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riors-Count Pulaski, the gallant Pole, who, in the face of a Russian army, bore away the miserable monarch of his nation to reign over a free people. But Stanislaus was unworthy of the crown and the nation; and his deliverer now did battle in a better cause, and under happier auspices.

The British ministry, in the mean time, became conscious of the wavering of France; they saw dark heavy clouds on the political horizon, and they began to prepare for the swiftly coming storm. A large increase was made in both the army and navy, and on the assembling of Parliament, on the 31st of October, 1776, the king, in his speech from the throne, stated to them that it would have given him much satisfaction to be able to inform them that the disturbances in the revolted colonies were at an end, and that the people of America, recovering from their delusion, had returned to their duty. Instead of this, however, so mutinous and determined was the spirit of their leaders, that they had openly abjured and renounced all connection and communication with the mother country, and had rejected every conciliatory proposition. Much mischief, he said, would accrue, not only to the commerce of Great Britain, but to the general system of Europe, if this treason were suffered to take root. The conduct of the colonies would convince every one of the necessity of the measures proposed to be adopted, and the past success of the British arms promised the happiest results; but preparations must be promptly made for another campaign. He expressed a hope of the general continuance of tranquillity in Europe, but, at the same time, he thought it advisable to increase the defensive resources at home.

The replies to the speech were in the usual form, but amendments were moved in both houses of parliament. After a violent debate, in which the animosity of party was more discernible than any thing else, the amendment was rejected, two hundred and forty-two to eighty-seven, and ninety-one to twenty-six. During the session of parliament, some other attempts were made for adopting conciliatory measures; but the influence of the ministry was so powerful that they were all completely defeated, and the plans of the administration received the approbation and support of parliament.

Forty-five thousand seamen were ordered to be raised; sixteen ships of war to be built; and between six and seven millions of pounds sterling were voted for the expenses of the army and navy during the coming year. Parliament then adjourned on the 13th of December, to meet again on the 21st of January, 1777.

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HE period while he was in winter quarters at Morristown, was passed by General Washington in making every exertion for a vigorous prosecution of the coming campaign. He urged Congress to appoint an additional number of general officers; he wrote to the governors of the different states, urging them to raise and forward to head-quarters, with as much despatch as possible, the quotas of troops assigned to their respective states; and at the same time he carried on a correspondence with General Howe, relating to exchange of prisoners. In February, at his earnest request, Congress appointed five additional major-generals,


and ten brigadiers. He was not as successful in his applications to the states, for we find that on the 9th of June, he could muster no more than seven thousand two hundred and seventy-one men fit for duty. Before the capture of General Lee, it had been agreed between Generals Washington and Howe, that their prisoners should be exchanged officer for officer of equal rank, soldier for soldier, and citizen for citizen, but affecting to consider General Lee a deserter from the British army, in which he had formerly held a lieutenant-colonel's commission, he was treated with great severity, the commander refusing to exchange him, even for six officers, and threatening to bring him before a court-martial, to answer the crime of desertion. When intelligence of this conduct was received by Congress, they passed a resolution declaring that Lieutenant-colonel Campbell, who had been captured in the bay of Boston, together with five Hessian field-officers, should be detained, in order that the treatment which General Lee should receive might be exactly inflicted upon their persons. A copy of their resolution was sent to the council of Massachusetts Bay, and they were desired to detain Lieutenant-colonel Campbell and keep him in close custody till the further orders of Congress. Hitherto, this officer had been treated civilly, but on receiving the order of Congress, the council of Massachusetts Bay sent him to Concord jail, and lodged him in a filthy cell, denying him even the privilege of walking about the prison-yard, and neither permitting the visits of his friends nor the attendance of a servant.

Colonel Campbell, naturally conceiving that this rigorous treatment originated in some mistake of the local council, complained in dignified, but respectful terms, to General Washington, and, at the same time, sent through the Massachusetts council a statement of his treatment to General Howe. Washington immediately wrote to the council, enclosing them an extract of the colonel's letter, and the resolution of Congress respecting Colonel Campbell. Alluding to this resolution, he wrote: "By this you will observe, that exactly the same treatment is to be shown to Colonel Campbell and the Hessian officers, that General Howe shows to General Lee; and as he is only confined to a commodious house, with genteel accommodations, we have no right or reason to be more severe upon Colonel Campbell, who, I would wish, should immediately, upon the receipt of this, be removed from his present situation, and put into a house where he may live comfortably."

On the next day, March 1st, he wrote to the President of Congress a strenuous remonstrance against this hasty and premature

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