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On the 1st of March, Gen. Curtis in driving Price out of Missouri, he was issued an address to the people of the well aware that it would require a South-west. It was called forth in severe struggle to maintain the advangreat measure by the studied misrepre- tage he had gained. Price, though sentations and falsehoods which the actively pursued, had escaped without rebels used every where in respect to much loss, and his ranks having been

the object had in view by our considerably recruited and continuing

troops, and it entered into the to increase, he expected soon to be able subject fully, clearly and cogently. to drive the Union army out of Ark.

The only legitimate object of the war ansas and regain his lost ground in is peace, and I adhere to this legitimate Missouri. Curtis estimated the reinobject. Peaceable citizens shall be forcements received by Price to be protected as far as possible. The flight some sixteen regiments, which, with the of our foes from their camps, and the Arkansas volunteers and companies, imitation of their conduct by the citi placed him in command of at least zens, in fleeing from their homes, leav. 30,000 to 40,000 men, in and near the ing their effects abandoned, as it were, Boston Mountains. for the victors, have much embarrassed On the other hand, Curtis's force in me in my efforts to preserve discip- the face of the enemy in these early line in my command, as these circum- days of March, deducting the troops stances offer extraordinary temptations. required for garrison duty, along his The burning of farms and fields of extended line of communications, be grain in Missouri, ani extensive bar. sides a constant moving force to guard racks and valuable mills in Arkansas his train, left him ready for the field, by the enemy, has induced some resent surrounding or in the vicinity of Sugar ments on the part of my troops, which Creek, where he had established his I have severely punished. . .... We headquarters at the time, not more than come to vindicate the Constitution, to 10,500 infantry and cavalry, with fortypreserve and perpetuate civil and reli- nine pieces of artillery, including a gious liberty, under a flag that was mountain howitzer. Early on the embalmed in the blood of our revolu- 15th of March, a cold, wintryish day, tionary fathers. Under that flag we with snow on the ground, Van Dorn, have lived in peace and prosperity until the rebel commander, advanced the flag of rebellion involved us in the to make an attack. The sevehorrors of civil war."

ral divisions of our troops were ordered Although Gen. Curtis had succeeded to take position and meet the enemy


at Sugar Creek as soon as possible. poisoned at Mud Town by eating poisoned food which Gen. Sigel, in bringing up his force Dolfert died, and Lieutenant-Colonel Van Deutzh and from the vicinity of Bentonville, set Captain Schwan have suffered much, but are now out at two A.M., on the 6th; he advanced recovering. The indignation of our soldiers is very slowly, fighting and repelling the enemy great, but they have been restrained from retaliation upon the prisoners of war."

in front, on the flanks and rear, for five

the rebels left behind them.

CH, IX.]



and a half hours, when he was reinforc- prisoners. Van Dorn, however, with ed by Gen. Curtis. By this movement, out specifying particulars, makes his Sigel's division was brought to the loss less than 1,000 in all. The aggrewest end of Pea Ridge, where he form gate loss of the killed, wounded and ed a junction with Gen. J. C. Davis missing of all ranks on our side, was and Col. Carr. The men rested on given by Gen. Curtis at 1,351. their arms, on the night of the 6th, in A novel feature in the battle of Pea waiting for the coming day's fight, Ridge, or Elk Horn, as the rebels named which all knew was to be a serious it, was the employment of Indians, and trying one.

some 2,500 being under command of the At daylight, on the 7th of March, rebel General Pike. They proved of the battle was renewed, and with slight little service to those who had seduced exception continued to rage furiously them from their proper allegiance, and the whole day. Van Dorn had moved in their wild fury, they were guilty of round Curtis's flank by the road cross-acts which Gen. Curtis severely cening Pea Ridge, in order to cut off his sured afterwards in a note to Van Dorn. retreat in case the rebels were success. Many of our soldiers, as he said, were ful. This had necessitated a change of found“ tomahawked, scalped, and their front, so as to face the road on which bodies shamefully mangled," and he the enemy were still moving. The new expressed a hope that the rebels were line was formed under the enemy's fire, not going to carry on their resistauce the troops moving in good order and by means of a savage and barbarous with gallant bearing. In the centre, warfare.

In the centre, warfare. Van Dorn made the best he the battle was carried on with great could of the matter, in reply; hoped fury, as also on the left wing; but our it was not true; and retorted, that primen nobly withstood the fierce assaults soners had been murdered in cold blood of the rebels, who lost two of their by the German troops in our army. best generals, McCulloch and McIntosh. Quite probably here, as elsewhere, acts Gen. Curtis having brought all four of of cruelty were committed which could his divisions to face the position which not be justified; but certainly the inhad been held in check, the troops troducing of Indians was calculated to bivouacked another cold and cheerless aggravate war's horrors and abominanight on the field.

tions. Again, at sunrise, on the 8th of Southern writers and chroniclers sof. March, the battle was begun by our ten this defeat all they can, and claim men. The enemy fought desperately, that the substantial fruits of victory furiously; but they were completely were with the rebels under Van Dorn. routed. Sigel pursued them for several It was rather cold comfort, under the miles towards Keetsville, and the circumstances; but, such as it was, cavalry still further. The rebel loss they were allowed to enjoy it to the was estimated at 3,000 killed and fullest extent, without let or hindwounded, besides more than 1,000 rance.




Expedition 'inder Burnside and Goldsborough — Size and extent - Sets sail — Rough and dangerous passage

- Tedious delays— Enemy strengthen their position — Attack on Roanoke Island - Surrender of the rebels — Mortification of Davis and secession - Expedition to Elizabeth city- Success - Edenton and Win. ton — Address to the people of North Carolina by Burnside and Goldsborough - Governor Clark's address – Spirit of these — Importance of Newbern – Expedition against — Bravery of our troops — Burnside's congratulatory order — Other operations on the southern coast at this date — Exploration of interior passage to the Savannah River – Batteries planted – Fort Pulaski isolated — Reconnaissance of Little Tybee River - Operations of Dupont and Wright on the Florida coast - Fernandina, Jacksonville, St. Augustine, etc. — Union feeling in Florida -- Edisto Island - Washington's birth day – How celebrated in 1862 in the loyal states — Davis and confederate government — Davis inaugurated — His address on the 22d of Febru. ary — Extracts from, illustrating tone, temper, etc. — Davis's message to Confederate Congress — Admits serious disasters - Estimated size of the rebel army — Financial condition of the confederacy - A glimpse at the nature and terribleness of the struggle now going on.


DURING the latter part of 1861, S. F. Hazard and S. C. Rowan. The active preparations were being made special service the expedition was to at New York for fitting out another accomplish was on the shores of North combined military and naval expedi. Carolina, within the waters of Pamlico tion, to operate against an important and Albemarle Sounds; and point or points on the southern coast. for this purpose all the arrangeEverything was furnished which could ments were made for the most effiin any wise tend to secure success; cient co-operation of the naval and abundant material, a disciplined and military departments; the guns were gallant force, numbering 16,000 men, so equipped as to be used on the water accomplished and well trained officers, or the land ; there was a thoroughly etc. The military part of the expedi organized signal corps; two extensive tion was under command of Gen. Burn. pontoon trains, etc. side, the naval under Commodore Thus prepared for its work, the Goldsborough. The three army bri- Burnside expedition set sail from Annagades composing this force were com- polis on the 9th of January. Owing manded by Gens. J. G. Foster, J. L. to dense fogs in the Chesapeake Bay, Reno, and J. G. Parke. Commodore incident to the season, it did not reach Goldsborough's squadron consisted of Fortress Monroe till midnight of the eighteen light draught steam gun boats, 10th. The next day without detention, with an armament of fifty rifled can. the order was given to sail, and Sun. non; it was divided into two columns day, the 11th, saw the feet at sea. for active service, led by Commanders. As had been generally supposed, while

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the vessels were collecting, that they means of reinforcements by railroad would be employed inside of the capes communication with Virginia and the of Virginia, but little anxiety had been northern part of the state. selt respecting their sea going qualities. As it was a matter of necessity to disBut now, when the well known dan. lodge the rebels at Roanoke, the expegers of Hatteras were taken into ac- dition set sail from Hatteras for that count, there was considerable apprehen- purpose, on

the 5th of February. sion entertained, and the result prov- Fifteen gun boats led the way, followed ed that this apprehension was well at an interval of a mile by the armed founded.

transports, and side-wheel steamers. The first day out, there was much The naval vessels, placed un

1862. embarrassment from the fog on the der the immediate command coast, which greatly impeded progress. of Commander Rowan, were formed in Monday was clear, with a heavy wind three separate columns, and as the day and rough sea, which caused the vessels was clear and the wind favorable, the to labor very heavily; by noon, how: entire fleet of seventy vessels preseuted ever, most of them were inside of the a striking picture as they slowly adbar at Hatteras Inlet, their first south-vanced toward Roanoke. At sunset ern destination, in time to escape the they anchored within sight of the is. unusually severe gale of Monday night land. The next day being foggy and ard Tuesday. The anchorage was bad wet, nothing was undertaken beyond a and the vessels jostled together. Some reconnaissance of Croatan Sound, as the of the vessels were grounded and lost; passage is called which separates Roanothers had to be sent back to Fortress oke from the mainland. Friday, the Monroe. Weeks were spent in striving 7th, was foggy in the morning, but to secure passage through the narrow, about 10 o'clock it cleared


sufficient perplexing, and violent channel.

At ly for the advance. An active bomlength, however, by patience, mutual bardment of Fort Bartow, at Pork help, and unwearied assiduity, General Point, on the upper part of the island, Burnside and

and Commodore Golds. ensued, doing some damage to the borough saw the flotilla fairly embark enemy's works, while another portion ed on Pamlico Sound, and ready for of the gun boats was engaged in firing action.

at the rebel vessels at long range. Meanwhile, the rebels, aware of the In the course of the afternoon the purpose of the expedition, took occa- army transports came up, and after sion to strengthen the defences, and considerable difficulty, our troops were gather a large body of North Carolina safely landed. The process was tedious and Virginia troops at Roanoke Island, and comfortless, the men having to a position which commands the chan wade through water and mud, and nel separating the waters of Pamlico a great part of the night being thus ocand Albermarle Sounds. There was cupied; added to this, a cold rainstorm besides a fleet of gun boats, and ready made the position of our troops exceed

VOL. IV.-18.


ingly cheerless during the night. But immediately followed up by an expethe morning found them ready for ac- dition, under commaud of Captain Row. tion. General Foster promptly got his an, sent in pursuit of the fleet of the mer in order, and after marching a enemy, which had fled up the Albemile and a half came in sight of the marle Sound, a distance of some thirty enemy's position. It was capitally or forty miles, into Pasquotank River, chosen, protected on the right and left toward Elizabeth City. Captain Rowby a morass deemed impassable, and an sailed from Roanoke on the afterstretching across nearly the entire noon of Sunday, and arrived at width of the island. A bayonet charge the mouth of the river at night. was undertaken by the Zouaves, which The following morning, the 10th of so frightened the rebels that they aban- February, the fleet ascended the river, doned their guns and ran away This as- and at eight o'clock came upon the sured the entire defeat of the enemy, enemy's gun boats, consisting of seven and though they made a stubborn steamers and a schooner armed with resistance, they surrendered uncondi- two heavy 32-pounders, drawn up in tionally, and Roanoke Island became front of the city. A brief but spirited ours, with its heavy guns and batteries, contest ensued; the enemy set their and eight steamers, each mounting two boats on fire, and the crews escaped as guns.

best they could; the fort on Cobb's The complete success attained by Point, mounting four guns, was abanour arms on this occasion was equally doned; and in less than an hour the surprising and mortifying to the au- rebels were entirely defeated, and the thorities at Richmond. Jefferson Davis, flag-ship Delaware was moored to the in his message to the Confederate Con- wharf at Elizabeth City. After the gress, Feb. 25th, expressed the hope gun boats were deserted, the rebels that matters were not so bad as they commenced setting fire to the principal appeared to be in regard to the “dis. buildings in the city, most of the people comfitura at Roanoke Island and the having fled. Captain Rowan, however, fall of Fort Donelson.” He was wait- hy prompt action, succeeded in checking for further information, but at the ing this wild proceeding. same time confessed : "enough is known Elizabeth City was taken possession of the surrender of Roanoke Island to of by the Union forces the day after make us feel that it was deeply humili- the engagement. On the 12th of Febating, however imperfect may have been ruary, Edenton, at the west end of Althe preparations for defence."* bemarle Sound, was visited by a porThe victory at Roanoke Island was

war (no favorite with Pollard, by the way), and he * Pollard speaks with unusual bitterness of this re- lays upon Benjamin and his fast friend Davis the whole sult, which lost to the rebels a position "only second blame of the disaster, “which unlocked all North-eastin importance to Fortress Monroe.” He details at ern North Carolina to the enemy, and exposed Portslength the urgency of the confederate General Wise mouth and Norfolk to a rear approach of the most im. for reinforcements, and the curt manner in which he minent danger.' –“First Year of the War," pp. 227was treated by J. P. Benjamin, rebel secretary of 234.

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