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teenth moved to Atlanta. During this movement the Twentieth corps was left for the defence of Atlanta. The hospitals of every corps of the army, containing many of our sick and wounded, were located within the line of works constructed by the enemy; and the nature of the movement of our forces operating against General Hood had also compelled the commanders of every corps to leave at this point a portion of their artillery, together with all surplus transportation and stores. In addition to the troops and stores, belonging strictly to the Twentieth corps, there remained at the post twelve thousand seven hundred wounded, sick, and convalescent soldiers, eighty pieces of artillery, and over five thousand horses and mules, together with much other valuable property. The duty of protecting this property, and securing supplies for the garrison and forage for the animals, devolved upon the Twentieth corps. At the time our railroad communication was destroyed at Kingston and Big Shanty the amount of subsistence stores on hand was deemed amply sufficient to sustain the garrison until communication could be reëstablished; but it was subsequently found necessary to send a portion of these supplies to the main army at Rome.
The supply of forage on hand was not sufficient for the animals for over three days. I was therefore compelled not only to reduce the issue of meat to a half-ration, but to resort to the country for supplies of subsistence, as well as forage. From the tenth of October to the fourth of November, foraging expeditions were sent into the country, all of which were completely successful, and conducted with but small loss of life. About two million pounds of corn and a large quantity of fodder were collected on these expeditions, together with subsistence for the foraging parties. Great credit is due General Geary, Colonels Robinson, Dustin, and Carman, the officers commanding the several expeditions, also to Colonel Garrard and the brigade of cavalry under his command.
The Twentieth corps left Atlanta on the morning of November fifteenth, marching via Stone Mountain and Social Circle to Madison, arriving at the latter place on the evening of the eighteenth. At that point General Geary's division moved to the Oconee and destroyed the railroad bridge over that river, the other divisions moving direct to Milledgeville, via Eatonton, Geary's division rejoining the corps at Little River. The corps reached Milledgeville on the twenty-second of November. Two regiments were sent forward to take possession of the city and establish the necessary guards. The Fourteenth corps left Atlanta on the morning of November sixteenth, and moved via Decatur, Covington, and Shady Dale to Milledgeville, arriving at the latter place November twenty-third. The Georgia Railroad was destroyed by the Fourteenth corps from Lithonia to Yellow River, and from Social Circle to Madison by the Twentieth corps. It was also broken at several points between Madison and the Oconee River, and the bridge at that river
burned by Geary's division of the Twentieth corps. On the twenty-fourth of November, both corps moved from near Milledgeville to Sandersville-the Fourteenth via Black Spring, and the Twentieth via Hebron. The two corps reached Sandersville almost simultaneously on the morning of November twenty-sixth, driving the enemy's cavalry very rapidly through the town. On the twenty-seventh, both corps moved toward Louisville; two divisions of the Fourteenth, unincumbered by wagons, going via Fenor's Bridge, for the purpose of protecting our left flank, and to uncover the crossing of Ogeechee River and Rocky Comfort Creek, at a point near Louisville. Two divisions of the Twentieth corps moved along the Georgia Central Railroad from Tennille to the Ogeechee River, destroying the road and bridges. The remaining division of each corps, with all the trains, moved on an interior road direct to Louisville. The bridges over the Ogeechee and Rocky Comfort Creek, had been destroyed by the enemy, but a pontoon-bridge was soon constructed by Colonel Buell; and on the twenty-ninth, both corps were encamped near Louisville. Two divisions of the Fourteenth corps left Louisville December first, crossing Buckhead Creek, five miles above the church, and passing through Habersham, reached Jacksonboro on the fifth. Baird's division moved from Louisville in support of the cavalry, and made a demonstration in the direction of Waynesboro, rejoining the corps at Jacksonboro. The Twentieth corps left Louisville December first, crossing Buckhead Creek at the church, and passing through Birdsville,' struck the railroad leading from Millen to Augusta, five miles from Millen, and encamped on the fifth near Hunter's Mills. From Jacksonboro the Fourteenth corps moved toward Savannah, on the Augusta and Savannah road, the Twentieth corps taking the road through Springfield. On the tenth of December, my command reached the main line of the enemy's works in front of Savannah, and took position; the Twentieth corps on the left, with its left resting on the Savannah River; the Fourteenth on the right, and connecting with the Seventeenth corps beyond the canal, near Lawson's plantation. Our line was established as close as possible to that of the enemy, and the time spent in preparations for an assault upon his works. Batteries were established on the river in such positions as prevented any boats from passing.
The steamer Ida, while attempting to pass up from Savannah on the tenth of December, was captured and burned. On the twelfth, two gunboats and the steamer Resolute attempted to pass our batteries from above, but both gunboats were driven back by Winnegar's battery, and the steamer was so disabled that she fell into our hands. She was soon repaired, and has since been transferred to the Quartermaster's department.
On the eighteenth, a brigade of the First division Twentieth corps was thrown across the river, and established near Izza plantation. on the South-Carolia shore, in a position which
threatened the only line of communication still held by the enemy. A bridge, in the mean time, had been constructed by the enemy from the city to the South-Carolina shore; and on the evening of December twentieth, he commenced the evacuation of the city. The movement was discovered at three A.M. on the twenty-first, and my command was at once moved forward, and occupied the city. For a more detailed account of each day's operations I respectfully refer you to the reports of Major-General J. C. Davis, commanding Fourteenth corps, and Brigadier-General A. S. Williams, commanding Twentieth corps, together with the reports of the subordinate commanders, all of which are herewith inclosed. So far as active opposition on the part of the enemy was concerned, there was hardly an event worthy of mention in a report of this nature. The only real annoyance we experienced was from the destruction of bridges and the obstruction of roads by fallen timber; and other obstacles were very readily overcome.
fourteen thousand five hundred. We started from Atlanta with four days' grain in wagons. Estimating the amount fed the animals at the regulation allowance, and deducting the amount on hand on leaving Atlanta, I estimate the amount of grain taken from the country at five million pounds; fodder, six million pounds; besides the forage consumed by the immense herds of cattle that were driven with the different columns. It is very difficult to estimate the amount of damage done the enemy by the operations of the troops under my command. During the campaign one hundred and nineteen miles (119) of railroad were thoroughly and effectually destroyed; scarcely a tie or rail, a bridge or culvert, on the entire line being left in a condition to be of use again. At Rutledge, Madison, Eatonton, Milledgeville, Tennille, and Davisboro, machine-shops, turn-tables, depots, water tanks, and much other valuable property was destroyed. The quantity of cotton destroyed is estimated by my subordinate commanders at seventeen thousand bales. A very large number of cottongins and presses were also destroyed.
Negro men, women, and children joined the column at every mile of our march, many of them bringing horses and mules, which they cheerfully turned over to the officers of the Quartermaster's department. I think at least fourteen thousand of these people joined the two columns at different points on the march; but many of them were too old and infirm, and others too young, to endure the fatigues of the march, and were therefore left in rear. More than one half of the above number, however, reached the coast with us. Many of the able-bodied men were transferred to the officers of the Quartermaster and Subsistence department, and others were employed in the two corps as teamsters, cooks, and servants.
The conduct of the officers and men on the march is worthy of the highest praise. They endured the fatigues of the march with cheerfulness, and were ever ready, even at the close of a long day's march, to use the axe and spade in removing obstructions and repairing roads and bridges. The result of the campaign proves conclusively the practicability of subsisting large bodies of troops upon the enemy's country. After leaving the section of country near Atlanta, which had already been foraged upon by both armies, we experienced no difficulty in obtaining supplies for both men and animals; even the most unproductive sections along our line of march, yielded enough for our support so long as the march could be continued from day to day. It was thirty-four days from the date my command left Atlanta to the day supplies were received from the fleet. The total number of ra Two thousand three hundred (2300) stand of tions required during this period was 1,360,000. small arms and a large quantity of powder were Of this amount there were issued by the Subsist- captured at Milledgeville. Fifty-one pieces of artilence department, 440,900 rations of bread, 142,-lery were abandoned by the enemy on his evacu473 rations of meat, 876,800 of coffee and tea, 778,466 of sugar, 213,500 of soap, and 1,123,000 of salt. As the troops were well supplied at all times, if we deduct the above issues from the amount actually due the soldier, we have the approximate quantities taken from the country, namely, rations of bread, 919,000; meat, 1,217,527; coffee, 483,000; sugar, 581,534; soap, 1,146,500; salt, 137,000. The above is the actual saving to the Government in issue of rations during the campaign, and it is probable that even more than the equivalent of the above supplies was obtained by the soldiers from the Country. Four thousand and ninety (4090) valuable horses and mules were captured during the march, and turned over to the Quartermaster's Department. Our transportation was in far better condition on our arrival at Savannah than it was at the commencement of the campaign.
The average number of horses and mules with my command, including those of the pontoontrain and a part of the Michigan Engineers, was
ation of Savannah. On the line in front of my
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient
Report of Casualties in Left Wing, Army of Georgia, during the Recent Campaign.
Ohio cavalry, Colonel Heath; squadron First Ohio cavalry, Captain Dazel; and Ninth Michigan cavalry, Colonel Acker, amounting to two thousand seven hundred (2700) men.
I left my encampment at Marietta on the morning of November fourteenth, with five thousand five hundred (5500) men and six (6) pieces of artillery; reached Atlanta same day, and bivouacked for the night. Was informed by the General-in-Chief that Milledgeville was our first objective point; that my command would move on the right of the army of the Tennessee, (the right wing;) that I was to feint strongly toward Forsyth, cross the Ocmulgee, move on Macon as if to attack it, strike the Georgia and Central Railroad, and as near Macon as possible, then fall back toward our infantry, when I was to report to the General-in-Chief at Milledgeville. Com. Officers. Enlisted Men. Aggregate. Seven days being given to make the march and
REPORT OF BRIGADIER-GENERAL KILPATRICK. HEADQUARTERS THIRD DIVISION CAVALRY CORPS, MILITARY DIVISION MISSISSIPPI, NEAR SAVANNAH, GEORGIA, December, 1864. To Captain L. M. Dayton, Aid-de-Camp 'to Major-General Sherman :
CAPTAIN: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by my command in the recent movement of our army from Atlanta, up to the occupation of Savannah :
On the thirtieth of October, in obedience to instructions from Headquarters Military Division Mississippi, I concentrated my division at Marietta, and commenced at once to fit out a cavalry command for a long and rapid march through the enemy's country. But a few days were given for this important work. Horses, arms, and clothing had to be obtained, and regiments and detachments widely scattered ordered in. But by hard work and perseverance, in less than nine (9) days the command ordered was ready for the field.
Several regiments had been added to the old regiments, and organized into two (2) brigades, each numbering upward of two thousand five hundred (2500) men.
The First brigade, Colonel Eli H. Murray, Third Kentucky cavalry, commanding, was composed of the following regiments, namely, Ninth Pennsylvania cavalry, Colonel Jordon; Eighth Kentucky cavalry, Colonel Baldwin; Third Kentucky cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel King; Second Kentucky cavalry, Captain Foreman; and Tenth Wisconsin light artillery, Captain Beebe commanding, amounting to two thousand eight hundred (2800) men.
The Second brigade, Colonel Smith D. Atkins, Ninety-second Illinois mounted infantry, commanding, was composed of the following regiments, namely, Ninety-second Illinois mounted infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel Van Buskirk; Tenth Ohio cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel Sanderson; Ninth Ohio cavalry, Colonel Hamilton; Eighth
We left Atlanta on the morning of November fifteenth, crossed Flint River, and occupied Jonesboro. A portion of General Wheeler's cavalry and the Georgia militia, under General Cobb, were reported to be at Lovejoy Station. I met and drove back Wheeler's advance next morning, and found him in position, occupying the old rebel earthworks constructed by Hood's army on its recent retreat from Jonesboro. Colonel Murray (First brigade) charged and carried their works, capturing two (2) three-inch rifled guns, (taken from General Stoneman,) and killed and wounded a large number of the enemy. Wheeler now retreated in great confusion to Bear Creek Station, where he attempted to halt and make a stand. But Colonel Atkins, (Second brigade,) being now in advance, charged him with the Tenth Ohio cavalry, when he again broke, and rapidly retreated to Griffin, a distance of ten (10) miles.
Wheeler being disposed of for a time, I separated my command, marching on two roads, that the greater amount of cotton, cotton-gins, and other valuable property might be destroyed. After pushing well in on Forsyth, and being convinced that the impression was made upon the enemy "that our forces were moving directly on that point," I rapidly marched to Planters' Factory, crossed the Ocmulgee, and reached Clinton November nineteenth. Learning that a portion of Wheeler's cavalry had also crossed the river, and was now in my immediate front, I moved on the road to the city; forced back Wheeler's cavalry across Walnut Creek; charged and carried a portion of their works about East-Macon. The Tenth Ohio cavalry and Ninety-second Illinois mounted infantry, having the advance, did all the fighting, and behaved most gallantly. Colonel Atkins (commanding Second brigade) deserves great praise for the energy and skill displayed on the occasion.
The command encamped that night on the railroad and road leading from Macon to Milledgeville, picketing Walnut Creek, one third of the entire force being employed all night in destroying track. A detachment of Ninth Michi
gan cavalry (Captain Ladd commanding) had already struck the railroad at Griswold Station, capturing a train of thirteen (13) cars loaded with engine driving-wheels and springs for same. The station was destroyed, also a pistol, soup, and candle factories burned. The following day occurred the battle at Griswold Station, my command repulsing every attack made by the enemy, both of infantry and cavalry.
November 22.-Wheeler advanced with his entire corps of cavalry and three (3) brigades of infantry, drove in my pickets and skirmish line, but was finally checked and driven back by the Ninth Pennsylvania cavalry (Colonel Jordon) and Fifth Kentucky cavalry, (Colonel Baldwin,) the sabre being principally used. General Wolcott with his infantry now came up, and the enemy was driven by him beyond Griswold Station. The same day Colonel Atkins (Second brigade) had some severe fighting on the Macon and Milledgeville road, and effectually prevented any attack upon our trains, that were this day moving from Clinton to Gordon.
November 24.-My command marched to Milledgeville and crossed the Oconee. Having met the General-in-Chief the day previous at Milledgeville, and received instructions from him to move rapidly in direction of Millen, and, if possible, rescue our prisoners reported to be at or near that point, I moved rapidly in direction of Augusta, crossed the Ogeechee at the Shoals, and struck the railroad.
diana (Colonel Jones) and Ninth Michigan caval-
time during the march.
My losses during the incessant fighting for three days and nights were not large. From information gained from scouts, prisoners, and deserters, the loss of the enemy is estimated at six hundred (600) killed and wounded. The following day we joined the left wing of our army at November 27.-At Waynesboro; the advance, Louisville. Here we remained in camp several under Captain Estes, (my Assistant Adjutant-days, resting the men and horses for the first General,) having destroyed a portion of the track, and partly burned the railroad bridge over Briar Creek the day previous. During the march, my flanks and rear had been attacked again and again by Wheeler's cavalry, but without serious results, and did not prevent the column from steadily marching on. We passed through Waynesboro and encamped in line-of-battle on the railroad, three (3) miles south of the town. Several attacks were made during the night upon Colonel Murray's line, but they were easily repulsed, and did not prevent my people from destroying the track, one battalion being detailed from each regiment for that purpose.
Here, to my great regret, I learned that our prisoners had been removed two days previous. It is needless to say that, had this not been the case, I should have rescued them; the confederate government could not have prevented me.
December 2.-The command moved on the Waynesboro road, in advance of a division of infantry under General Baird, the object being to cover the movements of our troops, marching in several columns on Millen. A small force of the enemy was encountered and dispersed by the Eighth Indiana (Colonel Jones) and the Fifth Kentucky, (Colonel Baldwin,) nine miles from Waynesboro, not, however, without a severe skirmish. On reaching Rocky Creek, the enemy was found in considerable force on the opposite side. General Baird's infantry came up, and a force of both cavalry and infantry crossed the creek and simultaneously charged the enemy, who rapidly retreated toward Waynesboro and Augusta, being closely pursued for some distance by the cavalry.
December 3.-Marched to Thomas Station and After destroying sufficient track to prevent encamped for the night, having made such dispotransportation on the road for a few days, I deem-sition of my forces as to protect General Baird's ed it prudent to retire to our infantry. Accordingly, Colonel Atkins (Second brigade) was ordered to move out to the intersection of the Waynesboro and Louisville road, and there take up position. Colonel Murray was directed to move past Colonel Atkins, and take up position in his rear, and so on in succession retire from any force that might be sent in pursuit. By some misunderstanding, Colonel Atkins moved on without halting as directed, and the consequence was, that two regiments-the Eighth In
infantry, deployed for miles along the track, and busily engaged with its destruction. Wheeler, who had been encamped between Waynesboro and Briar Creek, moved, in the early part of the evening, to Waynesboro, and, with a portion of his command, made a vigorous attack upon one of Colonel Atkins's regiments, encamped upon the railroad three (3) miles south of the town. This attack was easily repulsed, as were several others, made during the night. As I had received orders that day from the General-in-Chief to
make a strong reconnoissance in direction of Waynesboro, and to engage Wheeler whenever we met him, I directed brigade commanders to send surplus animals and all non-combatants to the wagon-train; that in the morning the command would move to engage, defeat, and rout the rebel cavalry encampment at Waynesboro.
divisions and two independent brigades, it has since been ascertained, was not only defeated and driven a distance of eight miles, but completely routed. The men of my command fought most bravely throughout the day, and it is impossible to single out, from among the officers, individual cases of gallantry, when all did so well.
My casualties on this day, as well as all others, will be found in a separate report accompanying this. Judging from the enemy's killed and wounded left on the field, his loss must have been severe; upward of two hundred (200) left in our hands were wounded by the sabre alone. December 5.-We marched from Alexander to Jacksonboro, covering the rear of the Fourteenth army corps.
December 6.-The First brigade (Colonel Murray) marched to Springfield, moving in rear of the Twentieth army corps. The Second brigade (Colonel Atkins) moved to Hudson Ferry.
Accordingly, at daylight the following morning, we moved out of camp, the Second brigade (Colonel Atkins) leading the advance. The enemy's skirmish line was met, quickly driven in, and finally retired upon his main line, which consisted of dismounted cavalry, strongly posted behind long lines of barricades, with their flanks well secured. Colonel Atkins was directed to move forward and take the barricades; but the enemy was found to be more strongly posted than was anticipated, and the first attempt was a failure. The Ninety-second Illinois mounted infantry was dismounted; the Tenth Ohio and Ninth Michigan cavalry, in columns of fours, by battalions, were sent in on the right, and the December 7.-When near Sisters' Ferry, the Ninth Ohio cavalry was placed, in the same order, Ninth Michigan, (Colonel Acker,) acting as rearon the left; the Tenth Wisconsin battery (Cap-guard to the Second brigade, received and retain Beebe) was brought up to within less than pulsed an attack made by Ferguson's cavalry. six hundred yards, and opened upon the barricades, and the enemy's artillery, in all, five (5) pieces, was forced to withdraw. At this moment, all being ready, the charge was sounded; the whole line moved forward in splendid order, and never halted for one moment until the barricades were gained and the enemy routed. A few hundred yards beyond, he made several counter charges, to save his dismounted men and check our rapid advance. At one time he had nearly succeeded, when the Eighth Ohio cavalry, (Colonel Heath,) who had been sent out on our right, charged the enemy in flank and rear, when he gave way at all points, and rapidly fell back to the town of Waynesboro.
December 8.-Second brigade crossed Ebenezer Creek, and the whole command united on the Monteith road, ten (10) miles south of Springfield. From this point the command moved in rear of the Seventeenth army corps, detachments covering the rear of several army corps, till the army reached the rebel lines and commenced the investment of Savannah.
December 13. My command crossed the Ogeechee and Canoucher rivers, and marched to attack and capture Fort McAllister. Striking distance had already been reached, a reconnoissance made, and all requisite information gained, when, in accordance with the expressed wish of the General-in-Chief, I abandoned my designs of attack, and, with my command, moved to reconnoitre St. Catharine's Sound, and open up communication with our fleet. This was accomplished before ten o'clock the same day on which Fort McAllister fell.
Here he was found occupying a second line of barricades, with artillery, as before, and his flanks so far extended, that it was useless to attempt to turn them. I therefore determined to break his centre. Colonel Murray, having the advance, was directed to make a disposition ac- December 16.-The command returned to the cordingly. The Eighth Indiana (Colonel Jones) vicinity of Kingsbridge and went into camp, was dismounted and pushed forward as skirmish-picketing the Canoucher and country in the direcers; the Ninth Pennsylvania, (Colonel Jordon,) tion of the Altamaha. in columns of fours, by battalions, had the left; the Third Kentucky, (Lieutenant-Colonel King,) the centre; the Fifth Kentucky (Colonel Baldwin) and Second Kentucky, (Captain Foreman,) the right. The advance was sounded, and in less than twenty minutes the enemy was driven from his position, the town gained, and Wheeler's entire force completely routed.
The Fifth Ohio, Fifth Kentucky, and a portion of the Ninth Pennsylvania cavalry, followed in close pursuit to Briar Creek, a distance of eight miles from the point from where the first attack was made. After burning the bridges above and below, the railroad bridges as well as the latter, the command marched to Alexander and encamped for the night. In this engagement, Wheeler's cavalry corps, consisting of four (4)
December 17.-Colonel Atkins, with upward of two thousand (2000) men of my command, moved in conjunction with a division of infantry, under General Mower, to destroy a portion of the Gulf Railroad, and, if possible, the railroad over the Altamaha. Difficulty of approaches and a strong force of the enemy, which could not be dislodged, prevented the accomplishment of the latter. The railroad, however, was very thoroughly destroyed, and the command returned to camp.
December 21.-The enemy evacuated Savannah, the army occupied the city, and the operations of the cavalry closed.
In carrying out the orders of the Commanderin-Chief in making the diversions indicated, some mistakes may have been made. Yet I believe