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States, have found place upon our statute books, let them be removed. If prejudice or alienation toward any of our fellow-countrymen has fastened upon our minds, let it be dismissed and forgotten. Let us be just to ourselves and each other, allowing
neither threats to drive us from what we deem to be our duty, nor pride of opinion prevent us from correcting wherein we may have erred."
He recommended a complete reconstruction of the military system and that the most liberal encouragement be given for the formation of volunteer companies in all branches of the army service. "Speaking not merely for himself, but reflecting what he assumes to be the voice of the whole people of Illinois, irrespective of party, as it reaches him from all quarters, he adopts the sentiments of President Jackson—The Federal Union: it must be preserved' -to which sentiment he trusts the Legislature will give emphatic expression at an early day." With such expression, Illinois, the "Prairie State," then proved that she was as rich in her patriot
ism as in her soil and exhaustless resources, With a free white population exceeding that of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, and Louisiana all together, her position was only second in importance to that of the great Middle States.*
Gov. Yates, the incoming Governor, of Illinois, in his Message of the 14th, made the following points of policy: That an 'irrepressible conflict' did exist between the Slave and the Free States, but it does not neces sarily disturb the relations of the States: that secession is revolution which the whole power of the Government must be exerted to suppress: that the great North and West will never allow the free navigation of the Mississippi river to be impeded, &c. The Governor referred to Mr. Douglas as true to the Constitution, and avowed his conviction that the people, without distinction of party, were ready to defend the Union against any and all efforts to break it up.
PROGRESS OF THE
REVOLUTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA. ADJOURNMENT OF THE CONVENTION.
federation. The 3d and 4th sections of the name, including therein so much of the collection of report read: the customs as relates to light-houses, buoys, and matters of that nature, I appoint General W. W. Hartee.
"That the said Commissioners shall be authorized to invite the Seceding States to meet in Convention, at such time and place to be agreed upon, for the purpose of forming and putting the motion for such Provisional Government, so that the said Provisional Government be organized to go into effect at the earliest period previous to the 4th of March, 1861. The same Convention of Seceding States shall proceed forthwith to consider and propose a Constitution and plan of permanent government for such States, which proposed plan shall be referred back to the several State Conventions for adoption or rejection.
That the eight deputies elected by ballot in this Convention be authorized to meet the deputies of other Slaveholding Seceding States of the Federal Union, for the purpose of carrying into effect the foregoing resolutions. It is recommended that each of the said States be entitled to one vote in the said Convention upon all questions, and each State to send so many deputies, equal in number to the Senators and Representatives she is entitled to in the Congress of the United States."
New Executive Departments.
The new order of Government [see page 113] embraced a division of the executive into departments somewhat similar to the Cabinet of the President. On the 4th, the Governor announced these departments and appointments as follows:
"First: The State Functions.-Assistance of the Governor, with the exercise of his powers as now delegated, and more especially in his intercourse with the States; also arrangements with foreign powers, as in the appointment of Consuls, negotiation of treaties, and formation of regulations for commerce. For this I appoint the Hon. A. J. Magrath.
"Second: The Law and War Object.-For the supervision of matters relative to the condition of hostilities, the management of the military, the disposition of the troops, to receive the different ordinances of the Convention and acts of the Legislature, and as to the management of the troops in actual service, I appoint General D. J. Jamison.
Third: The Treasury Jurisdiction.-The super
vision of matters connected with the fiscal relations of the State, practical details, in the raising of funds provided for by any ordinance of the Convention and acts of the Legislature, not especially transferred to some of the other departments, I appoint the Hon. C. G. Memminger.
"Fifth: Interior.-The direction of local matters within the State, including the militia and coast po lice, I appoint General A. C. Garlington."
The Convention (January 4th) appointed delegates to the General Congress of the Seceding States, as follows: The Hons. T. J. Withers, L. M. Keitt, W. W. Bezee, James Chesnut, Jr., R. B. Rhett, Jr., R. W. Barnwell, and C. G. Memminger. The fortifications of the
The Collection of the Revenue.
harbor began rapidly to assume shape early in January. The appointment, by Mr. Buchanan, of Mr. McIntyre, of Philadelphia, to be Collector at Charleston, in place of Calcock, who was paying over his revenues to the State, was before the Senate for confirmation. As soon as that confirmation could be obtained, it was the purpose of the Administration to send him to Charleston on the armed steamer Harriet Lane, from which he should proceed to collect the revenues of the port. To provide against such an "invasion," the State hastened to throw up batteries at several points commanding the entrances to the port. Buoys and ranges were removed, and the lights suppressed. It was the positive determination of the authorities to allow no floating Custom-house in the harbor, nor to suffer a Federal Government vessel to enter their waters for any purpose whatever. As the Southern Senators, aided by a few Northern Democrats, refused to confirm Mr. McIntyre -thus directly co-operating with the rebels in thwarting the Government-the President was not able to carry forward his policy for collecting the duties, and the Harriet Lane did not pay her promised visit to the bristling harbor. For that pandering to treason the country ever must hold the Senate responsible; and loyal men will not cease to blame those Senators who interposed their authority to prevent the President from doing his plain, palpable duty.
Fourth: The Post-office Functions.-Indicated by movements are progressing rapidly all around
The Military Movements.
us. The brave sons of Caro- | did not reply; while those few who replied lina, cheered by the en- negatively, were immediately stricken from couragement of her equally the rolls and their offices closed, thus giving courageous daughters, are earnestly and si- the Southern people a foretaste of the manlently doing all that men can do towards ner in which the General Government would putting our State in a position to defend her- exercise its constitutional prerogatives. The self against the world. For the present we reply of the Charleston Postmaster proved refrain from giving the particulars of the va- that, though the State had voted herself inrious works that are progressing. We will dependent of all Federal relations and oblionly say, for the benefit of anxious friends, gations, she still was willing to acknowledge that the gallant volunteers stationed at the "Uncle Sam" yet a little longer in her postal various posts around us are, one and all, de- matters, and was willing that he should convoting themselves to fill the exigencies of a tinue to lose money in carrying her mails.* noble cause, and that they are and will, Mr. Huger said: "I do consider myself doubtless, continue in high spirits, and as responsible to the Government of the United comfortable as circumstances permit.'" States, in conformity with the existing laws, for all the postal revenues received by me as Postmaster at the City of Charleston." Again:-"You will accordingly receive my quarterly accounts in a few days." He inclosed a copy of the Ordinance concerning postal affairs, and did not consider it incompatible with his position. It was not "incompatible with his position," though the authorities did not design the deposits of the Postmaster to account of the Federal Government should leave the State.
Another paragraph of the same paper announced that two hundred and sixty-three "prime field hands " had passed through the city, en route for the defences. The paper remarked: “Our young men will do the storming and escalading-our slaves will raise our crops, and make our ditches, glacis and earthworks for our defence." It was estimated that one thousand Negroes were at work, at a later day, upon the harbor fortifications, all volunteer laborers—that is, "volunteered by their masters."
Resignations of Army and Navy officers continued. It was announced, among other items from Charleston, January 4th, that Commodore Shubrick was the guest of Colonel Isaac Hayne-that Captain Hartstene would assume a command in the navy-to-be -that Commodore" Barron and Captain Ingraham would be with them at the proper hour,* &c., &c.
The Post-office not
Late in December PostMaster-General Holt addressed a circular to all Postmasters in the revolutionary States, to know if they still recognized the authority of the Government over them and their offices. Many replied, chiefly affirmatively; others
*"In 1832-33, when General Jackson was President, and nullification was threatened by South Carolina, he directed the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy to issue circular letters to all officers of the Ariny and Navy, enclosing a printed oath which they were compelled to take, binding themselves to stand by the Government. Mr. Buchanan was not General Jackson.
SOUTH CAROLINA'S ORDINANCES.
that I should communicate the general facts in rela- sion of, to prevent any premature collision, and for tion to the same.
"It was distinctly understood that those who had the right to pledge the faith of the United States Government, on the one part, and those who had a similar right on the part of this State, had agreed
safekeeping, in the present excited state of the pub
"The Convention has by its Ordinance withdrawn
that after the act of secession there should be no
public property on just and equitable principles. All this was admitted and stated by the late Secre
State, and in this emergency I confidently rely upon
"F. W. PICKENS."
Mr. Farrow moved that the Message of his
A resolution was adopted in secret session,
tary of War, Governor Floyd, in his letter of resig-
"When this was known in the early morning to the good people of Charleston, they were thrown into great excitement. I sent off an aid-de-camp to the fort to know by what authority the Commandant had acted, and to require that the Commandant should return back to Fort Moultrie, as the Government of the United States was pledged to keep all its forces as they were in the different forts.
"The reply of Major Anderson was, that he had not known of any such pledge, and acted on his own responsibility, with a view to prevent the effusion of blood, and declined to return. I immediately ordered the occupation of Castle Pinckney and Sullivan's Island; and if it could be done in safety, after an examination as to the reported undermining, then Fort Moultrie itself should be occupied.
"In the orders issued it was expressly stated that these occupations were made with a view to prevent the further destruction of public property, and to secure the public safety, if possible. The officer, in taking possession of Castle Pinckney, stated, if it had not been done, the public property in that fort would have been destroyed, as was done in Fort Moultrie.
"The Arsenal, containing the arms of the United States, in the city, was more recently taken posses
In the Senate, on the same day, Mr. Bryan offered the following, upon which he moved immediate consideration:
Resolved, That it be referred to the Committee
The resolution was thereupon adopted.
"An Ordinance Concerning Powers lately vested in
"An Ordinance Concerning Judicial Powers.- The Judicial powers heretofore delegated to this State, so as to form a part of the Judicial power of the United States, having reverted to this State, shall be exercised by such Courts as the General Assembly shall direct.
"An Ordinance to Define and Punish Treason. In addition to what has been already declared to be treason by the General Assembly-treason against this State shall consist only in levying war against the State, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort-and that treason shall be punished by death without the benefit of clergy."
"Scheme after scheme to keep the Union together is formed, and bursts like bubbles on a fretful tide. Every day brings its proof of the steady progress of the Government of the United States to dissolution, and of the South to Union, while every effort made to avert this inevitable drift of things, only accele rates them to their final consummation. Not to act is fatal, and to act is more speedily fatal. So, why not at once acquiesce in the destiny of things-pitch the account-book of the Union into the fire, and take down the new account-book of a Southern Confederacy? Then, spread out its fair pages for a glorious history of independence, prosperity, and liberty. As to the North-let it go over to Canada-or break up into an Eastern, and Middle, and Western Confederacy-all inferior in power, wealth, and civilization to the great predominating Republic of the Slaveholding States of North America. Can they help
themselves? We will see."
AFFAIRS IN WASHINGTON EARLY IN JANUARY. STATE OF PUBLIC ACTIVITY IN THE WAR DEPARTMENT. BORDERSTATE COMMITTEE. THEIR PROPOSITION. THE ACTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF THIRTY-THREE. THE FORTS THEIR COST, ETC. THE MORALE OF THE CONSPIRACY.
Strengthened Public Opinion.
THE withdrawal of the South Carolina Commissioners was followed by a more determined spirit of resistance in the Cabinet, and by unmistakably patriotic demonstrations on the part of the Northern people. "Union" meetings became numerous and imposing: the press, fast forgetting its chronic distemper towards adversaries, began to harmonize on the question of constitutional obligation, and to demand of the President a rigorous policy of resistance to revolution: State Legislatures, with singular unanimity, counseled resistance to revolution, and offered their tremendous resources to aid the Executive in the discharge of his duty: messages from State Governors indicated clearly that the time for treating with treason had passed: the inviolability of the Union, it was evident, would|
be maintained by the Free States to the last extremity. All classes wished for peace: many to whom compromise was hateful asked for it rather than encounter the horrors of a disrupted Confederacy. But, when it became a demonstrable fact that the revolutionary States did not want compromisethat they were unalterably set upon the formation of a Southern Slave Confederacy, the masses of the North drew closer together, and, even before their representatives and leaders, were steeling their hearts for the crisis of conflict. That no overtures might be left untried, the labors of the Border States to concoct some remedy for the National disease were patiently accepted, though, from the very first, it was apparent that no remedy of theirs could allay the fever coursing in the veins of the body politic.
During the first week of January it was