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other than a
Sec. 3. That the commander and crew of any merchant vessel of the Merchant vesUnited States, owned wholly, or in part, by a citizen thereof, may oppose against aggres
sels may defend and defend against any aggression, search, restraint, depredation, or sion, &c. by any seizure, which shall be attempted upon such vessel, or upon any other armed vessel vessel owned as aforesaid by the commander or crew of any armed vessel
public armed whatsoever, not being a public armed vessel of some nation in amity with vessel of a nation the United States ; and may subdue and capture the same; and may also in amity. retake any vessel, owned as aforesaid, which may have been captured by the commander or crew of any such armed vessel, and send the same into any port of the United States. Sec. 4. That whenever any vessel or boat, from which any piratical
which piratical aggression, search, restraint, depredation or seizure shall have been first aggression, &c. attempted or made, shall be captured and brought into any port of the has been atUnited States, the same shall and may be adjudged and condemned to tempted or made, their use, and that of the captors, after due process and trial, in any court be condemned.", having admiralty jurisdiction, and which shall be holden for the district into which such captured vessel shall be brought; and the same court shall thereupon order a sale and distribution thereof accordingly, and at Sale and distheir discretion.*
No. 119. MARCH 3, 1819.
Stat. at Large,
Vol. III. p. 532. Be it enacted, &c. That the President of the United States be, and he Act of March is hereby, authorized, whenever he shall deem it expedient, to cause any 3, 1819, ch, 77. of the armed vessels of the United States, to be employed to cruise on 15, 1820, ch. 113. any of the coasts of the United States, or Territories thereof, or of the The President coast of Africa, or elsewhere, where he may judge attempts may be made may employ the to carry on the slave-trade by citizens or residents of the United States, of the United in contravention of the acts of Congress prohibiting the same, and to in- States on the struct and direct the commanders of all armed vessels of the United United States States, to seize, take, and bring into any port of the United States, all and of Africa, ships or vessels of the United States, wheresoever found, which may have &c.
Vessels unlawtaken on board, or which may be intended for the purpose of taking on fully engaged in board, or of transporting, or may have transported, any negro, mulatto, or the transportaperson of color, in violation of any of the provisions of the act, entitled
tion of negroes,
&c. may be “ An act in addition to an act to prohibit the importation of slaves into seized and any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States, froin and brought into after the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight port: Elec:
Act of April hundred and eight, and to repeal certain parts of the same," or of any 20, 1818, ch. 91. other act or acts prohibiting the traffic in slaves, to be proceeded against
of offending vesaccording to law : And the proceeds of all ships and vessels, their tackle, sels, &c. to be apparel, and furniture, and the goods and effects on-board of them, which divided between shall be so seized, prosecuted, and condemned, shall be divided equally States and the between the United States and the officers and men who shall seize, take captors, whether or bring, the same into port for condemnation, whether such seizure be armed vessels or made by an armed vessel of the United States or revenue cutter thereof :
To be distribAnd the same shall be distributed in like manner as is provided by law
uted as prizes. for the distribution of prizes taken from an enemy. Provided, That the Officers and officers and men, to be entitled to one half of the proceeds aforesaid, shall men to keep safe keep every negro, mulatto, or person of color, found on board of every negro, &c. any ship or vessel so seized, taken, or brought into port, for condemnation, and shall deliver every such negro, mulatto or person of color, to the marshal of the district into which they are brought, if into a port of the United States, or, if elsewhere, to such person or persons as shall be lawful appointed by the President of the United States, in the
This act was originally limited to the “end of the next session of Congress," but the first four sections were extended by the act of 1820, ch. 113, and made perpetual by the act of 1823, ch. 7.
lars for every
hereinafter directed, transmitting to the President of the United States, A descriptive as soon as may be after such delivery, a descriptive list of such negroes, list to be trans- mulattoes, or persons of color, that he may give directions for the disPresident. posal of them. And provided further, That the commanders of such, Proviso.
commissioned vessels, do cause to be apprehended, and taken into custody every person found on board of such vessel, so seized and taken, being of the officers or crew thereof, and him or them convey, as soon as conveniently may be, to the civil authority of the United States, to be pro
ceeded against, in due course of law, in some of the districts thereof. The President Sec. 2. That the President of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized to
authorized to make such regulations and arrangements as he may deem make regulations for the safe-keep- expedient for the safe-keeping, support, and removal beyond the limits of ing, &c. and re- the United States, of all such negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, as United States of may be so delivered and brought within their jurisdiction. And to apnegroes, &c. and point a proper person or persons, residing upon the coast of Africa, as may appoint
agent or agents for receiving the negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, agents on the coast of Africa,
delivered from on board vessels, seized in the prosecution of the slaveto receive them, trade, by commanders of the United States armed vessels. &c. Bounty of
Sec. 3. That a bounty of twenty-five dollars be paid to the officers and twenty-five dol- crews of the commissioned vessels of the United States, or revenue cut
ters, for each and every negro, mulatto, or person of color, who shall negro, &c.
Secretary, &c. have been, as hereinbefore provided, delivered to the marshal or agent to cause bounty duly appointed to receive them : And the Secretary of the Treasury is to be paid.
hereby authorized and required to pay or cause to be paid, to such officers and crews, or their agent, the aforesaid bounty, for each person delivered
as aforesaid. District attor- Sec. 4. That when any citizen, or other person, shall lodge information, pey to prosecute with the attorney for the district of any State or territory, as the case by information, in the case of may be, that any negro, mulatto, or person of color, has been imported persons holding therein, contrary to the provisions of the acts in such case made and prolawfully import: vided, it shall be the duty of the said attorney forthwith to commence a
prosecution, by information ; and process shall issue against the person charged with holding such negro, negroes, mulatto, inulattoes, person or
persons of color, so alleged to be imported contrary to the provisions of the Upon the ver- acts aforesaid : And if, upon the return of the process executed, it shall dict of a jury, be ascertained, by the verdict of a jury, that such negro, negroes, mulatthe court to die rect the marshal to, mulattoes, person or persons of color, have been brought in, contrary
to the true intent and meaning of the acts in such cases made and progroes into custody, subject to
vided, then the court shall direct the marshal of the said district to take the orders of the the said negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, into his custody, for safePresident.
keeping, subject to the orders of the President of the United States; and Informer entitled to a bounty the informer or informers, who shall have lodged the information, shall be of 50 dollars. entitled to receive, over and above the portion of the penalties accruing to
him or them by the provisions of the acts in such case made and provided, a bounty of fifty dollars, for each and every negro, mulatto, or persons
of color, who shall have been delivered into the custody of the marshal ; The Secretary and the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized and required to of the Treasury
pay, or cause to be paid, the aforesaid bounty, upon the certificate of the bounty to be clerk of the court for the district where the prosecution may have been paid.
had, with the seal of office thereto annexed, stating the number of negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, so delivered.
Sec. 5. That it shall be the duty of the commander of any armed vestured to be sent sel of the United States, whenever he shall make any capture under the the State or Ter- provisions of this act, to bring the vessel and her cargo, for adjudication, ritory where into some of the ports of the State or territory to which such vessel, so they belong, if, captured, shall belong, if he can ascertain the same ; if not, then to be &c.
sent into any convenient port of the United States. Repugnant Sec. 6. That all such acts, or parts of acts, as may be repugnant to of acts, repealed. the provisions of this act, shall be, and the same are hereby repealed.
to take the ne
to cause the
duct or manu
CHAP. XI. — An Act to provide for obtaining accurate Statement; of the Foreign Com
Stat. at Large, merce of the United States.
Vol. III. p. 541. Be it enacted, &c. That the register of the treasury shall, under the The register of direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, annually prepare statistical the treasury to accounts of the commerce of the United States with foreign countries, for cal accounts. each preceding year; which accounts shall be laid before Congress, by See 1861, ch. the Secretary of the Treasury, on the first Monday in December in every 1866, ch. 298,
. year, or as soon after as possible. Sec. 2. That such accounts shall comprehend and state all goods,
To be laid be
fore Congress. wares, and merchandise, exported from the United States to other coun
Of goods, &c. tries; all goods, wares, and merchandise, imported into the United States exported. from other countries; and all navigation employed in the foreign trade of bf goods, &c. the United States; which facts shall be stated according to the principles,
Of all navigaand in the manner, hereby directed.
tion employed in Sec. 3. That the kinds, quantities, and values, of all articles exported, principles and and the kinds, quantities, and values, of all articles imported, shall be dis- manner of stattinctly stated in such accounts; except in cases in which it may appear to ing the exports
and imports. the Secretary of the Treasury that separate statements of the species, quantities, or values, of any particular articles, would swell the annual statements without utility ; and, in such cases, the kinds and total values of such articles shall be stated together, or in such classes as the Secretary of the Treasury may think fit.
Sec. 4. That the exports shall be so stated as to show the exports Exports, &c. to each foreign country, and their values ; and that the imports shall be to and from each 80 stated, as to show the imports from each foreign country, and their country, and values.
stated. Sec. 5. That the exports shall be so stated, as to show, separately, the
Country of the exports of articles of the production or manufacture of the United States, exported proand their values ; and the exports of articles of the production or manu
facture, and facture of foreign countries, and their values.
values, to be Sec. 6. That the navigation, employed in the foreign trade of the stated.
Manner of United States, shall be stated in such manner, as to show the amount of
stating the navi. the tonnage of all vessels departing from the United States for foreign gation. countries; and, separately, the amount of such tonnage of vessels of the United States, and the amount of such tonnage of foreign vessels; and also the foreign nations to which such foreign tonnage belongs, and the amount of such tonnage belonging to each foreign nation ; and in such manner as also to show the amount of the tonpage of all vessels departing.for every particular foreign country, with which the United States have any considerable commerce; and, separately, the amount of such tonnage of vessels of the United States, and the amount of such tonnage of foreign vessels ; and, in such manner as to show the amount of the tonnage of all vessels arriving in the United States from foreign countries; and, separately, the amount of such tonnage of vessels of the United States, and the amount of such tonnage of foreign vessels; and, also, the foreign nations to which such foreign tonnage belongs, and the amount of such tonnage belonging to each foreign nation ; and, in such manner, as also to show the amount of the tonnage of all vessels arriving from every particular foreign country, with which the United States have any considerable commerce; and, separately, the amount of such tonnage of vessels of the United States, and the amount of such tonnage of foreign vessels. Sec. 7. That the kinds and quantities of all imported articles free from
Manner of duty shall be ascertained by entry, made upon oath or affirmation, by the ascertaining the owner, or by the consignee or agent of the importer; or by actual exam- kinds and quanination, where the collector shall think such examination necessary: and ed articles free that the values of all such articles shall be ascertained in the same man- from duty.
And their ner in which the values of imports subject to duties ad valorem are ascervalues.
tained. Manner of Sec. 8. That the values of all imported articles subject to specific ascertaining the duties, shall be ascertained in the manner in which the values of imports values of articles subject to
subject to duties ad valorem are ascertained. specific duties. Sec. 9. That the collectors shall keep separate accounts of the kinds, Collectors to
quantities, and values, of such parts of the imports subject to duties ad keep separate
valorem, as may be directed by the Secretary of the Treasury. Exports and
Sec. 10. That all articles exported shall be valued at their actual cost, imports, how valued.
or the values which they may truly bear at the time of exportation, in the See 1865, ch. ports of the United States from which they are exported ; and that all 80, $ 7. articles imported shall be valued at their actual cost, or the values which
they may truly bear in the foreign ports from which they are exported for
importation into the United States, at the time of such exportation. Manifests to Sec. 11. That before a clearance shall be granted for any vessel bound be delivered and to a foreign place, the owners, shippers, or consignors, of the cargo on verified on oath or affirmation. board of such vessel, shall deliver to the collector manifests of the cargo,
Manifests to or the parts thereof shipped by them respectively, and shall verify the specify kinds, quantities, and
same by oath or affirmation ; and such manifests shall specify the kinds value.
and quantities of the articles shipped by them respectively, and the value Tenor of the of the total quantity of each kind of articles ; and such oath or affirmaoath or affirmation.
tion shall state that such manifest contains a full, just, and true, account of all articles laden on board of such vessel by the owners, shippers, or consignors, respectively, and that the values of such articles are truly stated,
according to their actual cost, or the values which they truly bear at the go is to be land- port and time of exportation ; and, before a clearance shall be granted for ed to be stated any such vessel, the master of every such vessel, and the owners, shipon oath or affir- pers, and consignors, of the cargo, shall state, upon oath or affirmation, to mation.
the collector, the foreign place or country in which such cargo is truly intended to be landed; and the said oaths or affirmation shall be taken and
subscribed in writing. Accounts of Sec. 12. That every collector shall keep an accurate account of the national charac- national characters and tonnage of all vessels which depart from his disof vessels depart- trict for foreign countries, and of the foreign places or countries for which ing and arriving such vessels depart; and, also, an accurate account of the national charto be kept.
acters and tonnage of all vessels which enter his district from foreign countries, and of the foreign places or countries from which such vessels
arrive. Quarterly Sec. 13. That the several collectors shall make quarter yearly returns returns to the
to the register of the treasury, of all the facts and matters which they are register.
hereby required to ascertain. Secretary of Sec. 14. That the Secretary of the Treasury shall give such directions the Treasury to to the collectors, and prescribe such rules and forms to be observed by give directions and prescribe them, as may appear to him proper for attaining the objects of this act : rules and forms. Provided, That such directions or rules shall not be contrary to the provis
ions of any law of the United States. Secretary of Sec. 15. That the forms of the annual statements hereby required Treasury to de
shall be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, who shall prescribe termine the forms of the such forms as may be proper to exhibit the facts hereby required to be statements. stated in the clearest manner, and to show the actual state of commerce
and navigation between the United States and foreign countries in each
year. Act in force Sec. 16. That this act shall be in force from the thirtieth day of Sepfrom 30th Sept. tember next.
No. 121. - May 1, 1820.
Stat. at Large,
Vol. III. p. 567. tion of the Treasury, War, and Navy Departments.
No unauthorSec. 6. That no contract shall hereafter be made by the Secretary of
ized contracts to State, or of the Treasury, or of the Department of War, or of the Navy, be made. except under a law authorizing the same, or under an appropriation adequate to its fulfilment.* Sec. 7. That no land shall be purchased on account of the United No unauthor
ized purchases States, except under a law authorizing such purchase.
made for U. S.
of land to be
No. 122. — MAY 15, 1820. CHAP. CII. – An Ad to limit the Term of Office of certain Officers therein named, Stat. at Large, and for other Purposes.
Vol. III. p. 582. Be it enacted, &c. That from and after the passing of this act, all dis- District attortrict attorneys, collectors of the customs, naval officers and surveyors of neys, collectors the customs, navy agents, receivers of public moneys for lands, registers val officers, &c. of the land offices, paymasters in the army, [the apothecary-general, the assist- to be appointed ant apothecaries-general, and the commissary-general of purchases,] † to be appoint- removable at ed under the laws of the United States, shall be appointed for the term of pleasure. four years, [but shall be removable from office at pleasure.]
Sec. 3. That it shall be lawful for the President of the United States, The President and he is hereby authorized, from time to time as in his opinion the inter- authorized, from est of the United States may require, to regulate and increase the sums regulate and infor which the bonds required, or which may be required by the laws of crease the sums
in bonds rethe United States, to be given by the said officers, and by all other officers
quired. employed in the disbursement of the public moneys under the direction of the War or Navy Departments, shall be given; and all bonds given in conformity with such regulations shall be as valid and effectual, to all intents and purposes, as if given for the sums respectively mentioned in the laws requiring the same.
Sec. 4. That the commissions of all officers employed in levying or Commissions collecting the public revenue shall be made out and recorded in the of officers emTreasury Department, and the seal of the said department affixed there- lecting revenue to; any law to the contrary notwithstanding : Provided, That the said recorded at the seal shall not be affixed to any such commission before the same shall have
partment. been signed by the President of the United States.
No. 123. — May 15, 1820.
CHẤP. CVII. - An Act providing for the better Organization of the Treasury Depart- Stat. at Large, ment.
Vol. III. p. 592. Be it enacted, &c. That it shall be the duty of such officer of the An officer to Treasury Department as the President of the United States shall, from be designated by
the President, as time to time, designate for that purpose, as the agent of the treasury, to agent of the direct and superintend all orders, suits, or proceedings, in law or equity, treasury.
1830, ch. 153, for the recovery of money, chattels , lands, tenements, or hereditaments, in
OŚ 1, 2. the name, and for the use of the United States.
Sec. 2. That from and after the thirtieth day of September next, if Officers reany collector of the revenue, receiver of public money, or other officer ceiving public who shall have received the public money before it is paid into the treas- is paid into the ury of the United States, shall fail to render his account, or pay over the treasury, failing same in the manner, or within the time required by law, it shall be to account the duty of the first comptroller of the treasury to cause to be stated the troller to state account of such collector, receiver of public money, or other officer, ex
* See 4 Opin. 490, 600.
† These offices have been abolished.