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proval of two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives until the judgment of the people can be obtained thereon, and which has saved the American people from the corrupt and tyrannical domination of the bank of the United States, and from a corrupting system of general internal improvements.
Resolved, that the war with Mexico, provoked on her part, by years of insult and injury, was commenced by her army crossing the Rio Grande, attacking the American troops and invading our sister State of Texas, and that upon all the principles of patriotism and the Laws of Nations, it is a just and necessary war on our part in which every American citizen should have shown himself on the side of his Country, and neither morally nor physically, by word or by deed, have given "aid and comfort to the enemy."
Resolved, That we would be rejoiced at the assurance of a peace with Mexico, founded on the just principles of indemnity for the past and security for the future; but that while the ratification of the liberal treaty offered to Mexico remains in doubt, it is the duty of the country to sustain the administration and to sustain the country in every measure necessary to provide for the vigorous prosecution of the war, should that treaty be rejected.
Resolved, That the officers and soldiers who have carried the arms of their country into Mexico, have crowned it with imperishable glory. Their unconquerable courage, their daring enterprise, their unfaltering perseverance and fortitude when assailed on all sides by innumerable foes and that more formidable enemy-the diseases of the climate-exalt their devoted patriotism into the highest heroism, and give them a right to the profound gratitude of their country, and the admiration of the world.
Resolved, That the Democratic National Convention of 80 States composing the American Republic tender their fraternal congratulations to the National Convention of the Republic of France, now assembled as the free-suffrage Representatives of the Sovereignty of thirtyfive millions of Republicans to establish government on those eternal principles of equal rights for which their Lafayette and our Washington fought side by side in the struggle for our National Independence; and we would especially convey to them and to the whole people of France, our earnest wishes for the consolidation of their liberties, through the wisdom that shall guide their councils, on the basis of a Democratic Constitution, not derived from the grants or concessions of kings or dynasties, but originating from the only true source of political power recognized in the States of this Union; the inherent and inalienable right of the people, in their sovereign capacity, to make and to amend their forms of government in such manner as the welfare of the community may require.
Resolved, That the recent development of this grand political truth, of the sovereignty of the people and their capacity and power for self-government, which is
prostrating thrones and erecting Republics on the ruins of despotism in the old world, we feel that a high and sacred duty is devolved, with increased responsibility, upon the Democratic party of this country, as the party
of the people, to sustain and advance among us Consti tutional Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, by continuing to resist all monopolies and exclusive legislation for the benefit of the few at the expense of the many, and by a vigilant and constant adherence to those principles and compromises of the Constitution which are broad enough and strong enough to embrace and uphold the Union as it was, the Union as it is, and the Union as it shall be in the full expansion of the energies and capacity of this great and progressive people.
Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded through the American Minister at Paris, to the National Convention of the Republic of France.
Resolved, That the fruits of the great political triumph of 1844, which elected James K. Polk and George M. Dallas President and Vice-President of the United States, have fulfilled the hopes of the Democracy of the Union in defeating the declared purposes of their opponents in creating a National Bank, in preventing the corrupt and unconstitutional distribution of the Land Proceeds from the common treasury of the Union for local purposes, in protecting the Currency and Labor of the country from ruinous fluctuations; and guarding the money of the country for the use of the people by the establishment of the Constitutional treasury; in the noble impulse given to the cause of Free Trade by the repeal of the tariff of 42, and the creation of the more equal, honest, and productive tariff of 1846; and that, in our opinion, it would be a fatal error to weaken the bands of a political organization by which these great reforms have been achieved, and risk them in the hands of their known adversaries, with whatever delusive appeals they
may solicit our surrender of that vigilance which is the only safeguard of liberty.
Resolved, That the confidence of the Democracy of the Union, in the principles, capacity, firmness and integrity of James K. Polk, manifested by his nomination and election in 1844, has been signally justified by the strictness of his adherence to sound Democratic doctrines, by the purity of purpose, the energy and ability which have characterized his administration in all our affairs at home and abroad; that we tender to him our cordial congratulations upon the brilliant success which has hitherto crowned his patriotic efforts, and assure him in advance, that at the expiration of his Presidential term he will carry with him to his retirement, the esteem, respect, and admiration of a grateful country.
Resolved, That this Convention hereby present to the people of the United States, Lewis Cass, of Michigan, as the candidate of the Democratic party for the office of President, and William O. Butler of Ky, for Vice-President of the U. S.
FREE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION, 1848. The Barnburners of New York, who were disgusted with the proceedings of the National Convention which had nominated Cass and Butler for President and Vice-President, met in Convention at Utica, on the 22d of June, 1848. Delegates were also present from Ohio, Wisconsin and Massachusetts. Col. Samuel Young presided over the deliberations of this Convention; and Martin Van Buren was nominated for President, with Henry Dodge, of Wisconsin, for Vice-President. Gen. Dodge subsequently declined.
On the 9th of August following, a Convention was held at Buffalo, which was attended by delegates from the States of Maine, New-Hamp shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsyl vania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Iowa, and the District of Columbia. Charles Francis Adams, of Massachusetts, presided, and the Convention nominated Messrs. Van Buren and Adams as candidates for President and Vice-President, and adopted the following Resolves, sinco known as
THE BUFFALO PLATFORM. Whereas, We have assembled in Convention, as a union of freemen, for the sake of freedom, forgetting all past political differences in a common resolve to maintain the rights of free labor against the aggressions of the Slave Power, and to secure free soil to a free people.
And Whereas, The political Conventions recently assembled at Baltimore and Philadelphia, the one stifling the voice of a great constituency, entitled to be heard in its deliberations, and the other abandoning its distinctive principles for mere availability, have dissolved the National party organizations heretofore existing, by nominating for the Chief Magistracy of the United States, under the slaveholding dictation, candidates, neither of whom can be supported by the opponents of Slavery Extension without a sacrifice of consistency, duty and selfrespect;
And whereas, These nominations so made, furnist the occasion and demonstrate the necessity of the union of the people under the banner of Free Democracy, in a sob
mn and formal declaration of their independence of the slave power, and of their fixed determination to rescue the Federal Government from its control;
Resolved, therefore, That we, the people here assembled, remembering the example of our fathers, in the days of the first Declaration of Independence, putting our trust in God for the triumph of our cause, and invoking his guidance in our endeavors to advance it, do now plant ourselves upon the National platform of Freedom in opposition to the sectional platform of Slavery.
Resolved, That Slavery in the several States of this Jnion which recognize its existence, depends upon State laws alone, which cannot be repealed or modified by the Federal Government, and for which laws that government is not responsible. We therefore propose no interference by Congress with Slavery within the limits of any State.
with foreign nations, or among the several States, are objects of national concern, and that it is the duty of Congress, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, te provide therefor.
Resolved, That the Proviso of Jefferson, to prohibit the existence of Slavery after 1800, in all the Territories of the United States, Southern and Northern; the votes of six States and sixteen delegates, in the Congress of 1784, for the Proviso, to three States and seven delegates against it; the actual exclusion of Slavery from the Northwestern Territory, by the Ordinance of 1787, unanimously adopted by the States in Congress; and the entire history of that period, clearly show that it was the settled policy of the Nation not to extend, nationalize or encourage, but to limit, localize and discourage Slavery; and to this polIcy, which should never have been departed from, the Government ought to return.
Resolved, That our fathers ordained the Constitution of the United States, in order, among other great national objects, to establish justice, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty; but expressly denied to the Federal Government, which they created, all constitutional power to deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due legal process.
Resolved, That in the judgment of this Convention, Congress has no more power to make a Slave than to make a King; no more power to institute or establish Slavery than to institute or establish a Monarchy: no such power can be found among those specifically conferred by the Constitution, or derived by just implication from them.
Resolved, That it is the duty of the Federal Government to relieve itself from all responsibility for the exist ence or continuance of slavery whorever the government possesses constitutional authority to legislate on that subject, and it is thus responsible for its existence.
Resolved, That the true, and in the judgment of this 9. Convention, the only safe means of preventing the ex- 10. tension of Slavery into Territory now Free, is to prohibit 11. Its extension in all such Territory by an act of Congress. 12. Resolved, That we accept the issue which the Slave 18. power has forced upon us; and to their demand for more 14. Slave States, and more Slave Territory, our calm but final 15. answer is, no more Slave States and no more Slave Ter- 16. ritory. Let the soil of our extensive domains be kept 17. free for the hardy pioneers of our own land, and the op- 18. pressed and banished of other lands, seeking homes of 19. comfort and fields of enterprise in the new world. 20.
Resolved, It is due not only to this occasion, but to the whole people of the United States, that we should also declare ourselves on certain other questions of National Policy: therefore,
Resolved, That the free grant to actual settlers, in con sideration of the expenses they incur in making settlements in the wilderness, which are usually fully equal to their actual cost, and of the public benefits resulting therefrom, of reasonable portions of the public lands, under suitable limitations, is a wise and just measure of public policy, which will promote in various ways the interests of all the States of this Union; and we therefore recommend it to the favorable consideratlon of the American people.
Resolved, That the obligations of honor and patriotism require the earliest practicable payment of the national debt, and we are therefore in favor of such a tariff of duties as will raise revenue adequate to defray the necessary expenses of the Federal Government, and to pay annual instalments of our debt, and the interest thereon. Resolved, That we inscribe on our own banner, "Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men," and under it we will fight on, and fight ever, until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions.
Resolved, That we demand Cheap Postage for the People; a retrenchment of the expenses and patronage of the Federal Government; the abolition of all unnecessary offices and salaries; and the election by the people of all civil officers in the service of the government, so far as the same may be practicable.
Resolved, That River and Harbor improvements, when demanded by the safety and convenience of commerce
WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION, 1852.
This body assembled at Baltimore on the 16th of June, and chose Gen. John G. Chapman, of Md., as presiding officer, and, after an exciting session of six days, nominated Gen. Winfield Scott as President, on the 53d ballot, as follows:
Resolved, That the bill lately reported by the committee 21. of eight in the Senate of the United States, was no com- 22. promise, but an absolute surrender of the rights of the 23. Non-Slaveholders of all the States; and while we rejoice 24. to know that a measure which, while opening the door for 25. the introduction of Slavery into Territories now free, 26. would also have opened the door to litigation and strife 27. among the future inhabitants thereof, to the ruin of their peace and prosperity, was defeated in the House of Representatives, its passage, in hot haste, by a majority, embracing several senators who voted in open violation of the known will of their constituents, should warn the people to see to it, that their representatives be not suffered to betray them. There must be no more Compromises with Slavery; if made they must be repealed.
Resolved, That we demand freedom and established institutions for our brethren in Oregon, now exposed to hardships, peril and massacre by the reckless hostility of the Slave Power to the establishment of Free Government for Free Territories; and not only for them, but for our new brethren in California and New-Mexico.
134 128 80
133 130 29
181 28 48.
The Convention adopted the following
The Whigs of the United States, in Convention assem bled, adhering to the great conservative principles by which they are controled and governed, and now as ever relying upon the intelligence of the American people, with an abiding confidence in their capacity for self-gov. ernment, and their devotion to the Constitution and the Union, do proclaim the following as the political sentiments and determination for the establishment and maintenance of which their national organization as a party was effected.
133 29 181 29 138 131 29 130 29 133 80
44. 45. 46.
First. The government of the United States is of a limited character, and it is confined to the exercise of powers expressly granted by the Constitution, and such as may be necessary and proper for carrying the granted powers into full execution, and that powers not granted or necessarily implied are reserved to the States respectively and to the people.
Second. The State Governments should be held secure
to their reserved rights, and the General Government sustained on its constitutional powers, and that the Union should be revered and watched over as the palla
dium of our liberties.
NAYS-Maine, 4; Connecticut, 1; New-York, 22; Pennsylvania, 6; Ohio, 15; Wisconsin, 1; Indiana, 6; Illinois, 5; Michigan, 6; California, 4-70.
Third. That while struggling freedom everywhere enlists the warmest sympathy of the Whig party, we still adhere to the doctrines of the Father of his Country, as announced in his Farewell Address, of keeping ourselves free from all entangling alliances with foreign countries, and of never quitting our own to stand upon foreign WASHINGTON, June 24th, 1852. ground; that our mission as a republic is not to propaSIR: I have had the honor to receive from your hands gate our opinions, or impose on other countries our forms of government, by artifice or force; but to teach the official notice of my unanimous nomination as the by example, and show by our success, moderation and Whig candidate for the office of President of the United justice, the blessings of self-government, and the advan-States, together with a copy of the resolutions passed by the Convention, expressing their opinions upon some of tage of free institutions. the most prominent questions of national policy.
Fourth. That, as the people make and control the Government, they should obey its constitution, laws and treaties as they would retain their self-respect, and the respect which they claim and will enforce from foreign
This great distinction, conferred by a numerous, intelligent and patriotic body, representing millions of my countrymen, sinks deep into my heart; and remembering the very eminent names which were before the Convention in amicable competition with my own, I am made to feel, oppressively, the weight of responsibility belonging to my new position. Not having written a word to procure this distinction, I lost not a moment after it had been conferred in addressing a letter to one of your members, to signify what would be, at the proper time, the substance of my reply to the Convention: and I now have the honor to repeat in a more formal manner, as the occasion justly demands, that I accept the nomination with the resolutions annexed. The political principles and meas ures laid down in those resolutions are so broad that but little is left for me to add. I therefore barely suggest in this place, that should I, by the partiality of my countrymen, be elevated to the Chief Magistracy of the Union, I shall be ready, in my connection with Congress, to recommend or approve of measures in regard to the management of the public domain, so as to secure an early settlement of the same, favorable to actual settlers, but consistent, nevertheless, with a due regard to the equal rights of the whole American people in that vast national inheritance; and also to recommend or approve of a single alteration in our naturalization laws, suggested by my military experience, viz.: Giving to all foreigners the right of citizenship, who shall faithfully serve, in time of war, one year on board of our public ships, or in our land forces, regular or volunteer, on their receiving an honorable discharge from the service. In regard to the general policy of the administration, if elected, I should, of course, look among those who may approve that policy for the agents to carry it into execution; and I should seek to cultivate harmony and fraternal sentiments throughout the Whig party, without attempting to reduce its members, by proscription, to exact uniformity to my own views.
Fifth. Government should be conducted on principles of the strictest economy; and revenue sufficient for the expenses thereof, in time, ought to be derived mainly from a duty on imports, and not from direct taxes; and on laying such duties sound policy requires a just discrimination, and, when practicable, by specific duties, whereby suitable encouragement may be afforded to American industry, equally to all classes and to all portions of the country; an economical administration of the Government, in time of peace, ought to be derived from duties on imports, and not from direct taxation; and in laying such duties, sound policy requires a just discrimination, whereby suitable encouragement may be afforded to American industry, equally to all classes, and to all parts of the country.
Sixth. The Constitution vests in Congress the power to open and repair harbors, and remove obstructions from navigable rivers, whenever such improvements are necessary for the common defense, and for the protection and facility of commerce with foreign nations, or among the States-said improvements being in every instance national and general in their character.
Seventh. The Federal and State Governments are parts of one system, alike necessary for the common prosperity, peace and security, and ought to be regarded alike with a cordial, habitual and immovable attachment, Respect for the authority of each, and acquiescence in the just constitutional measures of each, are duties required by the plainest considerations of National,
State and individual welfare.
Eighth. That the series of acts of the 32d Congress, the Act known as the Fugitive Slave law included, are received and acquiesced in by the Whig party of the United States as a settlement in principle and substance of the dangerous and exciting questions which they embrace; and, so far as they are concerned, we will maintain them, and insist upon their strict enforcement, until time and experience shall demonstrate the necessity of further legislation to guard against the evasion of the laws on the one hand and the abuse of their powers on the other-not impairing their present efficiency; and we deprecate all further agitation of the question thus settled, as dangerous to our peace, and will discountenance all efforts to continue or renew such agitation, whenever, wherever, or however the attempt may be made; and we will maintain this system as essential to the nationality of the Whig party, and the integrity of the Union.
GEN. SCOTT'S ACCEPTANCE.
Gen. Scott accepted the nomination and Plat form in the following letter.
But I should at the same time be rigorous in regard to qualifications for office, retaining and appointing no one either deficient in capacity or integrity, or in devotion to liberty, to the Constitution and the Union. Convinced that harmony or good will between the different quarters of our broad country is essential to the present and the future interests of the Republic, and with a devotion to those interests that can know no South and no North, I should neither countenance nor tolerate any sedition, disorder, faction or resistance to the law or the Union on any pretext, in any part of the land, and I should carry into the civil administration this one principle of military conduct-obedience to the legislative and judicial departments of government, each in its constitutional sphere, saving only in respect to the Legislature, the possible resort to the veto power, always to be most cautiously exercised, and under the strictest restraints and
The above propositions were unanimously adopted with the exception of the last, which was carried by a vote of 212 to 70: the delegates who voted against it being supporters of Scott as against Fillmore and Webster in the ballotings above given.
Finally, for my strict adherence to the principles of the Whig party, as expressed in the resolutions of the Convention, and herein suggested, with a sincere and earnest
purpose to advance the greatness and happiness of the Republic, and thus to cherish and encourage the cause of constitutional liberty throughout the world, avoiding every act and thought that might involve our country in an unjust or unnecessary war, or impair the faith of The vote by States, on this (Compromise) treaties, and discountenancing all political agitations injurious to the interests of society and dangerous to the resolution, was as follows: Union, I can offer no other pledge or guarantee than the known incidents of a long public life, now undergoing the severest examination. Feeling myself highly fortunate in my associate on the ticket, and with a lively sense of my obligations to the Convention, and to your personal courtesies, I have the honor to remain, sir. with great
YEAS-Maine, 4; New-Hampshire, 5; Vermont, 5; Massachusetts, 3; Rhode Island, 4; Connecticut, 4 New-York, 11; New-Jersey, 7; Pennsylvania, 21; Dela ware, 3; Maryland, 8; Virginia, 14; North Carolina, 10; South Carolina, 8; Georgia, 10; Alabama, 9; Mis-esteem, your most obedient servant, sissippi, 7; Louisiana, 6; Onio, 8; Kentucky, 12; Tennessee, 12; Indiana, 7; Illinois, 6; Missouri, 9; Arkansas, 4; Florida, 8; Iowa, 4; Wisconsin, 4; Texas, 4; -212.
To HON. J. G. CHAPMAN, President of the Whig Na tional Con
This Convention assembled at Baltimore on the 1st of June, John W. Davis, of Indiana, presided, and the two-thirds rule was adopted. Gen. Franklin Pierce, of New Hampshire, was nominated for President on the 49th ballot, as follows:
25. 84 101 81 26
33 101 80 26
114 114 113 113 88 34 26 112 87 39 27 10. 111 86 40 27 11. 101 87 50 27 12. 98 88 51 27 18. 98 88 51 26 14. 99 87 51 26 15. 99 87 51 26 16. 99 87 51 26 17. 99 87 50 26 18. 96 85 56 25 19. 89 85 63 26
20. 81 92 64 26 1 10
21. 60 102 64 26 18 9 22. 53 104 77 26 15 9 23. 37 103 78 26
24. 33 103 80 26
116 93 20 27
95 28 27
94 21 26
115 89 31 25
88 34 26
88 34 26 1
32 98 85
32. 98 74 80 26
38. 84. 35.
83 91 92 26
96 88 26 25 11
93 91 26 25 12 20 12 79 92 26 16 10
72 60 25 2 6
49 53 23
89 52 44 1
28 43 58
28 37 70 1
28 33 84
23 33 85 1
27 33 85
27 83 85 1
27 88 91 1
27 33 91
27 33 91 1
96 27 82 97 1
78 28 32 97 1
28 33 95 1
28 83 90
The first vote for Vice-President was as follows:
Wm. R. King, of Ala... 126 | Wm. O. Butler, of Ky... 27 G. J. Pillow, of Tenn... 25 Robt. Strange, of N. C... 23 D. R. Atchison, of Mo.. 25 S U. Downs, of La.... 80 T. J. Rusk, of Texas,.. 12 J. B. Weller, of Cal.... 28 Jeff. Davis, of Miss..... 2 Howell Cobb, of Ga.... 2 Wm. R. King, of Alabama, was unanimously nominated on the second ballot.
The Platform was made up of resolves. Here follow 1, 2, and 3, of that of 1848, with 1, 2, 3, and 4 of that of 1840, (see them heretofore), to which were added the following:
Resolved, That it is the duty of every branch of the Government to enforce and practice the most rigid economy in conducting our public affairs, and that no more revenue ought to be raised than is required to defray the necessary expenses of the Government, and for the gradual but certain extinction of the public debt. Resolved, That Congress has no power to charter a National Bank; that we believe such an institution one of deadly hostility to the best interests of the country, dangerous to our republican institutions and the liberties'
of the people, and calculated to place the business of the country within the control of a concentrated money power, and that above the laws and the will of the people; and that the results of Democratic legislation, in this and all other financial measures, upon which issues have been made between the two political parties of the country have demonstrated to candid and practical men of all, parties, their soundness, safety, and utility, in all business pursuits. Resolved, That the separation of the moneys of the Government from Banking Institutions, is indispensable for the safety of the funds of the Government, and the rights of the people.
Resolved, That the liberal principles embodied by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence, and sanctioned in the Constitution, which makes ours the land of liberty, and the asylum of the oppressed of every nation, have ever been cardinal principles in the Democratic faith; and every attempt to abridge the privilege of becoming citizens and the owners of soil among us, ought to be resisted with the same spirit which swept the alien and sedition laws from our statute book.
Resolved, That Congress has no power under the Constitution to interfere with, or control the domestic insti. tutions of the several States, and that such States are the sole and proper judges of everything appertaining to their own affairs, and prohibited by the Constitution; that all efforts of the Abolitionists or others, made to induce Congress to interfere with questions of Slavery, or to take incipient steps in relation thereto, are calculated to lead to the most alarming and dangerous consequences; and that all such efforts have an inevitable tendency to diminish the happiness of the people, and endanger the stability and permanency of the Union, and ought not to be countenanced by any friend of our political institutions.
Resolved, That the foregoing proposition covers, and is intended to embrace, the whole subject of Slavery agitation in Congress; and therefore, the Democratic party of the Union, standing on this National Platform, will abide by, and adhere to, a faithful execution of the acts known as the Compromise measures settled by the last Congress
the act for reclaiming fugitives from service or labor included; which act, being designed to, carry out an express provision of the Constitution, cannot with fidelity thereto be repealed, nor so changed as to destroy or impair its efficiency.
Resolved, That the Democratic party will resist all attempts at renewing in Congress, or out of it, the agitation of the Slavery question, under whatever shape or color the attempt may be made.
[Here follow the Resolutions of 1848, against the distribution of the proceeds of the Public Land Sales, and against the abridgment of the veto power of the President.]
Resolved, That the Democratic party will faithfully abide by and uphold the principles laid down in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1792 and 1798, and in the report of Mr. Madison to the Virginia Legislature in 1799; that it adopts those principles as constituting one of the main foundations of its political creed, and is resolved to carry them out in their obvious meaning and import.
Resolved, That the war with Mexico, upon all the principles of patriotism and the law of nations, was a just and necessary war on our part, in which no American citizen should have shown himself opposed to his country, and neither morally nor physically, by word or deed, given aid and comfort to the enemy.
Resolved, That we rejoice at the restoration of friendly relations with our sister Republic of Mexico, and earnest we enjoy under Republican Institutions, and we con ly desire for her all the blessings and prosperity which
gratulate the American people on the results of that war which have so manifestly justified the policy and conduct of the Democratic party, and insured to the United States
indemnity for the past, and security for the future.
Resolved, That, in view of the condition of popular institutions in the old world, a high and sacred duty is devolved with increased responsibility upon the Democracy of this country, as the party of the people, to uphold and maintain the rights of every State, and thereby the Union of States, and to sustain and advance among them constitutional liberty, by continuing to resist all monopolies and exclusive legislation for the benefit of the few at the expense of the many, and by a vigilant and constant adherence to those principles and compromises of the CONSTITUTION, which are broad enough and strong enough to embrace and uphold the Union as it is, and the Union as it should be, in the full expansion of the energies and capacity of this great and progressive people.
Having assembled in National Convention as the Democracy of the United States, united by a common resolve to maintain right against wrong, and Freedom against Slavery: confiding in the intelligence, patriotism, and discriminating justice of the American people, putting our trust in God for the triumph of our cause, and invoking his guidance in our endeavors to advance it, we now submit to the candid judgment of all men the following declaration of principles and measures:
1. That governments, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, are instituted among men to secure to all those inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness with which they are endowed by their Creator, and of which none can be deprived by valid legislation, except for crime.
2. That the true mission of American Democracy is to maintain the Liberties of the People, the Sovereignty of the States, and the perpetuity of the Union, by the impartial application to public affairs, without sectional discriminations of the fundamental principles of human rights, strict justice and an economical administra
3. That the Federal Government is one of limited powers, derived solely from the Constitution, and the grants of power therein ought to be strictly construed by all the departments and agents of the Government, and it is inexpedient and dangerous to exercise doubtful constitutional powers.
4. That the Constitution of the United States, ordained to form a more perfect Union, to establish Justice and secure the blessings of Liberty, expressly denies to the General Government all power to deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; and, therefore, the Government having no more power to make a slave than to make a king, and no more power to establish Slavery than to establish a Monarchy, should at once proceed to relieve itself from all responsibility for the existence of Slavery, wherever it possesses constitutional power to legislate for its extinction.
5. That, to the persevering and importunate demands of the Slave power for more Slave States, new Slave Territories and the nationalization of Slavery, our distinct and final answer is-no more Slave States, no Slave Territory, no nationalized Slavery, and no national Legislation for the extradition of Slaves.
6. That Slavery is a sin against God, and a crime against man, which no human enactment nor usage can make right; and that Christianity, humanity, and patriot
ism alike demand its abolition.
7. That the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, is repugnant to the Constitution, to the principles of the common law, to the spirit of Christianity, and to the sentiments of the civilized world. We therefore deny its binding force upon the American people, and demand its immediate and total repeal.
8. That the doctrine that any human law is a finality, and not subject to modification or repeal, is not in accordance with the creed of the founders of our Government, and is dangerous to the liberties of the people.
9. That the Acts of Congress, known as the Compromise Measures of 1850, by making the admission of a Sovereign State contingent upon the adoption of other measures demanded by the special interest of Slavery; by their omission to guarantee freedom in the free Territories; by their attempt to impose unconstitutional limitations on the power of Congress and the people-to admit new States; by their provisions for the assumption of five millions of the State debt of Texas, and for the payment of five millions more, and the cession of a large territory to the same State under menace, as an inducement to the relinquishment of a groundless claim, and by their invasion of the sovereignty of the States and the liberties of the people through the enactment of an unjust, oppressive, and unconstitutional Fugitive Slave Law, are proved to be inconsistent with all the principles and maxims of Democracy, and wholly inadequate to the settlement of the questions of which they are claimed to be an adjustment.
10. That no permanent settlement of the Slavery question can be looked for except in the practical recognition of the truth that Slavery is sectional and Freedom national; by the total separation of the General Government from Slavery, and the exercise of its legitimate and constitutional influence on the side of Freedom; and by leaving to the States the whole subject of Slavery and the extradition of fugitives from service. soil; and that as the use of the soil is indispensable to 11. That all men have a natural right to a portion of the life, the right of all men to the soil is as sacred as their right to life itself.
12. That the Public Lands of the United States belong to the People, and should not be sold to individuals nor granted to corporations, but should be held as a sacred trust for the benefit of the people, and should be granted in limited quantities, free of cost, to landless settlers.
18. That a due regard for the Federal Constitution, a sound administrative policy, demand that the funds of the General Government be kept separate from Banking institutions; that inland and ocean postage should be reduced to the lowest possible point; that no more revenue should be raised than is required to defray the strictly necessary expenses of the public service, and to pay off the public Debt; and that the power and patronage of the Government should be diminished, by the abolition of all unnecessary offices, salaries, and privileges, and by the election, by the people, of all civil officers in the service of the United States, so far as may be consistent with the prompt and efficient transaction of the public business.
14. That River and Harbor Improvements, when necessary to the safety and convenience of commerce with foreign nations, or among the several States, are objects of national concern; and it is the duty of Congress, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, to provide for
15. That emigrants and exiles from the old world should find a cordial welcome to homes of comfort and fields of enterprise in the new; and every attempt to abridge their privilege of becoming citizens and owners of the soil among us, ought to be resisted with inflexible determination.
16. That every nation has a clear right to alter or change its own government, and to administer its own concerns in such manner as may best secure the rights and promote the happiness of the people; and foreign interference with that right is a dangerous violation of the law of nations, against which all independent governments should protest, and endeavor by all proper means to prevent; and especially is it the duty of the American Government, representing the Chief Republic of the world, to protest against, and by all proper means to prevent the intervention of kings and emperors against Nations seeking to establish for themselves Republicar or constitutional governments.
17. That the Independence of Hayti ought to be recognized by our Government, and our commercial relations with it placed on the footing of the most
18. That as by the Constitution, "the citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States," the practice of imprisoning colored seamen of other States, while the vessels to which they belong lie in port, and refusing the exercise of the right to bring such cases before the Supreme Court of the United States, to test the legality of such proceedings, is a flagrant violation of the Constitution, and an invasion of the rights of the citizens of other States utterly inconsistent with the professions made by the slaveholders, that they wish the provisions of the Constitution faithfully observed by every State in the Union.
19. That we recommend the introduction into all trea
ties hereafter to be negotiated between the United States and foreign nations, of some provision for the amicable settlement of difficulties by a resort to decisive arbi
20. That the Free Democratic Party is not organized to aid either the Whig or Democratic wing of the great Slave Compromise party of the nation, but to defeat them both; and that repudiating and renouncing both, as hopelessly corrupt, and utterly unworthy of confidence, the purpose of the Free Democracy is to take possession of the Federal Government, and administer it for the better protection of the rights and interests of the whole people.
21. That we inscribe on our banner, Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor and Free Men, and under it will fight on and fight ever until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions.
to the American people as a candidate for the office of 22. That upon this Platform the Convention presents