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King, of Ohio, presided, and James G. Birney, of Florida, or on the high seas, are unconstitutional, and all Michigan, was unanimously nominated for Pre- attempts to hold men as property within the limits of exsident, with Thomas Morris, of Ohio, for Vice-clusive national jurisdiction, ought to be prohibited by law. President. Among the resolves adopted were the following:
Resolved, That human brotherhood is a cardinal principle of true Democracy, as well as of pure Christianity, which spurns all inconsistent limitations; and neither the political party which repudiates it, nor the political ystem which is not based upon it, can be truly Demoratic or permanent.
Resolved, That the provision of the Constitution of the United States, which confers extraordinary political powers on the owners of slaves, and thereby constituting the two hundred and fifty thousand slaveholders in the Slave States a privileged aristocracy; and the provision for the reclamation of fugitive slaves from service, are Anti-Republican in their character, dangerous to the liberties of the people, and ought to be abrogated.
Resolved, That the practical operation of the second of these provisions, is seen in the enactment of the act of Congress respecting persons escaping from their masun-ters, which act, if the construction given to it by the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Prigg vs. Pennsylvania be correct, nullifies the habeas corpus acts of all the States, takes away the whole legal security of personal freedom, and ought therefore to be immediately repealed.
Resolved, That the Liberty Party, placing itself upon his broad principle, will demand the absolute and qualified divorce of the General Government from lavery, and also the restoration of equality of rights, among men, in every State where the party exists, or may exist.
Resolved, That the Liberty Party has not been organized for any temporary purpose by interested politicians, but has arisen from among the people in consequence of a conviction, hourly gaining ground, that no other party in the country represents the true principles of American liberty, or the true spirit of the Constitution of the United States.
Resolved, That the Liberty Party has not been organized merely for the overthrow of slavery; its first decided effort must, indeed, be directed against slaveholding as the grossest and most revolting manifestation of despotism, but it will also carry out the principle of equal rights into all its practical consequences and applications, and support every just measure conducive to individual and social freedom.
Resolved, That the Liberty Party is not a sectional party but a national party; was not originated in a desire to accomplish a single object, but in a comprehensive regard to the great interests of the whole country; is not a new party, nor a third party, but is the party of 1776, reviving the principles of that memorable era, and striving to carry them into practical application. Resolved, That it was understood in the times of the Declaration and the Constitution, that the existence of slavery in some of the States, was in derogation of the principles of American Liberty, and a deep stain upon the character of the country, and the implied faith of the States and the Nation was pledged, that slavery should never be extended beyond its then existing limits, but should be gradually, and yet, at no distant day, wholly abolished by State authority.
Resolved, That the peculiar patronage and support hitherto extended to Slavery and Slaveholding, by the General Government, ought to be immediately with drawn, and the example and influence of National authority ought to be arrayed on the side of Liberty and Free Labor.
Resolved, That the practice of the General Government, which prevails in the Slave States, of employing Slaves upon the public works, instead of free laborers, and paying aristocratic masters, with a view to secure or reward political services, is utterly indefensible and ought to be abandoned.
Resolved, That freedom of speech, and of the press, and the right of petition, and the right of trial by jury, are sacred and inviolabie; and that all rules, regulations and laws, in derogation of either are oppressive, unconstitutional, and not to be endured by free people.
Resolved, That we regard voting in an eminent degree, as a moral and religious duty, which, when exercised, should be by voting for those who will do all in their power for Immediate Emancipation.
Resolved, That this Convention recommend to the friends of Liberty in all those Free States where any inequality of rights and privileges exists on account of color, to employ their utmost energies to remove all such remnants and effects of the Slave system.
Whereas, The Constitution of these United States is a series of agreements, covenants, or contracts between the people of the United States, each with all and all with each; and
Whereas, It is a principle of universal morality, that the moral laws of the Creator are paramount to all human laws; or, in the language of an Apostle, that "we ought to obey God rather than men ;" and,
Resolved, That the faith of the States and the Nation hus pledged, was most nobly redeemed by the voluntary Abolition of Slavery in several of the States, and by the adoption of the Ordinance of 1787, for the government of the Territory northwest of the river Ohio, then the only Whereas, The principle of common law-that any Territory in the United States, and consequently the only contract, covenant, or agreement, to do an act derogaerritory subject in this respect to the control of Congress tory to natural right, is vitiated and annulled by its inby which Ordinance Slavery was forever excluded from herent immorality-has been recognized by one of the he vast regions which now compose the States of Ohio, justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, who Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and the Territory of Wiscon-in a recent case expressly holds that "any contract sin, and an incapacity to bear up any other than freemen, that rests upon such a basis is void," and, was impressed on the soil itself.
Resolved, That the faith of the States and Nation thus pledged, has been shamefully violated by the omission on the part of many of the States, to take any measures whatever for the Abolition of Slavery within their respective limits; by the continuance of Slavery in the District of Columbia, and in the Territories of Louisiana and Florida; by the Legislation of Congress; by the protection afforded by national legislation and negotiation to slaveholding in American vessels, on the nigh seas, employed in the coastwise Slave Traffic; and by the extension of slavery far beyond its original limits, by acts of Congress, admitting new Slave States into the Union.
Resolved, That the fundamental truths of the Declaration of Independence, that all men are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, was made the fundamental law of our National Government, by that amendment of the Constitution which declares that no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law.
Whereas, The third clause of the second section of the fourth article of the Constitution of the United States, when construed as providing for the surrender of a Fugitive Slave, does "rest upon such a basis," in that it is a contract to rob a man of a natural right-namely, his natural right to his own liberty; and is, therefore, absolutely void. Therefore,
Resolved, That we hereby give it to be distinctly understood by this nation and the world, that, as abolitionists, considering that the strength of our cause lies in its righteousness, and our hope for it in our conformity to the laws of God, and our respect for the RIGHTS OF MAN, we owe it to the Sovereign Ruler of the universe, as a proof of our allegiance to Him, in all our civil relations and offices, whether as private citizens or as public functionaries sworn to support the Constitution of the United States, to regard and to treat the third clause of the fourth article of that instrument, whenever applied to the case of a fugitive slave, as utterly null and void, and consequently as forming no part of the Constitution of the United States, whenever we are called upon o aworn to support it.
Resolved, That the power given to Congress by the Constitution, to provide for calling out the militia to suppress insurrection, does not make it the duty of the Government to maintain Slavery by military force, much less does it make it the duty of the citizens to form a part of such military force. When freemen unsheath the sword it should be to strike for Liberty, not for Despot ism.
Resolved, That we recognize as sound, the doctrine maintained by slaveholding jurists, that slavery is against natural rights, and strictly local, and that its existence and continuance rests on no other support than State Legislation, and not on any authority of Congress. Resolved, That the General Government has, under the Constitution, no power to establish or continue Slavery anywhere, and therefore that all treaties and acts of Congress establishing, continuing or favoring Resolved, That to preserve the peace of the citizens, and Slavery in the District of Columbia, in the Territory of secure the blessings of freedom, the Legislature of each of
the Free States ought to keep in force suitable statutes proposition. This appeal was also laid on the rendering it penal for any of its inhabitants to transport, table. or aid in transporting from such State, any person sought, to be thus transported, merely because subject to the slave laws of any other State; this remnant of independence being accorded to the Free States, by the decision of the Supreme Court, in the case of Prigg vs. the State of Pennsylvania.
After Gen. Taylor had been nominated, Mr. Charles Allen, of Massachusetts, offered the following:
Resolved, That the Whig Party, through its representatives here, agrees to abide by the nomination of Gen. Zachary Taylor, on condition that he will accept the nomination as the candidate of the Whig Party, and adhere to its great fundamental principles-no extenPhila-sion of slave territory-no acquisition of foreign terri tory by conquest-protection to American industry, and opposition to Executive usurpation.
WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION, 1848. A Whig National Convention met at delphia, on the 7th of June, 1848, over which John M. Morehead, of North Carolina, presided. After a rather stormy session of three days, Gen. Zachary Taylor, of Louisiana, was nominated for President, and Millard Fillmore, of New-York, for Vice-President. Gen. Taylor was nominated on the fourth ballot, as follows:
Of the scattering vote cast on the first ballot, George Evans, of Maine, received 6; T. M. T. McKennen, of Pa., 13; Andrew Stewart, of Pa., 14; and John Sergeant, of Pa.. 6.
The Convention adopted no Platform of Principles. After it had been organized, and a resolution offered to go into a ballot for candidates for President and Vice-President, Mr. Lewis D. Campbell, of Ohio, moved to amend as follows:
Resolved, That no candidate shall be entitled to receive the nomination of this Convention for President or Vice-President, unless he has given assurances that he will abide by and support the nomination; that if nominated he will accept the nomination; that he will consider himself the candidate of the Whigs, and use all proper influence to bring into practical operation the principles and measures of the Whig Party.
This resolution met with decided opposition, and the president ruled it out of order, from which decision Mr. Campbell appealed, and in a speech contended that it was strictly in order to define what sort of candidate should be voted for, and to declare that none but sound Whigs should receive important nominations at the hands of a Whig National Convention. The appeal was tabled.
Mr. Fuller, of New York, offered the following:
Resolved, That as the first duty of the representatives of the Whig Party is to preserve the principles and integrity of the party, the claims of no candidate can be considered by this Convention unless such candidate stands pledged to support, in good faith, the nominees, and to be the exponent of Whig Principles.
The president ruled this resolution out of order, and Mr. Fuller appealed, insisting that no true Whig could reasonably object to his
lution out of order, and no further notice wat The president immediately decided the reso
taken of it
After the nomination for Vice-President had been made, Mr. McCullough, of New-Jersey, offered the following:
Resolved, That Gen. Zachary Taylor, of Louisiana, and Millard Fillmore, of New-York, be, and they are hereby unanimously nominated as the Whig candidates for President and Vice-President of the United States.
Mr. D. R. Tilden, of Ohio, proposed the following, expressing the opinion that some such declaration by the Convention would be necessary, in order to secure the vote of Ohio for the nominee:
Resolved, That while all power is denied to Congress, under the Constitution, to control, or in any way interfere with the institution of Slavery within the several States of this Union, it nevertheless has the power and it is the duty of Congress to prohibit the introduction or existence of Slavery in any territory now possessed, or which may hereafter be acquired, by the United States.
This resolution, like all others affirming Whig or Anti-Slavery principles, was ruled out of order, and laid on the table. A motion was made to divide Mr. McCullough's resolve, so that the vote could be taken separately on President and on Vice-President, when, after discussion, the resolve was withdrawn.
Mr. Hilliard, of Alabama, offered a resolve indorsing Gen. Taylor's letter to Captain Allison, which, meeting opposition, was withdrawn ; so the Convention adjourned without passing any resolves having reference to Whig principles, the issues before the country, or of con. currence in the nominations.
RATIFICATION MEETING AT PHILADELPHIA.
On the evening of the last day of the session (9th June), a ratification meeting was held at
Philadelphia, at which Gov. Wm. F. Johnston, of Pa., presided, and at which speeches were delivered by Governor Morehead, Gen. Leslie Coombs, of Ky., and several others, and at Price, of Pennsylvania, were adopted : which the following resolves, reported by W. S.
1. Resolved, That the Whigs of the United States, here assembled by their Representatives, heartily ratify the nominations of Gen. Zachary Taylor as President, and Millard Fillmore as Vice-President of the United States, and pledge themselves to their support.
2. Resolved, That in the choice of Gen. Taylor as the whig Candidate for President, we are glad to discover sympathy with a great popular sentiment throughout the nation-a sentiment which, having its origin in admiration of great military success, has been strengthened by the development, in every action and every word, of sound conservative opinions, and of true fidelity to the great example of former days, and to the principles of the Constitution as administered by its founders. 3. Resolved, That Gen. Taylor, in saying that, had he voted in 1844, he would have voted the Whig ticket,
gives us the assurance-and no better is needed from a consistent and truth-speaking man that his heart was with us at the crisis of our political destiny, when Henry Clay was our candidate and when not only Whig principles were well defined and clearly asserted, but Whig measures depended on success. The heart that was with us then is with us now, and we have a soldier's word of honor, and a life of public and private virtue, as the
May. Andrew Stevenson of Va., presided.
4. Resolved, That we look on Gen. Taylor's administration of the Government as one conducive of Peace, Prosperity and Union Of Peace-because no one bet ter knows, or has greater eason to deplore, what he has seen sadly on the field of victory, the horrors of war, Cass.. and especially of a foreign and aggressive war. Of Woodbury of N. H... Prosperity-now more than ever needed to relieve the Buchanan. nation from a burden of debt, and restore industry-Calhoun.. agricultural, manufacturing and commercial to its Dallas.. accustomed and peaceful functions and influences. Of Worth.. Union because we have a candidate whose very position as a Southwestern man, reared on the banks of the great stream whose tributaries, natural and artificial, embrace the whole Union, renders the protection of the interests of the whole country his first trust, and whose varied duties in past life have been rendered, not on the soil, o under the flag of any State or section, but over the wide f.ontier, and under the broad banner of the Nation.
5. Resolved, That standing, as the Whig Party does, on the broad and firm platform of the Constitution, braced up by all its inviolable and sacred guarantees and compromises, and cherished in the affections because protective of the interests of the people, we are proud to have, as the exponent of our opinions, one who is pledged to construe it by the wise and generous rules which Washington applied to it, and who has said, (and no Whig desires any other assurance) that he will make Washington's Administration the model of his own.
6. Resolved, That as Whigs and Americans, we are proud to acknowledge our gratitude for the great military services which, beginning at Palo Alto, and ending at Buena Vista, first awakened the American people to a just estimate of him who is now our Whig Candidate. In the discharge of a painful duty-for his march into the enemy's country was a reluctant one; in the command of regulars at one time, and volunteers at another, and of both combined; in the decisive though punctual discipline of his camp, where all respected and beloved him; in the negotiation of terms for a dejected and desperate enemy; in the exigency of actual conflict, when the balance was perilously doubtful-we have found him the same-brave, distinguished and considerate, no heartless spectator of bloodshed, no trifler with human life or human happiness; and we do not know which to admire most, his heroism in withstanding the assaults of the enemy in the most hopeless fields of Buena Vista-mourning in generous sorrow over the graves of Ringgold, of Clay, or of Hardin-or in giving in the heat of battle terms of merciful capitulation to a vanquished foe at Monterey, and not being ashamed to avow that he did it to spare women and children, helpless infancy, and more helpless age, against whom no American soldier ever wars. Such a military man, whose triumphs are neither remote nor doubtful, whose virtues these trials have tested, we are proud to make our Candidate,
7. Resolved, That in support of such a nomination we ask our Whig friends throughout the nation to unite, to co-operate zealously, resolutely, with earnestness in behalf of our Candidate, whom calumny cannot reach, and with respectful demeanor to our adversaries, whose Candidates have yet to prove their claims on the gratitude of the nation.
Butler of Ky..
The first ballot for Vice-President resulted as follows: William O. Butler.. John A. Quitman.... 114 William R. King...... John Y. Mason 74 James J. McKay...... 18 24 Jefferson Davis........ 1 No choice. Gen. Butler was unanimously nominated on the third ballot.
The Convention adopted the following platform:
their trust in the intelligence, the patriotism, and the 1. Resolved, That the American Democracy place discriminating justice of the American people.
ture of our political creed, which we are proud to main2. Resolved, That we regard this as a distinctive feaform of government springing from and upheld by the tain before the world, as the great moral element in a popular will: and we contrast it with the creed and practice of federalism, under whatever name or form, which seeks to palsy the will of the constituent, and which conceives no imposture too monstrous for the popular credulity.
the Democratic party of this Union, through the delegates 3. Resolved, Therefore, that, entertaining these views assembled in general convention of the States, coming together in a spirit of concord, of devotion to the doctrines and faith of a free representative government and appealing to their fellow-citizens for the rectitude of their intentions, renew and reassert before the American people, the declaration of principles avowed by them, on a former occasion, when in general convention, they presented their candidates for the popular suff. age.
Then follow resolutions 1, 2, 3, 4, of Platforms of 1840 and '44. The 5th resolution is that of 1840 with an addition about providing for war debts, and as amended, reads as follows:
Resolved, That it is the duty of every branch of the government to enforce and practice the most rigid economy in conducting our public affairs, and that no more revenue ought to be raised than is required to defray the necessary expenses of the government, and for the the prosecution of a just and necessary war, gradual but certain extinction of the debt created by ful relations shall have been restored. peace
The next (Anti-National Bank and pro-SubTreasury) was amended by the addition of the following:
And that the results of Democratic Legislation, in this This election resulted in the choice of the and all other financial measures upon which issues have Whig Candidates, as follows: been made between the two political parties of the country, have demonstrated to candid and practical men of all parties, their soundness, safety and utility in all
Taylor and Fillmore-Vermont, 6; Massachusetts, 12; Rhode Island, 4; Connecticut, 6; New-York, 86; New-business pursuits. Jersey, 7; Pennsylvania, 26; Delaware, 8; Maryland, 8; North Carolina, 11; Georgia, 10; Lousiana, 6; Tennessee, 13; Kentucky, 12; Florida, 3-163.
Cass and Butler-Maine, 9; New-Hampshire, 6; Virginia. 17; South Carolina, 9; Alabama, 9; Mississippi, 6; Ohio, 23; Indiana, 12; Illinois, 9; Missouri, 7; Ar kansas, 8; Michigan, 3; Texas, 4; Iowa, 4: Wisconsin,
DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION, 1848. The Democratic National Convention for 1848, assembled in Baltimore on the 22d of
Here follow resolutions 7, 8, 9, of the platform of 1840, which we omit.
Resolved, That the proceeds of the Public Lands ought to be sacredly applied to the National objects specified in the Constitution; and that we are opposed to any law for the distribution of such proceeds among the States as alike inexpedient in policy and repuguant to the Constitution.
Resolved, That we are decidedly opposed to taking from the President the qualified veto power, by which he is enabled, under restrictions and responsibilities amply sufficient to guard the public interests, to suspend the passage of a bill whose merits cannot secure the ap
proval of two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives until the judgment of the people can be obta.ned thereon, and which has saved the American people from the corrupt and tyrannical domination of the bank of the United States, and from a corupting system of general inte nal improvements.
Resolved that the war with Mexico, provoked on her pa t, by years of insult and injury, was commenced by her a my crossing the Rio Grande, attacking the American troops and invading our sister State of Texas, and that upon all the principles of patriotism and the Laws of Nations, it is a just and necessary war on our part in which every American citizen should have shown himself on the side of his Country, and neither morally nor physically, by word or by deed, have given "aid and comfort to the enemy."
Resolved, That we would be rejo ced at the assurance of a peace with Mexico, founded on the just principles of indemnity for the past and security for the future; but that while the ratification of the liberal treaty offered to Mexico remains in doubt. it is the duty of the country to sustain the administration and to sustain the country in
every measure necessary to provide for the vigorous prosecution of the war, should that treaty be rejected. Resolved, That the officers and soldiers who have carried the arms of their country into Mexico, bave crowned it with imperishable glory. Their unconquerable courage, their daring enterprise, their unfalte. ing perseverance and fortitude when assailed on all sides by innumerable foes and that more formidable enemy-the diseases of the climate-exalt their devoted patriotism into the highest heroism, and give them a right to the profound gratitude of their country, and the admiration of the world.
Resolved, That the Democratic National Convention of 30 States composing the American Republic tender their fraternal congratulations to the National Conventon of the Republic of France, now assembled as the free-suffrage Representatives of the Sovereignty of thirtyfive millions of Republicans to establish government on those eternal principles of equal rights for which their Lafayette and our Washington fought side by side in the struggle for our National Independence; and we would especially convey to them and to the whole people of France, our earnest wishes for the consolidation of their liberties, through the wisdom that shall guide their councils, on the basis of a Democratic Constitution, not derived from the grants or concessions of kings or dynasties, but originating from the only true source of political power recognized in the States of this Union; the inherent and inalienable right of the people, in their sovereign capacity, to make and to amend their forms of government in such manner as the welfare of the community may require.
Resolved, That the recent development of this grand political truth, of the sovereignty of the people and their capacity and power for self-government, which is post: ating thrones and erecting Republics on the ruins of despotism in the old world, we feel that a high and sacred duty is devolved, with increased respons.bility, upon the Democratic party of this country, as the party of the people, to sustain and advance among us Constitutional Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, by continuing to resist all monopolies and exclusive legislation for the benefit of the few at the expense of the many, and by a vigilant and constant adherence to those principles and compromises of the Constitution which are broad enough and strong enough to embrace and uphold the Union as it was. the Union as it is, and the Union as it shall be in the full expansion of the energies and capacity of this great and progressive people.
Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded through the American Minister at Paris, to the National Convention of the Republic of France.
Resolved, That the fruits of the great political triumph of 1844, which elected James K. Polk and George M. Dallas President and Vice-President of the United States, have fulfilled the hopes of the Democracy of the Union in defeating the declared purposes of their opponents in creating a National Bank, in preventing the corrupt and unconstitutional distribution of the Land Proceeds from the common treasury of the Union for local purposes, in protecting the Currency and Labor of the country from ruinous fluctuations; and guarding the money of the country for the use of the people by the establishment of the Constitutional treasury; in the noble impulse given to the cause of Free Trade by the repeal of the tariff of 42, and the creation of the inore equal, honest, and productive tariff of 1846; and that, in our opinion, it would be a fatal error to weaken the bands of a political organization by which these great reforms have been achieved, and risk them in the hands of their known adversaries, with whatever delusive appeals they
may solicit our surrender of that vigilance which is the only safeguard of liberty.
Resolved, That the confidence of the Democracy of the Union, in the principles, capacity, firmness and integrity of James K. Polk, manifested by his nomination and election in 1844, has been signally justified by the strictness of his adherence to sound Democratic doctrines, by the purity of purpose, the energy and ability which have character.zed his administration in all our affairs at home and abroad; that we tender to him our cordial congratulations upon the brilliant success which has hitherto crowned his patriotic efforts, and assure him in advance, that at the expiration of his Presidential term he will carry with him to his retirement, the esteem, respect, and admiration of a grateful country.
Resolved, That this Convention hereby present to the people of the United States, Lewis Cass, of Michigan, as the candidate of the Democratic party for the office of President, and William O. Butler of Ky, for Vice-Presi dent of the U. S.
The following resolution was offered by Mr. Yancy, of Ala.
Resolved, That the doctrine of non-interference with the rights of property of any portion of the people of this Confederacy, be it in the States or Territories thereof, by any other than the parties interested in them, is the true Republican doctrine recognized by this body.
This resolution was rejected: Yeas, 36; nays, 216-the yeas being: Georgia, 9; South Carolina, 9; Alabama, 9; Arkansas, 3; Florida, 3; Maryland, 1; Kentucky, 1.
FREE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION, 1848. The Barnburners of New York, who were disgusted with the proceedings of the National Convention which had nominated Cass and Butler for President and Vice-President, met in Convention at Utica, on the 22d of June, 1848. Delegates were also present from Ohio, Wisconsin and Massachusetts. Col. Samuel Young presided over the deliberations of this Convention; and Martin Van Buren was nominated for Presi dent, with Henry Dodge, of Wisconsin, for Vice-President. Gen. Dodge subsequently de
On the 9th of August following, a Conven tion was held at Buffalo, which was attended by delegates from the States of Maine, New-Hamp shire, Vermout, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsyl Vania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Iowa, and the District of Columbia. Charles Francis Adams, of Massachusetts, presided, and the Convention nominated Messrs. Van Buren and Adams as candidates for President and Vice-President, and adopted the following Resolves, sinco
THE BUFFALO PLATFORM.
Whereas, We have assembled in Convention, as a union of freemen, for the sake of freedom, forgetting all past political differences in a common resolve to maintain the rights of free labor against the aggressions of the Slave Power, and to secure free soil to a free people.
And Whereas, The political Conventions recently as sembled at Baltimore and Philadelphia, the one stifling the voice of a great constituency, entitled to be heard in its deliberations, and the other abandoning its distinctive principles for mere availability, have dissolved the Na tional party organizations heretofore existing, by nomi nating for the Chief Magistracy of the United States, under the slaveholding dictation, candidates, neither of whom can be supported by the opponents of Slavery Extension without a sacrifice of consistency, duty and selfrespect;
And whereas, These nominations so made, furnish the occasion and demonstrate the necessity of the union of the people under the banner of Free Democracy, in a sol
einn and formal declaration of their independence of the slave power, and of their fixed determination to rescue the Federal Government from its control;
Resolved, therefore, That we, the people here assembled, remembering the example of our fathers, in the days of the first Declaration of Independence, putting our trust in God for the triumph of our cause, and invoking his guidance in our endeavors to advance it, do now plant ourselves upon the National platform of Freedom in opposition to the sectional platform of Slavery.
Resolved, That Slavery in the several States of this Jnion which recognize its existence, depends upon State laws alone, which cannot be repealed or modified by the Federal Government, and for which laws that government is not responsible. We therefore propose no interference by Congress with Slavery within the limits of any State.
Resolved, That the Proviso of Jefferson, to prohibit the existence of Slavery after 1800, in all theTerritories of the United States, Southern and Northern; the votes of six States and sixteen delegates, in the Congress of 1784, for the Proviso, to three States and seven delegates against it; the actual exclusion of Slavery from the Northwestern Territory, by the Ordinance of 1787, unanimously adopted by the States in Congress; and the entire history of that period, clearly show that it was the settled policy of the Nation not to extend, nationalize or encourage, but to limit, localize and discourage Slavery; and to this policy, which should never have been departed from, the Government ought to return.
Resolved, That our fathers ordained the Constitution of the United States, in order, among other great national objects, to establish justice, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty; but expressly denied to the Federal Government, which they created, all constitutional power to deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due legal process.
Resolved, That in the judgment of this Convention, Congress has no more power to make a Slave than to make a King; no more power to institute or establish Slavery than to institute or establish a Monarchy: no such power can be found among those specifically conferred by the Constitution, or derived by just implication from them. Resolved, That it is the duty of the Federal Government to relieve itself from all responsibility for the existence or continuance of slavery wherever the government possesses constitutional authority to legislate on that subject, and it is thus responsible for its existence.
with foreign nations, or among the several States, are objects or national concern, and that it is the duty of Congress, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, to provide therefor.
Resolved, That the free grant to actual settlers, in con sideration of the expenses they incur in making settlements in the wilderness, which are usually fully equal to their actual cost, and of the public benefits resulting therefrom, of reasonable portions of the public lands, under suitable limitations, is a wise and just measure of public policy, which will promote in various ways the interests of all the States of this Union; and we therefore recommend it to the favorable consideration of the Ameri can people.
Resolved, That the obligations of honor and patriotism require the earliest practicable payment of the national debt, and we are therefore in favor of such a tariff of duties as will raise revenue adequate to defray the necessary expenses of the Federal Government, and to pay annual instalments of our debt, and the interest thereon Resolved, That we inscribe on our own banner, "Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men," and under it we will fight on, and fight ever, until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions..
Resolved, That the true, and in the judgment of this Convention, the only safe means of preventing the ex-10. tension of Slavery into Territory now Free, is to prohibit 11. its extension in all such Territory by an act of Congress. 12. Resolved, That we accept the issue which the Slave 13. power has forced upon us; and to their demand for more 14. Slave States, and more Slave Territory, our calm but final 15. answer is, no more Slave States and no more Slave Ter- 16. ritory. Let the soil of our extensive domains be kept 17. free for the hardy pioneers of our own land, and the op- 18. pressed and banished of other lands, seeking homes of 19. comfort and fields of enterprise in the new world. 20.
Resolved, That the bill lately reported by the committee 21. of eight in the Senate of the United States, was no com- 22. promise, but an absolute surrender of the rights of the 23. Non-Slaveholders of all the States; and while we rejoice 24. to know that a measure which, while opening the door for 25. the introduction of Slavery into Territories now free, 26. would also have opened the door to litigation and strife 27. among the future inhabitants thereof, to the ruin of their peace and prosperity, was defeated in the House of Representatives, its passage, in hoi haste, by a majority, embracing several senators who voted in open violation of the known will of their constituents, should warn the people to see to it, that their representatives be not suffered to betray them. There must be no more Compromises with Slavery; if made they must be repealed.
Resolved, That we demand freedom and established institutions for our brethren in Oregon, now exposed to hardships, peril and massacre by the reckless hostility of the Slave Power to the establishinent of Free Government for Free Territories; and not only for them, but for our new brethren in California and New-Mexico.
Resolved, It is due not only to this occasion, but to the whole people of the United States, that we should also declare ourselves on certain other questions of National Policy: therefore,
Resolved, That we demand Cheap Postage for the People; a retrenchment of the expenses and patronage of the Federal Government; the abolition of all unnecessary offices and salaries; and the election by the people of all civil officers in the service of the government, so far as the same may be practicable.
Resolved, That River and Harbor improvements, when demanded by the safety and convenience of commerce
134 128 30 53.
134 128 30 Necessary to choose-147. William A. Graham, of North Carolina, was nominated for Vice-President on the second ballot.
The Convention adopted the following
The Whigs of the United States, in Convention assembled, adhering to the great conservative principles by which they are controled and governed, and now as eve relying upon the intelligence of the American people, with an abiding confidence in their capacity for self-gov. ernment, and their devotion to the Constitution and the Union, do proclaim the following as the political sentiments aud determination for the establishment and maintenance of which their national organization as a party was effected.
First. The government of the United States is of a limited character, and it is confined to the exercise of powers expressly granted by the Constitution, and such as may be necessary and proper for carrying the granted powers into full execution, and that powers not granted or necessarily implied are reserved to the States respectively and to the people.
Second. The State Governments should be held secure