that at the close of the month of
June, there were on and near the Poto-
mac a hundred thousand troops, more
or less ready for active service. The
rebel force, as nearly as could be ascer
tained, was supposed to be, though it
was not, equal to ours in number.

With such and such like evidences

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