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Monongahela which followed, were The passage of the batteries by Farnot so fortunate, receiving injuries ragut enabled him, as we shall see furwhich prevented their passing the bat-ther on, to render material assistance to teries.

The Mississippi, the last in the line, now advanced, and was pushing forward successfully, when she grounded on the west bank of the river, exposed to the enemy's batteries astern, on the bow, and opposite to her. Finding it impossible, after intense effort, to get her off, it was resolved to abandon her. The engines were ordered to be destroyed, the guns spiked, and the ship set on fire. The officers and crew were hurried on shore, and were nearly all saved. The fire raged on the ship for an hour, when the water, flowing aft, settled her stern, and she gradually slid off into the current, her guns discharging, and shells on deck exploding in every direction, until she was blown in pieces. This was about half past five P.M. The officers and crew lost everything except what they stood in. They saved nothing, and they left nothing in the hands of the rebels.

Banks, meanwhile, had led his troops from Baton Rouge in three divisions, under command of Gens. Augur, Grover and Emory, to Springfield Cross Roads, about five miles from Port Hudson. There was some skirmishing with the rebel pickets, but no important advance beyond. On the night 1863. of the 14th of March, the cannonading of the fleet was distinctly heard by the soldiers, who also saw the light of the burning Mississippi. The next day the troops, according to orders, returned to Baton Rouge.

* In Halle k's opinion, expressed at a subsequent

Porter and the army of Grant in the passage of the Vicksburg batteries, and especially in the blockade of the Red River. When this was accomplished, he left his flag-ship, the Hartford, above, and returned by the Atchafalaya to take part in the final operations for the reduction of Port Hudson.

Banks's attention was now turned to that part of Louisiana west of New Orleans, and bordering on the Teche River. Since the expedition of Weitzel in January (see p. 299), the rebels in that quarter had erected new fortifica tions and concentrated their forces, aided by a fleet of gun boats, at several stations on the Teche River, with the intention, it was supposed, of threatening New Orleans. Banks, suspending operations for the time against Port Hudson, advanced with his forces to Berwick, where he arrived on the 11th of April, and commenced a series of active movements, which speedily swept the enemy from their strongholds throughout this central region from the Gulf to the Red River.

At the outset of the march, on the 12th and 13th of April, there was a prolonged engagement of Emory's and Weitzel's divisions with the 1863. enemy, at an entrenched position in the vicinity of Pattersonville, at

date, "Had our land forces invested Port Hudson at this time, it could have been easily reduced, as its

garrison was weak. This would have opened commu

nication by the Mississippi with Gen. Grant at Vicks

burg. But the strength of the place was not then known, and Gen. Banks resumed his operations by the Teche and Atchafalaya.”



the mouth of the Teche.

of sharp encounters, the rebels, having suffered a heavy loss, on the night of the 13th abandoned their positions.

Meanwhile, Grover had, with the force under his command, and a number of transports and gun boats, ascended Grand Lake from Brashear City, and effected a landing in the enemy's rear at Irish Bend. Having crossed the Teche at that place, our troops marched towards Franklin, and, on the 14th of April, routed the rebels after their retreat from the batteries below. These fled in confusion, burning, in their retreat, two gun boats and a number of steamers on the Teche. Banks advanced with his forces to New Iberia, and took possession of and destroyed in the vicinity the extensive salt works, which had been a constant source of supply to the rebels.


After a series 17th of April, Grover met the rebels at Bayou Vermilion. They were strongly entrenched, with a battery of six pieces of artillery. After destroying the bridge over the bayou, the enemy made a hasty retreat. Some delay occurred in rebuilding the bridge; but on the 19th, the march was resumed, and continued to the vicinity of Grand Coteau, and on the following day Opelousas was occupied by our troops. A cavalry advance was made to Washington, on the Courtebleau, a distance of six miles. Gen. Dwight was ordered to push forward through Washington towards Alexandria. This was done, with excellent success, notwithstanding the rebels had destroyed several important bridges over the bayous in their retreat. Buttea-la-Rose was taken, on the 20th of April, by Lieut. Cooke of the navy, with his gun boat and four companies of infantry, and thus was secured what Banks called the key of the Atchafalaya. "We hold," he said, "the key of the posi tion. Among the evidences of our victory are 2,000 prisoners, two transports, and twenty guns (including one piece of the Valvado battery), taken; and three gun boats and eight transports destroyed. The Union loss in these engagements was very slight."

On the 14th of April, our fleet encountered the rebel ram Queen of the West, which, after her capture on the Red River, had been brought into the Atchafalaya River, and had now descended to Grand Lake to attack the advancing Union forces. As she was moving onward to the assault, a shell from one of the gun boats exploded a box of ammunition on her deck, when she was immediately enveloped in flames. Strenuous efforts were made by the fleet to save the lives of her crew, and ninety-five were taken from the vessel and the water. About forty, it was supposed, perished. The vessel was burnt to the water's edge, but her

guns were saved.


* While at Opelousas, Gen. Banks issued an order, dated May 1st, 1863, in which he proposed to organize a corps d'armée consisting of negroes, to be designated

as the "Corps d'Afrique." The plan was, to have eighteen regiments of 500 in each (9,000 in all), repre

senting all arms, infantry, artillery, and cavalry, with appropriate uniforms, etc. There was more or less diversity of opinion as to enlisting negroes and making

them part of the army. The experience, however, of the next year, and Gen. Thomas's investigations and labors in connection with negro enlistments, proved favorable to the plan of using them as helpers in put

Banks lost no time in pushing vigorously forward. On the evening of the ting down the rebellion.

sault was made, which was kept up during the day. The rebels were driven into their works, and our troops moved up to the fortifications, holding the opposite sides of the parapet, with the enemy on the right. "Our limited ac quaintance with the ground," according to Banks's statement, "and the character of the works, which were almost hidden from our observation until the moment of approach, alone prevented the capture of the post."*

Following up these advantages, compelled to abandon his first line of Banks, on the 8th of May, had ad- works. Two days later, a general asvanced to and occupied Alexandria on the Red River, immediately after its capture by the naval force of Porter in one of his excursions from before Vicks burg. The co-operation of the two armies below and above Port Hudson was thus secured by an interior line of communication, while, what was of the utmost consequence, the rebel supplies from the west of the Mississippi were effectually cut off. In view of these various operations, under such men as Farragut, Porter, Grant, and Banks, the fall of the rebel stronghold at Vicksburg and Port Hudson was looked for confidently at an early day.

Immediately after his occupation of Alexandria, Banks moved down the Red River, making Semmesport on the Atchafalaya his rendezvous, where, crossing the Mississippi, he landed with a portion of his army, on the 21st May, at Bayou Sara, a few miles above Port Hudson. On the 23d, a junction was effected with the advance of Gens. Augur and T. W. Sherman, who had brought up their forces from Baton Rouge. The Union line now occupied the Bayou Sara road at a distance of five miles from Port Hudson. Augur had an engagement with a portion of the enemy at Port Hudson Plains, on the Bayou Sara road, in the direction of Baton Rouge, which resulted in repulsing the rebels with heavy loss.* On the 25th of May, the enemy was

*Brigadier-General Thos. W. Sherman was severely wounded in the right leg with a solid shot, while leading the attack. He was removed to New Orleans, amputation was performed, and Gen. Sherman was relieved by the war department from active service.

The great strength of the rebel position at Port Hudson rendered a regular investment necessary. The garrison was completely cut off from supplies, and would be ultimately starved out, if not compelled to surrender by assault. Banks, on the 14th of June, made a proposal to the rebel commander to submit to necessity and spare useless slaughter; but he refused. Several unsuccessful assaults were made by our troops, which did not, however, prevent the pushing forward the siege. A storming party was called for and rapidly filled up; but, happily, their ser vices were not required. The rebel general Gardner, having learned that Vicksburg had fallen, on the 4th of July, felt that he too could and ought to follow such an example. Accord ingly, on the 8th of July, Port Hudson was unconditionally surrendered into the hands of Gen. Banks. The next day formal possession was taken of the

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Attack on Arkansas Post-Fort Hindman taken -'Complete success- - Grant's movements-Plan as to Vicksburg-Canal project a failureSuccess Porter sends the Queen of the West to run the batteries Col. Ellet on the Red River - Projects of approach to Vicksburg, by Tensas River, Moon Lake, etc. — Unsuccessful - Porter's effort by Steele's and Black's bayou - Another gun boat gets past Vicksburg - Grant puts his forces in motion towards New Carthage - Porter resolves to take eight gun boats and three transports past the batteries - Success of the daring undertaking-Other transports follow- Attack on Grand Gulf— Grant marches on Port Gibson - Victory - Col. Grierson's great cavalry raid-Grant's determination to secure his rear — Advance of our troops-Defeat of the rebels at Raymond and Jackson - Pemberton's efforts Grant's plan of action - Battle of Champion's Hill, or Baker's Creek - Pemberton at the Big Black - Rebel rout complete - The army crosses the river and invests Vicksburg - Co-operation of the fleet under Porter-Lieut. Walker at Yazoo city - Assault on the works at Vicksburg - Another, three days later — Failure of both - Regular siege operations begun - Grant reinforced largely - Mortar batteries — Condi. tion of Vicksburg - Explosion of the first mine Assault - Second mine sprung-Pemberton proposes to surrender on July 3d — Vicksburg given up and entered by Grant on the 4th of July - Grant reports the result-Porter's share - Sherman's march after Johnston - Greatness of our success.


IT had been arranged between Gen. burg; and the works there, called Fort W. T. Sherman and Admiral Porter, Hindman, were sufficiently just before Gen. McClernand's arrival strong to encourage the rebels to take command (see p. 250) of the in various annoyances, which ought not Army of the Mississippi, that an attack to be permitted to exist. McClernand should be made upon Arkansas Post. approved of the plan, and steps were It was desirable to do this for several taken at once to move the troops up reasons; the blow would fall entirely the Mississippi to Montgomery Point, unexpected by the rebels; a victory opposite the mouth of the White River. would be of great service to rouse the spirit of the army after the failure of operations heretofore against Vicks

On Friday, January 9th, three ironclads under Porter's personal direction, with all the light draft gun boats of the

fleet, moved up the White River, about fifteen miles, when, turning to the left, they passed through a cut-off, eight miles long, into the Arkansas River. Toward the close of the afternoon, preparations were made to land about three miles below Arkansas Post, which is about fifty miles from the mouth of the river. This was accomplished during the evening and part of the next day, and the troops advanced by divisions, so as to invest the fort and be ready to join the attack on the morning of the 11th January. Fort Hindman, against which they were marching, was a rather formidable work, being a regular square bastioned fort, the sides 300 feet in length, with casemates, and surrounded by a wide and deep ditch; it mounted twelve guns, including three Columbiads and four Parrotts, with outer defences; and there were in it about 5,000 men. Situated at a sharp bend of the river, it effectually controlled the passage of the Arkansas, protected Little Rock, the capital of the state, about 100 miles above, and sheltered the Post, where it was built, and the surrounding fertile country.

cannon, 8,000 stand of arms, and a large quantity of ammunition and stores were taken; and the rebels were cut off from further use of a position where they could do mischief. The loss on the part of McClernand was about 600, of whom 120 were killed. Porter's loss was slight, and the iron-clads and other vessels, though frequently struck, received no serious injury.

On the 16th of January, an expedi tion in light draft steamers, under Gen. Gorman and Lieut. Walker, ascended the White River to Duvall's Bluff, about fifty miles from Little Rock, and found the enemy's posts deserted. In consequence of the country being flooded by heavy rains the roads were unfit for cavalry and artillery movements, and hence an overland advance upon Little Rock was compelled to be given up. The expedition returned to Napoleon on the 19th of January.

Having effectually destroyed the rebel works and their surroundings, McClernand with his forces reached Napoleon on the 18th of January, and prepared to take his share in the attack upon Vicksburg. The next day, the transports moved down the river, and being detained by boats being detained by a severe storm, did not reach their destination, Young's Point, until the 21st of January. This Point is on the western side of the Mississippi, about nine miles above Vicksburg, and nearly opposite the mouth of the Yazoo River. The gun boats also dropped down to their stations, and by the end of the month, Grant had gath ered his forces from Cairo and up the river, and with an increase of the iron clads under Porter, was prepared to

On the afternoon and during the evening of January 10th, the gun boats opened fire upon the fort, at the distance of about 400 yards, and kept it up for some time. About noon, the next day, a joint attack was begun by the naval and land forces, and was pressed so vigorously that, in the course of three hours, the rebels gave up the contest as hopeless; the white flag was hoisted, and our troops rushed into the works. The victory was complete; over 5,000 prisoners, twenty p'eces of

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