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ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.
ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1880, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1883, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington,
ca, N. Y.
Among the Contributors to the Fifteenth Volume of the Revised Edition are
the following: Prof. CLEVELAND ABBE, Washington, D. O. Prof. J. C. Dalton, M. D., College of PhysiSxow.
cians and Surgeons, New York.
and other medical and physiological articles. TORPEDO.
Rev. B. B. DRAKE. Hon. GEORGE BANCROFT, Washington, D. C.
Prof. M. J. DRENNAN.
SIEMENS, Ernst Werner,
SIEMENS, KARL WILHELM.
SOUTH SEA SCHEME.
EATON S. Drone.
STRAUSS, FAMILY OF,
and other articles in American geography. JULIUS Bing.
Prof. Thomas M. Drown, M. D., Lafayette
College, Easton, Pa.
ROBERT T. Edes, M. D., Harvard University. and other articles in biography, geography, and
Articles in materia medica, history.
W. M. FERRISS.
and articles in biography and history. FRANCIS O. BOWMAN.
Prof. Willard Fiske, Cornell University, Itha-
SWEDEN, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF (in part). EDWARD L. BURLINGAME, Ph. D.
Lieut. Com. HENRY H. GORRINGE, U. S. N.,
Washington, D. C.
TRISTAN DA CUNHA.
Prof. W. E. Griffis, late of the Imperial Col-
lege, Tokio, Japan.
Prof. JAMES MORGAN HART.
J. W. HAWES.
SPRINGFIELD, Mass., Ohio, Ill., and Mo.,
TRENTON, N, J.,
and other articles in American geography.
THIRTY YEARS' WAR.
Prof. Joseph Henry, LL. D.
Prof. J. E. HILGARD, U. S. Coast Survey, Rev. S. S. CUTTING, D. D.
Washington, D. C.
CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FIFTEENTH VOLUME
ca, N. Y.
Prof. Rossiter W. RAYMOND, Ph. D., Editor SWEDBERG, JESPER.
of the “Engineering and Mining Journal.” SWEDENBORG, EMANUEL.
Pichard E. ROBERTS, “Y Drych " Office, Cti-
BTANLEY, HENRY M.
Thomas T. SABINE, M. D.
SURGERY (in part).
EPES SARGENT, Boston, Mass.
Prof. A. J. SCHEM.
SWITZERLAND (in part),
THEOLOGY (in part),
and various articles in geography and history. and other chemical articles.
J. G. SHEA, LL. D.
and other articles on American Indians. Prof. S. Kneeland, M. D., Mass. Inst. of Prof. J. A. Spencer, D. D., College of the Technology, Boston.
City of New York.
TREGELLES, SAMUEL PRIDEAUX.
TRENCH, RICHARD CHENEVIX. Prof. S. P. Langley, Allegheny Observatory, E. C. STEDMAN.
STODDARD, RICHARD HEXBY.
Prof. Frank H. STORER, College of AgriculCHARLES LINDSEY, Toronto, Canada.
tural Chemistry, Harvard University.
SYMBOLS, CHIEMICAL (in part).
Homer D. L. Sweet, Syracuse, N. Y.
SYRACUSE, N. Y. Capt. S. B. Luce, U. S. N., U. S. Navy Yard,
STEDMAN, EDMUND CLARENCE,
Prof. GEORGE THURBER.
SORGIUM, nology, Hoboken, N. J.
TORREY, JOnn, Rev. ANDREW B. MORSE, Danbury, Conn.
and other botanical articles. Siam (in part).
Prof. ROBERT H. THURSTON, Stevens Inst, of Rev. FRANKLIN NOBLE.
Technology, Hoboken, N. J.
STEAM ENGINE. and articles in biography and geography,
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
Prof. G. A. F. Van Rhyn, Ph. D.
SIAM, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF,
TISCHENDORF, LOBEGOTT, Prof. S. F. PECKHAM, University of Minnesota,
and other archæological, oriental, and philological Minneapolis, Minn.
C. S. WEYMAN.
SIDNEY, Sir PHILIP. EDWARD T. PETERS, Bureau of Statistics,
SPAIN, WINES OF. Washington, D. C.
Prof. Junius B. WHEELER, U. S. M. A., West TEADES UNION.
Prof. W. D. WHITNEY, LL. D., Yale College,
New Haven, Conn.
Syriac LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE.
Prof. E. L. YOUMANS.
HOMER, Jebel, an inland division of Ara- which is the small village of Jobbah. From
bia, between lat. 25° 40' and 32° N., and the heights overlooking Jobbah are visible in lon. 37° 20' and 47° 20' E., bounded N. by the the southeast the main range of Jebel Shomer, Syrian desert, N. E. by Irak Arabi, S. E. and and in the southwest the palm groves of TeyS. by the Wababee sultanate, and W. by Turk- ma, famed in Arab history, and supposed by ish Arabia. It is divided into the provinces some to be identical with the Teman of Scripof Jebel Shomer, Jowf, Kheybar, Upper Ka- ture. Beyond Jobbah the undulations are not sim, and Teyrna, with a total population esti- so deep, and the sand has occasional shrubs mated by Palgrave in 1862 at 440,000, inclu- and tufts of grass. The plain gradually rises ding 166,000 nomadic Bedouins. Jebel Sho- as it approaches the mountain ranges, which, mer in its general aspect is a flat table land, stretching N. E. and S. W., cross two thirds a large part of which is desert, with occa- of upper Arabia. These ranges, Jebel Adja on sional oases. These are merely depressions the north, the mountains of Upper Kasim on in the desert surface, and take sometimes the the south, and Jebel Solma between, lie nearform of a long valley covered with a thin soil, ly parallel, and are separated by broad plains under which water may generally be found at covered with grass and shrubbery. Within the depth of a few feet. Fruits, bushes, herbs, their limits is the chief centre of population and coarse grass grow in sufficient quantities of Shomer. Hayel, the capital, lies in an exto supply food for the Bedouins and their tensive plain between Adja and Solma, girt on camels and flocks. The entire N. portion is every side by a high mountain rampart. The covered by a rocky desert. On the E. border, only approach from the north is by a narrow about lat. 31°, is a long valley, called Wady winding defile through Jebel Adja, which 50 Sirhan or Serhan (valley of the wolf), which men could defend against thousands. The extends from near Bozrah in Syria in a S. E. range of Jebel Adja, or Jebel Shomer as it is direction to about lat. 29° 20' in Arabia, where now more generally called, is a ragged granitits base rests on Wady Jowf, a deep valley ic mass, piled up in fantastic disorder, attainlying E. and W., and which may be consid. ing at times an elevation of 1,400 ft. above ered the porch or vestibule of central Arabia. the plain, but Solma does not rise more than (See Jowf.) The Wady Sirhan is the com- 700 or 800 ft. Good crops of grain, fruits, mon route for caravans to and from Syria. S. and vegetables are raised by a laborious sysand E. of Jowf lies a wide expanse of sandy tem of artificial irrigation. The date is the desert. The caravan route to the province of principal fruit. There is a considerable trade Jebel Shomer lies across this waste in a S. E. by caravans between Hayel and Medina on direction through what is called the Nefud or the southwest, and Riyad, the capital of NedSand pass, consisting of parallel ridges of loose jed, on the southeast. Many horses and asses reddish sand 200 to 300 ft. high, where no are exported. Upper Kasim, the southernwater can be obtained for nearly 100 m. The most province of Shomer, is an elevated plaroute runs beside a small range of hills called teau, forming part of a long upland belt that Jebel Jobbah, a cluster of black granite rocks crosses diagonally the northern half of the streaked with red, about 700 ft. high. Be- peninsula, one extremity reaching nearly to yond them, on the south, is a barren plain, Zobeyr, near the head of the Persian gulf, partly white and incrusted with salt, partly and the other to the neighborhood of Medina. green and studded with palm groves, among Its surface is covered with shrubs and brushwood, and in spring and summer with grass. I tela of California. The Shoshones proper are This great plateau is intersected at intervals a large and widespread people. According to by long broad valleys, which contain villages their tradition, they came from the south, and built around wells, surrounded by palm groves, when met by Lewis and Clarke in 1805 they gardens, and fields, and varying in population had been driven beyond the Rocky mountains. from 500 to 3,000. Dates are exported in the various Shoshone bands have gone by large quantities to Yemen and Hedjaz, and numerous names. The most important were cotton is raised to a small extent.—The sul- the Koolsatikara or Buffalo Eaters, who have tanate of Jebel Shomer originated in the pres- long defended their homes on Wind river, and ent century. In 1818 Abdallah, an ambitious the Tookarika or Mountain Sheep Eaters, & chief of the family Rashid, was driven out of fierce tribe in the Salmon river country and Hayel by his rival Beyt Ali, who assumed the upper Snake river valley. The western Snakes sovereignty. Abdallah took refuge at the near Fort Boisé were separated from the othcourt of the Wahabee monarch, who was then ers by the kindred Bannacks. The Shoshocos reconstructing his father's dominions, and for (footmen), called also White Knives, from the his services to him was made absolute gover- fine white flint knives they formerly used, nor of Shomer, with right of succession, and were digger tribes on Humboldt river and supplied with the means to establish his rule. Goose creek, and included apparently most of Beyt Ali and his family were cut off, and those in the basin of Great Salt lake. These Abdallah made himself master of the whole bands were generally mild and inoffensive, mountain district. He died about 1845, and lurking in the mountains and barren parts, was succeeded by his son Telal, who extended and having little intercourse with the whites. his dominions, subdued the Bedouins, invited About 1849 they were in open war, and the trade from abroad, and established law and peace made with some of the bands at Salt order. Under his rule the country has made Lake, in September 1855, did not end it. In rapid advances in civilization and prosperity, 1862 California volunteers, under Col. Connor, and has become virtually independent.
nearly exterminated the Hokandikah or Salt SHOOTING STARS. See METEOR.
Lake Diggers in a battle on Bear river. WauSHOREJane, an English woman, the wife shakee's and other bands of the Koolsatikara of Matthew or William Shore, a goldsmith in Shoshones made peace at Fort Bridger, July London, and mistress of King Edward IV. 2, 1863; Pokatello's and other bands of the She was beautiful and amiable, and Sir Thomas Tookarika_at Box Elder, July 30; the ShoMore says that the king's favor “she never shoco or Tosowitch at Ruby valley, Oct. 1; abused to any man's hurt, but to many a man's and the Shoshones and Bannacks at Soda comfort and relief.” After the death of the Springs, Oct. 14. In 1864 the Yahooskin king she became attached to Lord Hastings; Snakes made peace, and with the Klamaths and when Richard III, had resolved on the and Modocs ceded their lands; and on Aug. destruction of that nobleman, he accused Jane 12, 1865, the Wohlpapes also submitted. The Shore of witchcraft and of having withered government did not promptly carry out these his arm by sorcery. The king, though he sent treaties, and many of the bands renewed hosher to prison and confiscated her goods, did tilities. In 1867, in the campaign of Gen. not attempt to maintain his charge of witch- Steele, a number of Indians were killed, and craft; but the bishop of London caused her to immense stores of provisions laid up by the do public penance for impiety and adultery. Shoshones were destroyed. Gen. Augur at After the death of Hastings, Thomas Lynom, last allowed them to come in and make the king's solicitor, desired to marry her, but peace at Fort Bridger. The government then was prevented by the king. She lived till the attempted to collect the whole nation and retime of Henry VIII., and tradition represents strict the Shoshone bands to certain reserveher as dying of hunger in a ditch. A celebra- tions. The Yahooskin and Wohlpape Snakes ted tragedy by Rowe is founded on her story. had prospered on the Klamath reservation, al
SHOSHONE, the N. county of Idaho, bound- though their crops frequently failed. The Fort ed S. by the Clearwater river, and intersected Hall reservation in Idaho was begun in 1867 in the north by Clarke's fork of the Columbia for the Bannacks, and several bands of Shoand the Kootenay river; area, about 12,000 shones, about 1,200 in all. The Shoshone ressq. m.; pop. in 1870, 722, of whom 468 were ervation in Wyoming, set apart under treaty of Chinese. It is watered by tributaries of the July 3, 1868, for Waushakee's and other bands Clearwater river and by the Spokane river, of eastern Shoshones and Bannacks, is exposed and contains Cæur d'Alène and Pend d'Oreille to attacks from the Sioux, and only about 800 lakes. The surface is mountainous. There is have united there. There are also the northfertile land around the lakes and along the western Shoshones in Nevada and Utah, estistreams. Timber is abundant, and there are ex- mated at from 2,000 to 3,000, and a band of tensive placer gold mines. Capital, Pierce City. 400 in the N. W. part of Idaho.- Vocabularies
SHOSHONES, or Snakes, a family of North have been obtained from various bands of the American Indians, embracing the Shoshones Shoshones, but no critical study of their lanproper, the Utes, Comanches, Moquis, Cheme- guage has appeared. The Episcopalians have hueves, Cahuillo, and the Kechi, Kizh, and Ne- a mission on the reservation in Wyoming.