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The Battle of Cheat Mountain.
The Battle of Cheat Mountain.
rifled ten-pound Parrott gun, | rebel losses in these affairs,
one hundred are known to mile, and delivered a few shots at the enemy, doing have been killed. The Federal loss was nine fine execution, causing him to withdraw out of con
killed, forty-seven wounded and sixty prisonvenient range. Our relative positions remained un
ers. Only twenty of the enemy were secured changed until near dark, when we learned the result
as prisoners. of the movement on the mountain, as above stated,
This campaign, like most all others in and the enemy retired somewhat, for the night.
" On the 14th early the enemy was again in posi- which the Confederates were worsted, was tion in front of Elk Water, and a few rounds, sup heralded by the Southern press as a victory. ported by a company of the Fifteenth Indiana, were The Richmond Enquirer of Sept. 19th, anagain administered, which caused him to withdraw nouncing Reynolds' hopeless situation, by as before-the forces that had been before repulsed | Lee's environment of the Cheat Mountain from Cheat, returned and were again driven back Pass, gave the detail of Lee's movements as by a comparatively small force from the Mountain. follows: The Seventeenth Indiana was ordered up the path
"The general position of the respective to open communication and make way for another forces is stated to be as follows: General Reysupply train, but, as before, found the little band nolds' main body is strongly fortified in the from the Summit had already done the work. Dur-Cheat Mountain Pass. He has there about ing the afternoon of the 14th the enemy withdrew
four thousand men. East of that Pass he has from before Elk Water, and is now principally concentrated some ten miles from this post, at or near
a force of some hundreds guarding the ford his main camp. On the 15th he appeared in strong. of Cheat River. Near this ford, on the east, er force than at any previous time in front of Cheat, | General Jackson, of the Confederate army, is and attempted a flank movement by the left, but stationed with his command. West of Cheat was driven back by the ever-vigilant and gallant Mountain, at a place called Stipes', Reynolds garrison of the field redoubt on the Summit."
has another body of soldiers, about twelve Thus repulsed in his several essays to dis- hundred in number. He has others further lodge the Federals, Lee retired to fortifica- west, at Huttonsville. tions at Greenbrier, apprehending a move- “General Lee has moved with the force ment on his own rear, by Rosecrans, from under his immediate command around to the Summerville. The rebels had to mourn the west of Cheat Mountain, and taken possesloss, among others, of Colonel John A. Wash- sion between Stipes' and Huttonsville. He ington, Aid-de-camp to General Lee. He was made this movement by a road which he killed while in the act of reconnoitering. himself cut for that purpose. By this means Discovering who the officer was, General he has gained possession of the road leading Reynolds immediately dispatched the body from Cheat Mountain to Huttonsville, and has to the rebel lines. The honored name of thus thrown himself in the rear of the enemy Washington received its first stain in the in- at Cheat Mountain and Stipes', and cut off glorious career of the rebel Colonel.* The their retreat. He has now, it is said, a force
largely superior to that of the enemy." John A. Washington inherited the Mount Vernon Estate. He allowed it to become a ruin. Pile for the Tomb and one hundred acres adjoining. As grims to the shrine of Washington were shocked at the lands were worthless, from exhaustion, the the monstrous neglect everywhere apparent. The amount named was only represented by the bones Tomb was falling into ruins and the Mansion into of George Washington. Through the exertions of a dilapidation. The condition of the estate became a few patriotic women, and the zealous labors of national disgrace. But, owned by an individual, Edward Everett, the large sum was obtained and neither Congress nor the people had any control | paid over to John A. Washington. Nearly seven. over the matter. The grand-nephew had his ends eighths of the amount came from Northern purses. to accomplish in the matter : the greater the na- It was not strange, after this transaction and the tional disgrace the larger the sum he would obtain disposal of the negroes whom he had raised for for a quit-claim of the Tomb and Mansion. Two market on the Estate, that the grand-nephew was bandied thousand dollars was the sum he demanded ready for service in the cause of treason.
Battle of Greenbrier
Lee retired, as said, toenemy back from the river the Greenbrier river, where line for safer quarters.
his entrenched camp offer- At the date of November 1st, the Union ed a defense, in event of Rosecrans' attempt forces were disposed as follows: First and upon his rear. Reynolds, however, gave his Second Kentucky and Eleventh Ohio, formed enemy no peace. On the night of October Cox's brigade, and were located around the 2d, he started for Greenbrier, in strong force, Gauley Bridge ruins. General Schenck's to “reconnoiter.” The enemy was surprised brigade of three regiments was eight miles to some extent and all his advances driven in above, and Colonel McCook's brigade, also with heavy loss. The gallantry of Reynolds' of three German (Ohio) regiments, was five men was irresistible, while the fine artillery miles above Rosecrans' camp on Gauley of the division, taking position within seven Mount; General Benham's brigade was at hundred yards of Lee's entrenchments, cut up Cannelton, eleven miles below Gauley Bridge; his camp fearfully. This demonstration Lee Colonel Tyler held Charleston, with the could only resist by defense; he attempted no Seventh Ohio and the Second Virginia regicounter assault, and allowed the Federals to ments. These commands all were small. The retire at their leisure. Lee's forces, confined summer campaign had been severe, and hunto camp, soon became inefficient from the dreds of the finest troops were disabled from demoralization ever following defeat and in- active service. The press of reenforcements activity ; and winter set in to find the enemy was for the East. No thought apparently in front of Cheat Mountain too peaceably in- was given to the Western Virginia corps, clined to warrant the retention there of more which had done so much in so brief a period. than a “corporal's guard” to watch them. Eastern Tennessee was left to its fate. Ken
Rosecrans, after much important minor tucky was in extreme peril. Missouri hung service in whipping guerillas around the in the balance. All interest, all effort, seemcountry, conjoined forces with Cox, taking ed to centre in the one movement.upon Maup a good position at Gauley Mount, on New nassas, where, it was given out, the great River, three miles above the junction with battle was to be fought which was to deGauley River. Floyd and Wise took up their cide the fate of the rebellion. That battle temporary residence on the opposite side, not only was not fought, but the movement and, for a week or more [October 30th to on Manassas was a failure, in the worst sense November 7th], greatly annoyed the Feder- of the word: it was taken without a blow, alists by cannonading supply trains passing and the rebel host quietly and liesurely withfrom the junction up to their camps. This drew, to compel the Federals to make anoresulted in compelling Rosecran's teamsters ther six months campaign in “approaches" to do their work during the darkness. The to Richmond. Manassas was taken, but the
siege” was finally ended by the arrival of rebellion had gathered new strength by the several Parrott guns, which soon sent the evacuation.
NOTWITHSTANDING the States, the great majority Kentucky's Loyalty.
Kentucky's Loyalty. neutrality which the Gov- of the people were not proernor of Kentucky had proclaimed, May 20th, prietors in man-property; and, permitted to (see page 170,) and the semi-endorsement ob- express their wishes without the fear of rebel tained for that anomalous position by the bayonets, they declared for the Union withaffirmative action of the State Senate, May out qualification. 24th, (see page 171]-notwithstanding the The Governor of the State represented, in Appeal to the Border State Convention, (com- sentiment, the slave proprietary, and was, posed of a mere corporal's guard of dele- therefore, strenuously active in pressing the gates,) for the people to “be steady in their “neutral" condition of affairs voted for by (then) present position" (see page 172], the the extra session of the Legislature; while State drifted slowly but surely in the right the commanding General of the State direction. July 1st the election for members Guards”-called out to sustain the "honor to the National Congress resulted in a heavy of Kentucky soil" by repelling rebels and Union majority. As the candidates had been Federals alike-was known to favor the Connominated on the real issue of secession or federate cause. But, Kentucky was not Tenno secession, the vote indicated how immense- nessee, to be sold out and delivered, bound, ly in the ascendant was the loyal element. over to the Davis Government; and Magoffin The returns were:
performed his Gubernatorial functions with
Union, Disunion. out exciting any popular fears for the result. 1st District,
6,225 8,988 We may not recite the thousand and one 2d
9,281 3,364 minor incidents and accidents which attended 3d
10,392 3,111 the term of Buckner's military reign. He 4th
was in a constant state of activity, but suc5th
ceeded in nothing which did not prove his 6th
Southern sympathies and his extremely lim7th
ited loyalty to Kentucky if she should side 8th
openly with the Federal Government. The 10th
communication remitted by Governor Magof
fin to Mr. Lincoln cited the grievances of 92,365 36,995
the neutrals. It was : Giving an acknowledged Union majority of
“ COMMONWEALTH OF KENTUCKY,
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, fifty - five thousand three hundred and
“FRANKFORT, Aug. 19th, 1861. seventy.
“ To His EXCELLENCY, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President While this vote expressed the loyal sentiment of the United States : of the people, it did not indicate the heavy
: From the commencement of the unhappy undercurrent of pro-slavery sentiment which hostilities now pending in this country, the people was but provisionally loyal. The fear that of Kentucky have indicated an earnest desire and the war might result in the destruction of purpose, as far as lay in their power, while main. their interests in the inter-State slave trade, taining their original political status, to do nothing operated powerfully on the minds of the ma- by which to involve themselves in the war. Up to jority of slave-owners; but, as in all Slave, this time they have succeeded in securing to them.
of the President.
selves and to the State peace rors of war, I urge the removal from the limits of Magomlo's Demands
and tranquillity as the fruits of Kentucky of the military force now organized and
the policy they adopted. My in camp within the State. If such action as is single object now is to promote the continuance of hereby urged be promptly taken, I firmly believe these blessings to the people of this State.
the peace of the people of Kentucky will be pre“ Until within a brief period the people of Ken- served, and the horrors of a bloody war will be tucky were quiet and tranquil, free from domestic averted from a people now peaceful and tranquil. strife, and undisturbed by internal commotion.
B. MAGOFFIN." They have resisted no law, rebelled against no au- This communication was dispatched by thority, engaged in no revolution, but constantly the hands of two “Commissioners,” whom proclaimed their firm determination to pursue their the Governor “accredited” to the President, peaceful avocations, earnestly hoping that their With much good sense, and no little sarcasm, own soil would be spared the presence of armed the President refused to receive the Commistroops, and that the scene of flict would be kept
sioners in removed beyond the border of their State. By thus
other capacity than as private avoiding all occasions for the introduction of bodies citizens. Under date of the 24th, he answerof armed soldiers, and offering no provocation for ed Magoffin's demand in the presence of military force, the people of Ken- these plain but determined tucky have sincerely striven to preserve in their words: State domestic peace, and avert the calamities of
“ WASHINGTON, D. C., Ang. 24th, 1861. sanguinary engagements.
" To his Excellency, B. Magoffin, Governor of the “ Recently a large body of soldiers have been en
State of Kentucky: listed in the United States Army and collected in
" Sir: Your letter of the 19th inst., in which you military camps in tbe central portion of Kentucky.
the removal from the limits of Kentucky of This movement was preceded by the active organi- the military force now organized, and in camp withzation of companies, regiments, &c., consisting of in that State,' is received. men sworn into the United States service, under of- “ I may not possess full and precisely accurato ficopa holding commissions from yourself. Ordnance, knowledge upon this subject; but I believe it is arms, munitions and supplies of war are being true that there is a military force in camp within transported into the State, and placed in large Kentucky, acting by authority of the United States, quantities in these camps. In a word, an army is which force is not very large, and is not now being now being organized and quartered within the augmented. State, supplied with all the appliances of war, with.
“I also believe that some arms have been fur. out the consent or advice of the authorities of the nished to this force by the United States. State, and without consultation with those most “I also believe that this force consists exclusively prominently known and recognized as loyal citizens. of Kentuckians, having their camp in the immediate This movement now imperils that peace and tran. vicinity of their own homes, and not assailing or quallity which from the beginning of our present menacing any of the good people of Kentucky. difficulties have been the paramount desire of this
“In all I have done in the premises I have acted people, and which, up to this time, they have so upon the urgent solicitation of many Kentuckians, secured to the State.
and in accordance with what I believed and still be"Within Kentucky there has been, and is likely lieve to be the wish of a majority of all the Union to be, no occasion for the presence of a military loving people of Kentucky. force. The people are quiet and tranquil, feeling no
“ While I have conversed on the subject with apprehension of any occasion arising to invoke pro- many eminent men of Kentucky, including a large tection from the Federal arm. They have asked majority of her members of Congress, I do not rethat their territory be left free from military occu. member that any one of them, or any other person, pation, and the present tranquillity of their commu- except your Excellency and the bearers of your nication left uninvaded by soldiers, They do not Excellency's letter, has urged me to remove the desire that Kentucky shall be required to supply the military force from Kentucky or to disband it. One tittle field for the contending armies, or become other very worthy citizen of Kentucky did solicit the theatre of the war.
me to have the augmenting of the force suspended “Now, therefore, as Governor of the State of for a time. Kentucky, and in the name of the people I have the “ Taking all the means within my reach to form honor to represent, and with the single and earnest a judgment, I do not believe it is the popular wish desire to avert from their peaceful homes the hor- of Kentucky that the force shall be removed beyond
her limits; and with this impression, I must respect the Governor submitted his
Assembly of the fully decline to so remove it.
Message, the abstract of
Legislature. “ [ most cordially sympathize with your Excel' which read: “Kentucky lency in the wish to preserve the peace of my own had a right to assume a neutral position; she native State, Kentucky; but it is with regret I had no agency in fostering a sectional party search, and cannot find, in your very short letter, in the Free States, and did not approve of any declatation or intimation that you entertain any the separate action and secession of the Southdesire for the preservation of the Federal Union.
ern States, at the time. Until recently Ken“ ABRAHAM LINCOLN." The anomalous position
tucky's neutrality had not been aggressed Position of Kentucky. of a State authority ques
upon by either belligerent power. Lawless tioning the right of the Federal Government | raids have been suffered on both sides; prito protect itself, forbidding its jurisdiction vate property seized; commerce interrupted; on Kentucky soil, is one of those events which trade destroyed. These wrongs have been forcibly illustrates the absurdity of the borne with patience as long as possible: but “State Rights” dogma, on which the whole
a military Federal force was organized, scheme of secession was founded. If Gover-equipped and encamped in the central pornor Magoffin could order Abraham Lincoln's
tion of Kentucky, without consultation with
the State authorities, but a short time before troops away, and could sustain Kentucky's "neutrality," Federal authority and rights
the assembly of a Legislature fresh from the were a farce—a State was superior to the people. If the people of Kentucky desired General Government.
more troops, let them be obtained under the This assumption was too preposterous and
Constitution of Kentucky. He recommended wicked for the loyal men of Kentucky to tol that the act of April
, 1861, be so amended as erate.
to enable the Military Board to borrow a Sentiment rapidly formed against
sufficient sum for the purchase of arms and neutrality and for open co-operation with the
munitions for Kentucky's defense. National authorities in suppressing the dis
The Governor also inferred from the Pressolution revolution. Pending the assembly of
ident's letter (given above) that Mr. Lincoln
would remove the troops if the people requestthe Legislature (Sept. 3d), ed it. He recommended the passage of resointense excitement prevail
lutions requesting all troops or military er through the entire area of the State regarding the condition of affairs. Agents of bodies, not under State authority
, to disband. the Southern Confederacy were everywhere, of Federal arms and of their distribution to
He complained of the continued introduction laboring by their open personal efforts, by
private citizens. That“ source of irritation” tle press, by intrigue, by threats and bril
should be arrested, &c., &c. His further liant promises, to cajole the people from their
views of national relations were thus ex. loyalty. John C. Breckenridge as chief
pounded : op 'rator threw into the desperate game
“ Kentucky has meant to wait the exhausting of all his political and personal influence. A all civil remedies before they will reconsider the dispatch dated Sept. 4th, stated: “It is un- question of assuming new external relations ; but I d rstood in Frankfort that Governor Magoffin have never understood that they will tamely submit refused to play into the hands of the rabid to the unconstitutional aggressions of the North; Secessionists; that he has had a quarrel with that they renounce their sympathy with the people Mr. Breckenridge; that he refuses to demand of her aggrieved sister States, nor that they will tie breaking up of the United States camp in approve of a war to subjugate the South. Still can Garrard county, and that he declares that he I not construe any of their votes as meaning that will submit to the will of the majority of the they will prosecute a coercive war against their people of Kentucky, as may be expressed have still some hope of the restoration and perpet
Southern brethren. They meant only that they through the Legislature."
uation of the Union, and until that hope is blasted The Legislature assembled Sept. 3d, but they will not alter their existing relations. Their was not fully organized until the 5th, when final decision will be law to me, and I will execute
Ffforts of the Secessionists.