Page images


59.036.615 War customs
32,164,025 War excise...

14.207.030 33.635.145


11,747,595 Income tax

160,285 Lottery...

1.570 1.639.035

ani hawkers...

A Lesson in

£3,241,107; leaving £67,568,870 raised upon This, be it mindful, was drawn not from consumption, chiefly of luxuries. Of this the Great Britain of to-day, but from a popula. sum the customs produced £23,396,395; ex- tion of 9,187,176 in the year 1800, 12,609,864 cise, £20,070,000; stamps, £8,267,258; post- in 1811, and 15,000,000 in 1815. I. 1811 the office, £3,370,000; income tax, £3,012,935. proportion of tax to incomes was equivalent

This system of taxation originated with to 42 per cent. of the gross incomes of the enthe elder Pitt. During the first four years, tire population of the kingdom ! In 1815 the 1793–97, of the war with France, the budget proportion had fallen to 35 per cent. A people was chiefly sustained by loans; but, as the who would submit to such a drain upon their war called for the exercise of more vigor, the earnings may well be deemed invincible. As Prime Minister at once resolved to throw a specimen of the distribution made, to obtain upon the people the burdens of the war. At these amounts, we append the schedule list of that time the population of Great Britain taxes collected in 1814 : numbered but eight and a half million of

.$116.850,275 Hereditary revenues 666 335 souls; but, from that body, the gigantic re

Lud and Assessed 39.5 9.690 Property tax.... 76,157.500 sources necessary to fight Napoleon were drawn. Having matured his plans, Pitt pro

Hackney coaches

Miscellaneous ... 1,300,915 ceeded to inaugurate them; and the secret

254,3751 of that twenty-three years' struggle is found

These fruitful figures we in the ready response of the people to the do well to repeat, since the Minister's demands. What those demands American people are slow were may be inferred from the fact that the to realize how favored they have been in their tax for 1801 was equal to thirty per cent. of comparative immunity from taxes for the the incomes of the people! Were the people support of their National establishment; and of America to reflect on this fact they would when, out of the boundless abundance of realize that, in England, they have an antag- their resources--rendered boundless by the onist who may safely defy numbers because beneficent nature of the Government—they her people submit cheerfully to unlimited are asked to contribute a mere fraction of taxation in order to sustain the power and their resources to sustain the Republic, they prestige of their Government.

should find their lips forever sealed to comIn order more fully to plaint in view of what Englishmen have done

impress the minds of our for England. Napoleon.

A writer on this period of readers with the vastness Great Britain's history says: “During the of the expenditures made by Great Britain whole period from 1793 to 1835, the energies to sustain her supremacy over France, during and resources of the British people were put the twenty-three years referred to, we append to the severest trial. A large proportion of the following table, explanatory of itself : the wealth-producing classes was sent abroad War Expause.

in the army or navy, or employed in unproaud Navy.

ductive labor. Subsidies and loans were ad1793.....545.656,190 $67,655.000 $22.600.000 $85.372.000 vanced to foreign Powers. The home markets

were not, as in our present struggle, benefited 162.500.000 103.273.250 by the war funds being spent in the country.

Commerce was for years preyed on by hostile 1600..... 92.014.750 149.065.00 102.500,000 169.452.320 cruisers. English goods were prohibited

186.201.065 from entering the continent of Europe. Yet, 1805....112.441.795 181.005.000 139.637 410 249 291 405 of all that a Napoleon, wielding the strength 1804..... 103.294.450 151,270,000 100,521,105 226 297.210 amidst much individual suffering, and in spite 1807.....116,563,460 186.04,000 119,446 285 291.031.125 of the twenty-eight millions of France, could 1809..... 121,461.350 210.05,000 117,023,455 317,026,470 do for its destruction, the British nation pros

127.423,83 239,440.000 137.084.145 323,519,350 pered and grew rich with a rapidity and

149 464,045 274.360,000 270,7. 4,110 331.629, 18 steadiness seldom seen in the history of na1814.... 155.024.220 301.195,000 235,795 185 319 120.950 tions. The war cry seemed to rouse the en1815.... 163,228,090 216,410,000 230,148,016 352,017,210

Cost of War with

War Income.

Interest Cost of Army
of Delt.



1794..... 51.983,225

86,544.056 1795. 63,499.655 143.755.000 90.000.000 89.292.270 1796. 73.825.475 160.525.000 127.500.000 93,638.860 1797 77,876.650 139.030,000 1798..... 84.436.995 129,910.000 85.000.000 151.014,525 1799..... 87.800.635 136.255 100 92 500.000 176,149.840

1801.... 99,099,195 134.990.000 140.000.000 170.750.800
1802.....100.312.755 115 605,000 125.000.000
1803.....104.064.810 105.530.000 76,014.625 185,345,316

1806. ....115,932.910 186.520,000 102.450.775 266,521,127

1808.....117.925 065

193.990.000 102.383.850 307,691,035

1810 ....122.715,810 216.230.000 112.214,394 333.406.830
1812. ....137.269.-30 243.695,000 201,2 8,445 315,529,175





Resources of tho


ergetic masses of the British people from their resources of this country lethargy. The indomitable spirit which gave was cotton. Thus, the tonvictory to battalions in the field, fired the nage carried by the railhearts of the peaceful workers of the produc- roads of the State of Massachusetts for 1859 tive army at home, and stirred all classes and was 3,716,726 tons, worth, at the very low val. all men to labor, to save and to accumulate uation of $100 per ton, $371,672,600. The toncapital. Hence, in the words of one of Eng- nage of the Erie Canal and the Erie and New land's greatest statesmen, “commerce and war York Central railroads for 1860 were 6,767,flourished side by side and both achieved un- 736 tons, worth at least $676,773,600—making wonted victories."

an internal commerce for the two States alone As compared with the exceeding $1,000,000,000 in value. As this American Supremacy

population of Great Britain consisted almost wholly of the products of the of Domain, &c.

in 1861, that of the loyal West, and of the commerce created thereby States, including Maryland, Delaware, West- in goods and trade with that section, it will ern Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri, was be perceived that cotton could offer but litabout equal to that of England and Wales. tle in comparison with such a trade. The [See tables, vol. I., pages 27, 28, for statistics.] loyal States, in 1860 had, to do this traffic, Our wealth and breadth of domain was at 28,600 miles of railroad, costing $950,000,000, once our weakness and our strength—our and 5,000 miles of canal, costing $200,000,000. weakness, because it embodied vast estates If the annual value of the trade of the public with small population : our strength, because works of New York and Massachusetts, with those estates produced such limitless quanti- a mileage of 5,160 miles, was equal to $1,000-, ties of grain and animal food. If Great Brit-000,000, that of the remainder of the loyal ai! contained the most people, the elements States, with a railroad and canal mileage of to sustain her population did not rest with 23,500 miles, must surely have amounted to a her, and British gold flowed freely to our sum twice as large or $2,000,000,000. To all shores for the food we could spare from our this internal commerce cotton contributed only abundance. This surplus alone offered the in a small and comparatively inappreciable loyal States all the funds necessary, from degree-most of it finding its way to market abroad, to make up what was wanted in cur- by river and sea transportation. The traffic in rency for commercial transactions, leaving cotton was nothing to the North and West. the means of our capitalists at liberty to The assessed value of taxable property in operate in Government paper. This ease in the State of New York, in 1860, was $1,430,the money market did not fail to excite the 000,000; of Massachusetts, $897,000,000; of astonishment of our enemies, at home and Ohio, $880,000,000, &c., &c. Run these estiabroad; for, so wretchedly blinded were even mates through the eighteen loyal States, and intelligent men not conversant with our com- what a sum for economists to regard ! The mercial elasticity, that ruin was predicated capital employed in manufacturing, in the as in store for the North if the rebellion were United States, in 1860, was $1,059,000,000 not soon suppressed. To that class of phi- the value of the annual product was $1,900,losophers Cotton alone was King; wanting 000,000. Nearly or quite six-eighths of this it, England and France would intervene and amount belonged to the loyal States. It is no gire the Southern Confederacy independence; wonder that, in view of such a basis of solid wanting it, Northern looms and commerce worth behind our Government, its paper would languish and stagnation would visit commanded a premium in one of the shrewdall our marts. Such were their short-sighted est money marts in the world. but confident assumptions.

tem of taxation on the North one half as If the war wrought much evil it also wrought rigid as that practised by Great Britain on its much good; and not the least good was people, for years, during its wars with Napothat it taught the Southern Slave States leon, would produce a fund equivalent to and their sympathizers in Europe how really keeping one million of men constantly in the inconsiderable a portion of the wealth and field.

A sys

Other States...


Soldiers. 12,400





Rhode Island..




The cost of the Crimean of the population (which, of course, means all Cost of

war to the parties engaged ages, sexes and conditions) is required to European Wars.

was stated by Mr. Robb to keep up the contingent. Apply that rule to be, in francs, as follows:

our country-or say one person to every fifty Great Britain.

1,950,000,000 of our population--and the Free States alone France..


would have about four hundred thousand Turkey

758,000,000 Sardinia


men to furnish as a standing force, whose abRussia......

1,291,000,000 sence would scarcely be felt in the avenues 546,000,000

of production and trade. The tables would 132,000,000

stand, in round numbers: 7,000,000,000

Population, The cost of the Italian war (1859) given Maine ...

620,000 by the same authority, was :

New Hampshire..


6,520 Vermont... 612,000,000

326,000 360,000,000


2,620 274.000

5,490 Connecticut........


9.200 Germany (placing on a war footing).

New York.....

77,000 1,353,000,000 Pennsylvania...


58,320 Here we have an expenditure of eight and New Jersey.


13,520 one-third thousand millions of francs, or about Ohio.....


47.540 Indiana.


27,000 fifteen hundred millions of dollars, as the



33,820 sum extracted by taxation from the people Michigan


15,000 of Europe. Such enormous expenditures are



15,260 ...... 682,000

13,640 appalling; yet they did not prevent those



3.440 very Governments from maintaining perma- Kansas....


2,869 nent military establishments of a character Oregon


1,040 California,


7,680 which, in this country, would be equivalent


5,000 to a heavy war footing. How little we know

Total........ of the burdens of war, after all, when com

What can be done in case of need has been pared to those borne by the peoples of Eu

illustrated by our late experiences in placrope! But, to lighten our burdens, light as

ing an army of one million of men in the they are, we have the consciousness of a just

field. cause; while in the Old World the sword is doubt our ability to raise one and a half mil

From these experiences none can drawn in the old cause of crowns and dynas- lion if such a number were required by any ties, only granting to the people a

misfortune of foreign interference or invasion. change of masters and tax-gatherers. The

It was proclaimed, in sepeople there are nothing but servants to ad

cession circles, and reitervance the interests of courts and crowns.

ated by those organs in EuAs to the forces here Available Forces for


rope available for defense and

were, like the London Times, enofense, we have ready

gaged in the especial work of discouraging means of computation by applying the rules sympathy for the cause of the Union, that the

Northern people and Northern wealth would which prevail in Europe--where a given

not submit to the taxation requisite to mainpopulation supplies a given body of men for

tain an army of one million of men in the field. the ranks. The population is stated to be

But, malice, in this case, was confronted by as follows:

facts more significant than patriotic arguPopulation. Army. Average. Austria..

35,000,000 630,000 55 ments. It is known that scarcely a city in Spain... 15,000,000 230,000

the East or West, which had been moved by France


the spirit of local improvement, but had volHolland.

3,500,000 ......19.000.000

untarily voted to tax its people at rates which . 72,000,000 800,000

in many instances, amounted to three per cent This average is thus seen to be highest in of the valuation of all property in the county Trussia, where one man in every forty-eight | or town. Such a tax imposed for the benefit



Readiness of Americans to bear burdens.

War Service,

60.000 375.000

61 70 68 48 90






of Government on the total valuation of prop-| dollars-all the free-will offerings of a patrierty in the Union, in 1860, viz: $11,296,306,- otic people. Count in the direct losses (esti942 would prąduce a fund capable of wiping mated at two hundred and twenty millions out our entire National debt in a brief period. of dollars) sustained by the infamous repudiaThe tax imposed on the city of New York, tion of Northern debts by the Southern people, for several years prior to 1862, for municipal months before they could urge the base preand State purposes alone, if assessed for the texts afterwards covered by secession, and it General Government would net an amount will be seen that no people on the earth have, sufficient to pay the annual interest on a Na- in a briefer period, sacrificed, more in the cause tional debt of $1,200,000,000. Averse as of their country. The masses are inimical to the people are to taxes, when they see their taxation; but, let them feel that their cause own personal good in taxation they bear any is just and there is no end to the sacrifices necessary burden cheerfully.

which they will make. They only ask that Still other facts are at hand to show the the great principle of human rights and a popreadiness of the Northern people to submit ular Government shall be sustained, in any to patriotic burdens. The amount of con- contest into which they are drawn, to give to tributions in 1861-62 throughout the land, to it sympathy, men, means, to a limitless extent. the outfit of regiments, to the sick and wound- Where there is not the clearly defined assued, to bounties, if it could be obtained, would rance of a just cause, no nation is more unwilbe found to exceed one hundred millions of ling to sustain heavy burdens than ours.


[blocks in formation]

Design of the



The advance against though upon them devolved

Design of the was arranged the duty of the main ad

for early in July. Scott's vance upon Manassas. design was to push the lines of permanent de- A strong party-spirit prevailed in and out fense of Washington eventually on to the of Congress as to the best policy to pursue. capital of Virginia, thus at once securing the A majority seemed to demand an immediate safety of the National Capital, the loyalty of advance upon Richmond—the minority deemMaryland, and restoring Virginia to the Un-ed the danger of a defeat too great to warrant ion. The campaign of the northern Poto- such an advance until an army of conquiest mac, under Patterson, was organized as a was thoroughly equipped, drilled and effectpart of the advance, really comprising the ive in transportation, artillery, and with recentre, while McClellan, in Western Virginia, serves enough for holding every inch of soil represented the Federal right. The forces secured. That Scott was of this latter class under McDowell, stretching along the Poto- was one reason of the clamor" on to Richmac at Washington, comprised the left, 'mond I” which became a rallying cry, design


ed to force the Command- | large requisitions were made Design of the

The Adrance. er-in-Chief out of his known for transportation, munitions Advance,

policy of delay. That it and stores.* By July 10th the camps east of prevailed so far as to induce an onward the Potomac in the vicinity of the Capital movement in July, appeared to be assured; began to break up, and regiment after regibut, it is not certain that Scott would have ment passed over the bridges, and down to failed to order that advance had there been Alexandria by transports. It was not, howno clamor for it. The expiration of the ser- ever, until July 10th, that the order was isvice of the first seventy-five thousand men sued (General Order No. 15) detailing special called out, doubtless induced the Command- instructions for the march. Three days' er-in-Chief to use them in throwing his per- cooked rations were to be in haversack; all manent lines forward as far as Manassas Junc- regimental baggage not absolutely necessary tion, which, being in his possession, must was dispensed with. The

The Grand Army. compel the evacuation, by the enemy, of Army of Advance, was, on Fredericksburg. Thus the direct way

to that day, announced to be organized as follows: Richmond for a fall campaign would be

GENERAL COMMANDING. opened along two railroad routes, while the

Brigadier-General Irwin McDowell. centre and left columns could, at their leisure,

Captain James B. Fry, Assistant Adjutant-General. push down from their respective bases. That First Lieutenant H. W. Kingsbury, Major C. S. Brown, Manothing further than to dislodge the enemy jor James S. Wadsworth, Aids. from Manassas was Scott's immediate pur

Major W. H. Wood, Acting Inspector-General.

Major J. G. Baruard, Lieutenant F. E. Prime, Engineers. pose—that no actual advance “ on to Rich

Captain A. W. Whipple, Lieutenant H. L. Abbott, Lieutenmond,” was arranged for--we deem to be a ant H. S. Putnam, Topographical Engineers. fixed fact. This being conceded, the cen

Captain 0. H. Tillinghast, Assistant Quarter-master.

Captain H. F. Clark, Commissary of Subsistence. sures heaped upon the War Department for

W. S. King, Surgeon. its inefficient transportation pass for naught; D. L. Magruder, Assistant Surgeon. while the loss of the field at Bull Run assumes

ARMY ORGANIZATION-FIRST DIVISION. no greater dimensions than the loss of the Brigadier-General Daniel Tyler, commanding.

FIRST BRIGADE, movement on Manassas, for which Patterson

Colonel E. D. Keyes, commanding. doubtless was responsible. For the demoral

First regiment Connecticut volunteers, Colonel Burnham. ization which followed that extraordinary Second regiment Connecticut volunteers, Colonel Terry. defeat, the disintegration of the army by the

Third regiment Connecticut volunteers, Colonel Chatfield.

Second regiment Maine volunteers, Colonel Jameson. expiration of the time of the three-months

Eighth regiment New York volunteer battery, Captain Va. regiments will be found to have been the rian. prime cause, for which there was little or no Second regiment United States cavalry, company B, Lieu.

tenant Tompkins. remedy. In passing judgment on the disaster at Bull Run, the mistake has been com- Brigadier-General R. C. Schenck, commanding. mitted of considering it the loss of a cam- First regiment Ohio volunteers, Colonel A. D. McCook.

Second regiment Ohio volunteers, Colonel Harris. paign against Richmond. As no “campaign”

second regiment New York State militia, Colonel Tomp was designed none was lost; only a check kins. was experienced in extending our lines around Second regiment United States artillery, company E, light Washington and pushing the enemy back

battery. from the Potomac, from Cumberland to Fred

Colonel W. T. Sherman, commanding. ericksburg on the Rappahannoc. That check Sixty-ninth regiment New York Stato militia, Colonel was, in truth, a sad repulse, leaving our lines Corcoran,

Seventy-ninth regiment New York State militia, Colonel in an exposed condition; but, it served to

Cameron, convince the country of the wisdom of Scott's Thirteenth regiment New York volunteers, Colonel Quimby. carly determination not to press the advance Second regiment Wisconsin volunteers, Colonel Coon.

Third regiment United States artillery, company E, light against Richmond until the volunteers were

battery, Captain R. B. Ayres. converted into steady and efficient soldiers.

The arrangements for an onward movement * See McDowell's Report. He states that July became apparent as early as July 4th, when 8th was the day fixed for the forward movement.



« PreviousContinue »