Page images

mand in Kentucky, and is succeeded by General W. | rebels, killing 14 and taking 8 prisoners. Union T. Sherman.-Gallant affair near Hillsboro, Ky., in loss, 14 wounded--2 mortally. which 50 Home Guards defeat a large party of Oct. 20.-Reconnoissance to Fairfax C. H. by Gen. rebels after a twenty minutes' fight. Rebel loss, 11 eral McClellan in person. killed, 29 wounded, 22 prisoners. Union loss, 3

Oct. 21.- Battle of Ball's Bluff. Federals defeated killed, 2 wounded,

by greatly superior rebel force. Union loss not corOd. 9–10.–Wilson's Zouave camp, on Santa Rosa rectly ascertained. See pages 346–349.- Battle of island, attacked by a strong force of rebels. After Fredericktown, Mo. Rebels repulsed in a well conan obstinate fight the enemy is repulsed with

tested fight of two hours. Rebels routed and por. much slaughter. Two companies of regulars from

sued 22 miles, leaving 200 of their dead and woundFort Pickens participates in the fight. Union loss, ed on the field, including Colonel Luwe, second in 14 killed, 29 wouuded, 24 missing.

command. Onion loss, 6 killed, 40 wounded. See Oct. 9.--Federal advance to Lewinsville.

pages 335-36. Od. 11.-Three boats from the gunboat Union - Battle of Wild Cat, Ky. Zollicoffer defeated by run up Quantico creek, Va., and burn a rebel vessel. the Unionists under General Schöpff and Colonel Oct. 12.—Commodore Hollins, with his “ram”

Garrard. Union loss, 4 killed and 21 wounded. and tire-ships, attacks the Federal ships blockading Rebel loss unknown. See pages 379-80. in the Mississippi river. The “ram” is driven ofi, Oct. 22.--Fight at West Liberty, Ky. Rebels and the fire-fleet burn harmlessly. "The Federal routed by Nelson's command, losing 21 killed and ships, however, pass down the river, to obtain a 34 prisoners, 52 horses, &c.—Another division of the wider berth.-Steamer Theodora runs the blockade command took Hazelgreen, with 38 prisoners. at Charleston, S. C., having on board Messrs. Mason

Oct. 23.-Lieutenant Grayson repulses the rebels and Slidell, rebel commissioners to Europe. The

near Hodgeville, Ky., killing 3 and wounding 5. steamer Nashville passed out the previous night.

Oct. 25.--Dash of Zagonyi, with the “Fremont Oct. 13.-Major Wright's cavalry (U. S. regulars) Body Guard” and Major Frank White's Prairie surprise and overcome 300 mounted rebels near Scouts," into Springfield, Mo. The rebels, full 1400 Lebanon, Mo.-Sharp skirmish at Beckwith's, below strong, driven out with a loss of 80 killed, 60 woundBird's Point, Mo. The Union squad disperse the ed and 27 prisoners. Zagonyi lost, of the force enrebels, but are in turn forced to retreat, after an gaged (150 of the Guard) 15 killed, 27 wounded and obstinate resistance against great odds.

10 missing. Od. 14.- Major Wright, with one company of Oct. 26.-- Battle at Romney. General B. F. Kel. cavalry, surround Lime Creek, Mo., and takes 45 | ley's force from New creek, by a night march, comes prisoners.--Secretary of State, Seward, issues a

upon the rebels, drives in their pickets and passes circular to the State Governors, advising them to

up to Romney, where the enemy make a determined fortify their coasts for defense.

stand. After an obstinate defense the rebels are Oct. 16.-Colonel Geary passing over into Virgi- vanquished. Federal loss is but I killed and 5 nia, at Harper's Ferry, proceeds to a mill beyond, wounded !-)Heavy skirmish at Saratoga, Ky. Three and captures 21,000 bushels of wheat. He is companies of the Kansas Ninth attack and defeat fiercely assailed by Confederate forces and batteries the enemy, killing 13, capturing 21 prisoners and on Bolivar and Loudon heights. Colonel G. holds 52 horses. Major Phillips commands the Federals: his ground in fine style. The enemy finally with- -Fremont enters Springfield, Mo., with Siegel's draw, whipped in a most unqualified manner. Gea- division. ry returns safely, with his little command, to the Oct. 27---Fight at Plattsburg, Mo., A rebel camp Maryland shore. Union loss, 4 killed, 8 wounded. broken up; the rebels losing 8 killed, 12 prisoners. --Major White, with his “ Prairie Scouts," (mount

Oct. 28.-Expedition from the gunboat Louisiana, ed) dashes into Lexington, Mo., secures its rebel

up Chincoteague inlet, Va., under command of Lieu. garrison of 306, together with a large amount of

tenant Alfred Hopkins. Three rebel vessels burned. rebel stores, arms, &c.--The blockade of the Poto

Union loss, none. A gallant affair. mac, by rebel shore batteries, is pronounced perfect. Oct. 17.--Gallant fight near Frederickton, Mo. A

Oct. 29.--Fight beyond Morgantown, Ky. Colo. large rebel force routed by Major Gavitt's cavalry,

nel Burbridge defeats the rebels in a well contested 5 companies of the Twenty-first Illinois and Captain field, driving them from Woodbury and capturing Hawkius' Home Guards.--The Confederates retire

their camp, stores, equipage, &c. from Vienna to Fairfax C. H., Va. McClellan imine- -The Port Royal Expedition sails from Fortress diately advances to Vienna.-Fight near Line creek, Monroe. Mo. Rebels routed by Lieutenant Kirby and 5 of Oct. 31.–Lieutenant-General Winfield Scott trans. them killed.—Fight at Big Hurricane creek, Mo., mits to the Secretary of War his request to be re Colonel Morgan (Eighteenth Missouri) routs the tired from active service.

[blocks in formation]




Two Houses.

The President's Meg.


CONGRESS met in extra- 1 pied the Senate's attention up to the hour of Meeting of the

ordinary session at Wash- adjournment. The lower House spent the

ington, July 4th, according day in effecting an organization by the electo the Proclamation of April 15th. Both tion of a Speaker and Clerk. The balloting Houses organized at noon. The attendance resulted in the choice of Galusha A. Grow, of was quite full from twenty-four States, in- Pennsylvania, Republican, as Speaker.' Emcluding, in the Senate, full delegations from erson Etheridge, Unionist, of Tennessee, was Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware, and elected Clerk. one from Tennessee. In the House of Repre- The President's Message sentatives, one hundred and fifty-seven names and accompanying Departanswered the first roll-call. Matters for legis- ment Documents were sent lation were so well matured as to give pro- in on the 5th. The Message read as follows: mise of a brief session-all the most important “Fellow-Citizens of the Senate and bills having been perfected by a number of

House of Repre otives : leading members who had been in Washing

“ Having been convened on an extraordinary octon for several weeks prior to the 4th. In casion, as authorized by the Constitution, your atthe Senate, after organization, Mr. Wilson, tention is not called to any ordinary subject of

legislation. Chairman of the Committee on Military Af

At the beginning of the present Presidential fairs, gave notice of the following bills:

term, four months ago, the functions of the Federal 1. A bill to ratify and confirm certain acts Government were found to be generally suspended of the President for the suppression of insur- within the several States of South Carolina, Georgia, rection and rebellion.

Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Florida, excepto 2. A bill to authorize the employment of ing only those of the Post-office Department. volunteers for enforcing the laws and protect- “Withia these States all the forts, arsenals, docking public property.

yards, custom-houses, and the like, including the 3. A bill to increase the present military movable and stationary property in and about them, establishment of the United States.

had been seized, and were held in open hostility to 4. A bill providing for the better organi- this Government, excepting only Forts Pickens, Tay

lor and Jefferson, on and near the Florida coast, zation of the military establishment. 5. A bill to promote the efficiency of the and Fort Sumter, in Charleston harbor, South Caro

lina. The forts thus seized bad been put in inarmy.

proved condition; new ones had been built, and 6. A bill for organizing a volunteer militia armed forces had been organized, and were organ. force, to be called the National Guard of the izing, all avowedly with the same hostile purpose. United States.

The forts remaining in the possession of the The reading of these important acts occu- Federal Government in and near these States were

[ocr errors]


either besieged or menaced by could not be thrown into that The President's Mes

The President's Meswarlike preparations, and espe- fort within the time for his relief, sage.

cially Fort Sumter was nearly rendered necessary by the limitsurrounded by well-protected, hostile batteries, with ed supply of provisions, and with a view of holding guns equal in quality to the best of its own, and possession of the same, with a force of less than outnumbering the latter as perhaps ten to one. A twenty thousand good and well-disciplined men. disproportionate share of the Federal muskets and This opinion was concurred in by all the officers of rifles had somehow found their way into these his command, and their memoranda on the subject States, and had been seized to be used against the were made inclosures of Major Anderson's letter. Government. Accumulations of the public reve. The whole was immediately laid before Lieutenantnue, lying within them, had been seized fôr the General Scott, who at once concurred with Major same object. The Navy was scattered in distant Anderson in opinion. On reflection, however, he seas, leaving but a very small part of it within the took full time, consulting with other officers, both immediate reach of the Government. Officers of of the Army and of the Navy, and, at the end of the Federal Army and Navy had resigned in great four days, came reluctantly, but decidedly, to the numbers; and of those resigning, a large propor

same conclusion as before. He also stated at the tion had taken up arms against the Government. same time that no such sufficient force was then at Simultaneously, and in connection with all this, the the control of the Government, or could be raised purpose to sever the Federal Union was openly and brought to the ground within the time when the avowed. In accordance with this purpose, an or provisions in the fort would be exhausted. In a dinance had been adopted in each of these States, purely military point of view, this reduced the duty declaring the States, respectively, to be separated of the Administration in the case to the mere matter from the National Union. A formula for instituting of getting the garrison safely out of the fort. a combined Government of these States had been “It was believed, however, that to so abandon promulgated; and this illegal organization, in the that position, under the circumstances, would be character of Confederate States, was already invok- utterly ruinous ; that the necessity under which it ing recognition, aid and intervention from foreign was to be done would not be fully understood ; that powers.

by many it would be construed as a part of a vol“Finding this condition of things, and believing untary policy; that at home it would discourage it to be an imperative duty upon the incoming Exe- the friends of the Union, embolden its adversaries. cutive to prevent, if possible, the consummation and go far to insure to the latter a recognition of such attempt to destroy the Federal Union, a abroad ; that, in fact, it would be our National dechoice of means to that end became indispensable. struction consummated. This could not be allowed. This choice was made, and was declared in the In- Starvation was not yet upon the garrison; and ere augural Address. The policy chosen looked to the it would be reached, Fort Pickens might be reenexhaustion of all peaceful measures, before a resort forced. This last would be a clear indication of to any stronger ones. It sought only to hold the policy, and would better enable the country to acpublic places and property not already wrested cept the evacuation of Fort Sumter as a military nefrom the Government, and to collect the revenue ; cessity. An order was at once directed to be sent relying for the rest on time, discussion and the bal- for the landing of the troops from the steamship lot-box. It promised a continuance of the mails, Brooklyn into Fort Pickens. This order could not at Government expense, to the very people who go by land, but must take the longer and slower were resisting the Government; and it gave repeat route by sea. The first return news from the order ed pledges against any disturbance to any of the was received just one week before the fall of Fort people, or any of their rights. Of all that which a Sumter. The news itself was that the officer comPresident might constitutionally and justifiably do manding the Subine, to which vessel the troops had in such a case, everything was forborne, without been transferred from the Brooklyn, acting upon which it was believed possible to keep the Govern- some quasi armistice of the late Administration, (and ment on foot.

of the existence of which the present Administra. “ On the 5th of March, (the present incumbent's tion, up to the time the order was dispatched, had first full day in office,) a letter of Major Anderson, only too vague and uncertain rumors to fix atten. commanding at Fort Sumter, written on the 28th tion,) had refused to land the troops. To now reen. of February, and received at the War Department force Fort Pickens, before a crisis would be reached on the 4th of March, was, by that Department, at Fort Sumter, was impossible, rendered so by the placed in his hands. This letter expressed the pro- near exhaustion of provisions in the latter nated sessional opinion of the writer that reenforcements fort. In precaution against such a conjuncture, whe THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.



Government had a few days be- ly of man the question, whether The President's Megfore commenced preparing an a constitutional republic, or de

The President's Mos. Bage.

expedition, as well adapted as mocracy--a Government of the might be, to relieve Fort Sumter, which expedition people by the same people-can, or cannot, maintain was intended to be ultimately used or not, according its territorial integrity against its own domestic foes. *o circumstances. The strongest anticipated case for It presents the question, whether discontented indiusing it was now presented; and it was resolved to viduals, too few in numbers to control administrasend it forward. As had been intended in this con- tion, according to organic law, in any case, can altingency, it was also resolved to notify the Governor ways, upon the pretenses made in this case, or on of South Carolina that he might expect an attempt any other pretenses, or arbitrarily, without any prewould be made to provision the fort; and that, if tense, break up their Government, and thus practi. the attempt should not be resisted, there would be cally put an end to free government upon the earth. no effort to throw in men, arms or ammunition, it forces us to ask: ‘Is there, in all republics, this without further notice, or in case of an attack upon inherent and fatal weakness ? «Must a govern. 5e fort. This notice was accordingly given; ment, of necessity, be too strong for the liberties of whereupon the fort was attacked and bombarded its own people, or too weak to maintain its own exto its fall, without even awaiting the arrival of the istence ? provisioning expedition.

“So viewing the issue, no choice was left but to “ It is thus seen that the assault upon and reduce call out the war power of the Government; and so tion of Fort Sumter was in no sense a matter of to resist force employed for its destruction, by force self-defense on the part of the assailants. They well for its preservation. knew that the garrison in the fort could by no pos- “ The call was made, and the response of the sibility commit aggression upon them. They knew country was most gratifying, surpassing in unani--they were expressly notified—that the giving of mity and spirit the most sanguine expectation. Yet bread to the few brave and hungry men of the gar- none of the States, commonly called slave States, rison, was all which would on that occasion be at- except Delaware, gave a regiment through regular tempted, unless themselves, by resisting so much, State organization. A few regiments have been or. should provoke more. They knew that this Govern. ganized within some others of those States, by indiment desired to keep the garrison in the fort, not to vidual enterprise, and received into the Governassail them, but merely to maintain visible posses- ment service. Of course, the seceded States, so sion, and thus to preserve the Union from actual and called, (and to which Texas had been joined about immediate dissolution-trusting, as hereinbefore the time of the Inauguration,) gave no troops to stated, to time, discussion and the ballot-box, for the cause of the Union. The border States, so final adjustment; and they assailed and reduced the called, were not uniform in their action; some fort for precisely the reverse object--to drive out of them being almost for the Union, while in others the visible authority of the Federal Union, and thus -as Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkforce it to immediate dissolution. That this was ansas—the Union sentiment was nearly repressed their object, the Executive well understood; and, and silenced. The course taken in Virginia was the having said to them, in the Inaugural Address, ' you most remarkable, perhaps the most important. A can have no conflict without being yourselves the Convention, elected by the people of that State to aggressors,' he took pains, not only to keep this de consider this very question of disrupting the Fed. claration good, but also to keep the case so free eral Union, was in session at the capital of Virginia from the power of ingenious sophistry that the world when Fort Sumter fell. To this body the people should not be able to misunderstand it. By the had chosen a large majority of professed Union affair at Fort Sumter, with its surrounding circum

Almost immediately after the fall of Buinter, stances, that point was reached. Then and thereby many members of that majority went over to the the assailants of the Government began the conflict original disunion minority, and, with them, adopted of arms, without a gun in sight, or in expectancy to an ordinance for withdrawing the State from the return their fire, save only the few in the fort, sent Union. Whether this change was wrought by their to that harbor years before, for their own protec- great approval of the assault upon Sumter, or their tion, and still ready to give that protection in what great resentment at the Government's resistance to ever was lawful. In this act, discarding all else, that assault, is not definitely known. Although they have forced upon the country the distinct issue : they submitted the ordinance for ratification to a Immediate dissolution or blood.'

vote of the people, to be taken on a day then some" And this issue embraces more than the fate of what more than a month distant, the Convention these United States. It presents to the whole fami- and the Legislature, (which was also in session at the




same time and place,) with lead- “ Other calls were made for The President's Meg

The President's Meg. ing men of the State, not mem- volunteers to serve three years, Bage.

bers of either, immediately com. unless sooner discharged, and menced acting as if the State were already ont of also for large additions to the regular army and navy. the Union. They pushed military preparations vig. These measures, whether strictly legal or not, were orously forward all over the State. They seized the ventured upon, under what appeared to be a popu. United States armory at Harper's Ferry and the lar demand and a public necessity; trusting then, Navy Yard at Gosport, near Norfolk. They re- as now, that Congress would readily ratify them ceived-perhaps invited-into their State large It is believed that nothing has been done beyond bodies of troops, with their warlike appointments, the constitutional competency of Congress. from the so-called seceded States. They formally

“Soon after the first call for militia, it was conentered into a treaty of temporary alliance and co- sidered a duty to authorize the Commanding-Genoperation with the so-called · Confederate States,' eral, in proper cases, according to his discretion, to and sent members to their Congress at Montgom- suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, ery. And finally, they permitted the insurrection- or, in other words, to arrest and detain, without reary Government to be transferred to their capital sort to the ordinary processes and forms of law, at Richmond.

such individuals as he might deem dangerous to the “The people of Virginia have thus allowed this public safety. This authority has purposely been giant insurrection to make its nest within her bor- exercised but very sparingly. Nevertheless, the leders; and this Government has no choice left but gality and propriety of what has been done under to deal with it where it finds it. And it has the less it are questioned, and the attention of the country regret, as the loyal citizens have, in due form, has been called to the proposition that one who is clamed its protection. Those loyal citizens this sworn to take care that the laws be faithfully exeGovernment is bound to recognize and protect, as cuted,' should not himself violate them. Of course, being Virginia.

some consideration was given to the questions of “In the Border States, so called-in fact the power and propriety, before this matter was acted Middle States—there are those who favor a policy upon. The whole of the laws which were required to which they call “armed neutrality ;' that is, an arm- be faithfully executed,were being resisted, and fail. ing of these States to prevent the Union forces passing of execution in nearly one-third of the States. ing one way, or the disunion the other, over their Must they be allowed to finally fail of execution, even soil. This would be disunion completed. Figura- had it been perfectly clear, that by the use of the tively speaking, it would be the building of an im- means necessary to their execution, some single law, passable wall along the line of separation-and yet, made in such extreme tenderness of the citizen's libnot quite an impassable one ; for, under the guise erty, that practically, it relieves more of the guilty of neutrality, it would tie the hands of the Union than of the innocent, should, to a very limited extent, men, and freely pass supplies from among them to

be violated ? To state the question more directly, are the insurrectionists, which it could not do as an all the laws but one to go unexecuted, and the Gov. open enemy. At a stroke, it would take all the ernment itself to go to pieces, lest that one be vio. trouble off the hands of secession, except only what lated ? Even in such a case, would not the official proceeds from the external blockade. It would do oath be broken, if the Governnient should be over. for the disunionists that which, of all things, they thrown, when it was believed that disregarding the most desire--feed them well, and give them dis- single law would tend to preserve it? But it was union without a struggle of their own. It recogni- not believed that this question was presented. It zes no fidelity to the Constitution, no obligation to was not believed that any law was violated. The maintain the Union; and while very many who provision of the Constitution that 'the privilege of have favored it are, doubtless, loyal citizens, it is, the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, un. nevertheless, very injurious in effect.

less when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the pub “Recurring to the action of the Government, it lic safety may require it,' is equivalent to a provi may be stated that, at first, a call was made for sev. sion--is a provision- that such privilege may be sus. enty-five thousand militia ; and rapidly following pended when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the this, a proclamation was issued for closing the ports public safety does require it. It was decided that of the insurrectionary districts by proceedings in the we have a case of rebellion, and that the public nature of blockade. So far all was believed to be safety does require the qualified suspension of the strictly legal. At this point the insurrectionists an- privilege of the writ, which was authorized to be nounced their purpose to enter upon the practice made. Now it is insisted that Congress, and not of privateering

the Executive, is vested with this power. But the

« PreviousContinue »