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from Asia, who finally obtained pos- ica and Africa, only a few miles outsession of the entire North American side the pillars of Hercules, there continent.

formerly existed an island as large as 3. The Irish, under Brandon, A. D. Africa, with a great continent, none 545, were the first to introduce Euro- other than that now called North and pean civilization and to make the first South America, beyond it, and that European settlements. Entering the this island and continent were known Mississippi from the Gulf, and as- to the ancients, and was the seat of cending that stream, as

we shall

an Empire whose sway extended east show, to its junction with the Ohio, over northern Africa and the Meditthey occupied the banks of these teranean to the Tyrrhenian Sea, and rivers seven years.

Brandon was fol- westwardly over North and South lowed by Ernulphus and Buo, two America to the islands of the Pacific, Irish monks, with their associates in is proven by the same evidence as 827, and afterwards by Madoc 'of that

upon which rests many of the Wales in 1170.

Their settlements ex- most important discoveries of modern tended as far as Carolina and Florida. science. The tradition was known to The region from the Ohio to the Seneca and Aristotle, and was told Gulf and from the Mississippi to the by the priests of Psenophis, Sonitus, Atlantic was generally called and Heliopolis and Sais to Solon, B. C. known as Hwtra-mannaland or White 570 [Weise Discoveries America), Man's Land, and Ireland edh Miklah, when he was in Egypt. He commuor "Ireland the Greater." The Norse nicated it to the father of Critias, voyages and explorations were con- who was the informant of Socrates. fined to the New England coast. The Plato committed it to writing in the object of this paper is to establish Critias and Timæus. The catastrophe these propositions by unquestionable it described occurred nine thousand authority.

years before the days of Solon. After THE ISLAND OF ATLANTIS. describing the great extent of the In view of the result of the recent Atlantic, these priests added that deep-sea soundings prosecuted by “ the Atlantic sea was at one time the United States and other govern- navigated, and had an island in the ments in the Atlantic, it is not easy midst of it which fronted that mouth to comprehend the incredulity with you call the Pillars of Hercules, which any account of the lost Atlan- larger than Libya and Asia Minor tis was formerly received. But that, together. There was a passage thence upon the space where now the Atlan- for the travelers of that day to the tic rolls in broad, unbroken billows, rest of the islands, and from those and great meadows of sea-weed man- islands to an opposite continent. tle its restless bosor, between Amer- What is within the mouth mentioned

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(the Mediterranean) is only a bay nent at that time generally known, with a narrow entrance; but that sea, oppose such a proposition. If it was the Atlantic, is indeed a true ocean,

the creation of the Greek or Egyptian and the land which entirely surrounds imagination, surely fancy Lever it may truly and correctly be called a formed a truer fiction, nor has modcontinent.”

ern discovery disclosed a more strik“Until recently," says Mr. Shorting coincidence." (in North Americans of Antiquity The truth is, that America, instead 142), “ the mere expression of belief of being “a New World ” presented in the former existence of Atlantis by Columbus to Spain, as claimed in has been the signal for criticism, and the pretentious inscription on his has called forth the smile of pity, if monument at Seville, and carved in not contempt. Such, however, is no marble by Persico at Washington, is longer true, since successful scientific the oldest of the continents. investigation, consisting chiefly of « First born among them,” says deep sea soundings, and the study of Agassiz (Historical Sketches, cited the fauna and flora of the opposite in Bryant's U. S. 12), “though so shores of the Atlantic, call for the much later in cultivation and civilizarespectful attention of all who are in- tion than some of more recent birth, terested in the ancient history of this America, so far as her physical hiscontinent. Whether the Atlantida, tory is concerned, has been falsely who threatened to overthrow the denominated the · New World.' earliest Greek and Egyptian states, Hers was the first dry land lifted out but who were swallowed up by the of the waters, and hers the first shore sea upon the engulfment of their washed by the ocean that enveloped. island, were the inhabitants of these all the earth beside. While Europe ridges discovered in the ocean by the was represented only by islands, risDolphin and the Challenger must, for ing here and there above the sea, the present at least, remain in doubt, America already stretched though strong probabilities point to broken line of land from Nova Scotia the conclusion that they were.” Ibid to the Far West.

When 505. Mr. Bradford (in American An- the tall summits of the Himalaya tiquities 221) says: “In any event, chain, the loftiest on the globe, had after a fair and impartial examination just begun to be discovered above the of all these circumstances, it seems primeval ocean, and were still being extremely difficult to regard the ac- rocked in the volcanic cradle of their count of Plato as a fabrication. Its infancy by the creative hand of phyaccordance with the ancient mythol- sical nature, the Palisades of the Hudogy and facts now well ascertained, were hoary with age.” These and its allusion to a Western Conti- stirring words of the great geologist




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preceded for many years the grand “The weather in Berings Strait, discovery of the late Prof. E. Emmons though cold even in summer, is not --formerly of Albany, in this State- nearly so cold as the winter of Japan. while geologist to the State of North Sir Charles Lyell says Berings Strait Carolina. Among the sedimentary happens to agree singularly with the rocks of Montgomery county, in that Strait of Dover, the difference in State, he found those famous Palea- depth being not more than three or troches, which, in a letter to him I four feet. have seen, Sir Charles Lyell declares · With this statement before us,” to be “the earliest evidence of organ

continues Mr. Short, “ while standing ized life upon this planet, the fore- on the deck of a vessel, midway berunners of man and harbingers of tween Calais and Dover, with the that immortal faculty which connects shores of England and France in full him with celestial beings.” And view, we felt as never before-how surely it was fitting that, close by absurd is the opinion which has been Mecklenberg, in that good old North advanced more than once, that no State where the cradle of the Repub- general migration was likely to have lic was rocked by her statesmen, and taken place across Bering Strait." the dust of her heroes and of empire Ib., 510. "It is then impossible to commingle, the great New Yorker approximate the period of the world's she employed should discover the history in which the migration must earliest evidences of terrestrial life have taken place. No doubt it was to be also entombed.

in a remote age, before the old world COLUMBUS NOT THE FIRST DISCOVERER. people had developed their present

Col. Barclay Kennon, formerly of or even historical peculiarities and the U. S. North Pacific Surveying types of civilization.” Ib., 511. Expedition, says (Short N. A. A., 509, Prof. Grote thinks the first migranote 2): “From the result of the most tion took place “in the tertiary period accurate scientific observations, it is of Pliocene time, and the subsequent evident that the voyage from China advance of the ice period, cutting off to America be made without all communication with the rest of being out of sight of land more than the world until recent times, produced a few hours at a time. There is, in a modification of the race, and that fact, an almost unbroken chain con- man retired with the glacier on its necting the Asiatic continent with the return to the North, where we now peninsula of Kamschatka. At the see his descendants in the Eskimo.” North Pacific all doubts vanish in the

512. Gallatin (in ist Am. Ethnol. So. presence of the most favorable condi- Trans., 158) says: “That America was tions for a migration from the one first peopled by Asiatic tribes is continent to the other.

highly probable, and after the lapse


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of several thousand years, the mem- subject of the origin of the Aborigines, ory of that ancient emigration was so called, if we had not attempted to lost."

trace them to a common origin, Sir W. H. Dall says: “I see no reason John's division being as clearly disfor disputing the hypothesis that tinguishable as are those of the peoAmerica was peopled from Asia orig. ples, nearer of kin, who occupy the inally, and that there were successive British islands. Let us examine them waves of emigration.” (1, Contribs. separately. 1. The Eskimo. These North Am. Ethnol., 95.)

are unhesitatingly assigned to a class In determining the epoch of the by themselves. “They are," says first emigration to this continent, Prof. Grote, “the descendants and

we are carried back,” says Bradford representatives of the first occupants, (Am. Antiq., 336), "to that period the primitive red men of the plain of when mankind were first scattered Shinar, who, when mankind were abroad over the face of the whole scattered, came here and found the earth;" and Prof. Short, summing up, continent uninhabited.” 2. The Mexsays: "A few years ago writers dated icans, according to Herbert Bancroft North American history from the dis- (5, Native Am. Races, 157), coveries made by Columbus and his tainly descended from a highly civilimmediate successors. Now, they go ized people. Far back in the misty back to the Northmen for a starting past we catch traditional glimpses of point. May they not be pushed even a mighty aboriginal empire in these farther back, and the more ancient tropical regions. Palenque, Copan history of America receive the atten- and their companions in ruin, are the tion of the historiographer ?” Ibid, wonderful material monuments of 515

this ancient people and epoch. They Following up this hint, I adopt the prove them to be no mere creation of classification of Sir John Lubbock the imagination." (Prehistoric Times, 515). “The orig- According to Catlin and Bancroft inal, or at least the pre-Columbian, (2, Catlin, 231-235; 5, Bancroft N. R., inhabitants of North America," says 30-33, 51-77)-and, I believe, all he, “fall naturally into three divi- the authorities concurin their opinion sions: ist—The Eskimo in the North; to this extent/the Indian tribes of 2d-The Indian tribes in the center; the central parts of the continent difand 3d-The comparatively civilized fer from the other two in this, that Mexicans in the South.” I think it they are a mixed race. Catlin displain that we would have avoided tinctly admits the Welsh mixture, many-probably all-our errors in while Bancroft concedes at least three American archæology and upon the or four, viz.: Tribes from Northern


Asia, the Chinese and Japanese, the discovered by the Irish monk, BranJews and Norsemen, as well as the don, several centuries before. Had Welsh.

this expedition proceeded upon the IRISH VOYAGES,

track proposed by De Ulmo, he would The claim of the Irish to have col- have landed in Carolina.” onized and settled in Carolina and Mr. Mansfield further states that Georgia, many centuries before the

this country of Brandon's was laid Welsh or Norse, is founded upon evi- down on the chart of Toscanelli and dence of a documentary, traditional all the other charts of Columbus' and ethnological character. In that time. In the extraordinary work of order let us now consider the evi- Cardinal Pedro de Alliaco, entitled dence. Documentary._Under this Imago del Mundi, published in 1410, head, the voyages of St. Brandon of the writer advances an opinion, , Clonfert, and the subsequent visits of founded on the traditions current at Ernulphus and Buo may first be con- that time, that a great sea extends sidered. In an article on Columbus between Spain and the Indies, quæ (in the 5th Am. Cyclop., 516), Mr. E. principia Orientis et occidentis sunt prope, D. Mansfield states that Columbus cum mare parva ea separet ex alteraparte certainly had and carried with him

terra. A copy of this work, Mr. on his voyage a chart enclosed by Mansfield says, is in the library in Paolo Fisico; the Spanish name of Seville, with marginal notes in the Toskanelli; to Alphonso V., on the handwriting of the great navigator. 25th of June, 1474, and that upon this In the Bibliotheque Imperiale at chart a great continent is described Paris there are said, by Mr. Donnelly as being on the west side of the At- (Atlantis, 420), to be eleven MSS. of lantic, opposite to Africa and Spain, great antiquity in the Latin language, and the distance across is accurately relating to the ancient history and stated. In the Historia General de geography of the globe. In all of las Indias, Bartholomew de las Casas them reference is made to this legend mentions another, viz.: La carta de of Brandon of Clonfert, an aged Irish la marear, que maestro Paolo Fisica monk and voyager, who, in A. D. 545, (Toscanelli) envio a Colon, which, he left the bay of Brandon, on the coast says, is now in his possession.

of Ireland, ever since so called in honor “A certain Fernando de Ulmo, of of the event, and sailed across the Terecena, in March, 1487, actually Atlantic in a southwestern direction, projected an expedition to the west, searching for a great continent in the and the object of this expedition was west, the memory of which had been to search for a country on the other prese. ved from early times in the anside of the Atlantic, said to have been nals of Ireland (Bancroft, 5, N. A.

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