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of March, 1861, then the duty of executing | next steps which South Carolina might take. the laws will devolve upon Mr. Lincoln."

Feelings of the Republicans.


Major Anderson's Position.

The general opinion prevailed that nothing. of an offensive character would transpire until the Commissioners named visited Washington and learned the purposes of the President; but, the report gained currency that Fort Moultrie was in danger of assault at any moment, and the interest in Anderson's position became hourly heightened. It was reported that Anderson had orders to surrender if the proper State authorities should demand it; but this was authoritatively denied by the Secretary of War, Dec. 22d. It was necessary to make the denial, since public opinion was assuming an unmistakable tone of exasperation at the conduct of the President and Secretary of War.

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A leading New York journal, in its issue of the 21st, commenting on the Republican sentiment, in regard to the crisis, said: "Never, in any habitual excitement, or in any public crisis, have we seen such calmness, steadiness, and firmness, among the masses of the people, as now prevail through the Free States. * * From Maine to Kansas the freemen are quiet, yet resolved. Their feelings and wishes are expressed in the recent speech of Senator Wade. They have done no wrong, and have no apologies to offer. They stand by the Constitution and the Union, and are not yet ready to repudiate the Fourth of July or to trample on the Star-Spangled Banner. In all history a more admirable spectacle was never witnessed than is now afforded by this great people, unalarmed at the clamor, and determined only that the controversy of which it is a feature shall now be finally settled, so that it cannot be revived again by the fools, fanatics and demagogues of a future day." It is certain, however, that a most powerful excitement prevailed among a large class of citizens, who, in Union meetings, and by communications to the press, expressed their wishes for compromise. To allay the storm they were willing to make every sacrifice of partisan and personal preferences, if not of principles, in order to restore the country to its late state of peace and commercial prosperity. This class embraced heavy merchants and manufacturers, whose interests had been injured by the excitement and cessation of trade, together with the Douglas and Breckenridge Democrats generally, and a few nominal Republicans; but, as stated by the journal above quoted from, it was true that the vast majority of the Republicans were firm in their resolves not to compromise, at the expense of a jot of their principles. They entered into Union meetings in the spirit of Unionists rather than to concede aught to the Disunonists. They were satisfied with the Constitution as it was, yet were desirous, apparently, of peace, if it could be won without a compromise of their convictions of political and social right.

Every attention was now directed to the

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"Until late in the past summer the defenses of Fort Moultrie have remained in an unfinished con. dition; the sand of the beach, piled up by the wind

against the south walls, had rendered them easily accessible almost by a single leap, and the empty guns were suffered to gaze out in harmless majesty upon the noble bay A fortnight has worked a marvelous change.

Fort Moultrie.

"Fort Moultrie is an enclosed water battery, having a front on the south, or water side, of about 300 feet, and a depth of about 240 feet. It is built with salient and re-entering angles on all sides, and is admirably adapted for defense, either from the attack of a storming party, or by regular proaches.

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them has been built. The one completed is formed of solid masonry. In constructing the other, however, a framework of plank has been substituted. Against the inside of this wooden outwork loose bricks have been placed. Both bastionettes are armed with a small carronade, and a howitzer pointap-ed laterally so as to command the whole intervening moat by a cross-fire.

"In the hurried execution of these extensive improvements, a large force-about 170 men-are constantly engaged. Additions are daily made to this number, and the work of putting the post in the best possible condition for defence, is carried on with almost incredible vigor.

The Garrison.

"A few days ago Colonel Gardner, who for years had held the Commandant's position,and whose courtesy and bearing had won the friendship of all who knew him, was relieved in the command by Major Robert Anderson of Kentucky. Major Anderson received his first commission as Brevet 2d Lieutenant, 2d Artillery, July 1st, 1825, was acting Inspector-General in the Black Hawk War, and re

his successful conduct in the Florida war. On September 8th, 1847, he was made Brevet-Major, for his gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Molino del Rey.

"The other officers are: Captain Abner Doubleday, Captain T. Seymour, Lieutenant T. Talbot, Lieutenant J. C. Davis, Lieutenant N. J. Hall-all of the First Regiment Artillery.

The outer and inner walls are of brick, capped with stone, and filled in with earth, making a solid wall 15 or 16 feet in thickness. The work now in progress consists in cleaning the sand from the walls of the fort; ditching it around the entire circumference, and erecting a glacis; closing up the postern gates in the east and west walls, and, instead, cutting sally-ports, which lead into strong outworks on the south-east and south-west angles, in which 12pounder howitzer guns will be placed, enabling the garrison to sweep the ditch on three sides with grape and canister. The north-west angle of the fort has also been strengthened by a bastionette, to sustain the weight of a heavy gun which will command the main street of the island. The main entrance has also been better secured, and a trap-ceived the rank of Brevet Captain, August, 1838, for door, two feet square, cut in the door for ingress and egress. At this time, the hight of the wall from the bottom of the ditch to the top of the parapet is 20 feet. The ditch is from 12 to 15 feet wide at the base, and 15 feet deep. The nature of the soil would not seem to admit of this depth being increased, quicksand having been reached in many places. The work on the south side is nearly finished. The counterscarp is substantially built with plank, and spread with turf. The glacis is also finished. It is composed of sand, and covered with layers of loam and turf, all of which is kept firmly in place by the addition of sections of plank nailed to uprights sunk in the sand, and crossing each other at right angles, making squares of ten feet each. The purpose of the glacis, which is an inclined plane, is to expose an attacking party to the fire of the guns, which are so placed as to sweep it from the crest of the counterscarp to the edge of the beach. On the north side all the wooden guncases have been placed close together on the ramparts, apparently for the purpose of securing it against an escalade, but possibly as a screen for a battery of heavy guns. A good many men are engaged in clearing the ramparts of turf and earth, for the purpose of putting down a very ugly-looking arrangement, which consists of strips of planks 4 inches wide, 1 inches thick, and 6 or 8 feet long, sharpened at the point, and nailed down, so as to project about 3 feet horizontally from the top of the walls.

"A noticeable fact in the bastionettes to which we have above alluded, is the haste in which one of

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'Captain J. G. Foster and Lieutenant G. W. Snyder, of the Engineer Corps.

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Assistant-Surgeon S. W. Crawford, of the Medical

"The force under these gentlemen consists of two companies of Artillery. The companies, however, are not full, the two comprising, as we are informed, only about seventy men, including the band. A short time ago two additional companies were expected, but they have not come; and it is now positively stated that there will be for the present, at least, no reinforcement of the garrison.

"While the working men are doing wonders on the outside, the soldiers within are by no means idle. Field pieces have been placed in position upon the green within the fort, and none of the expedients of military engineering have been neglected to make the position as strong as possible. It is said that the greatest vigilance is observed in every regulation at this time, and that the guns are regularly shotted every night. It is very certain that ingress is no longer an easy matter for an outsider, and the visitor who hopes to get in must make up his mind to ap proach with all the caution, ceremony and circumlo




cution with which the allies are advancing upon the | in advance, in that arsenal, the quotas of muscapital of the Celestial Empire.

"Fort Sumter, the largest of our fortresses, is a work of solid masonry, octagonal in form, pierced on the north, east and west sides with a double row of port-holes for the heaviest

Fort Sumter.

guns, and on the south or land side, in addition to openings for guns, loop-holes for musketry, stands in the middle of the harbor, on the edge of the ship channel, and is said to be bomb-proof. It is at present without any regular garrison. There is a large force of workmen some one hundred and fifty in allbusily employed in mounting the guns and otherwise putting this great strategic point in order. The armament of Fort Sumter consists of 140 guns, many of them being the formidable ten-inch "Columbiads," which throw either shot or shell, and which have a fearful range. Only a few of these are yet in position, and the work of mounting pieces of this calibre in the casemates is necessarily a slow one. There is also a large amount of artillery stores, consisting of about 40,000 pounds of powder, and a proportionate quantity of shot and shell. The workmen engaged here sleep in the fort every night, owing to the want of any regular communication with the city. The wharf or landing is on the south side, and is of course exposed to a cross fire from all the openings on that side.

"The fortress most closely commanding the city and its roadstead is Castle Pinckney, which is

Castle Pinckney.

located on the southern extremity of a narrow slip of marsh land, which extends in a northerly direction to Hog Island Channel. To the harbor side the so-called castle presents a circular front. It has never been considered of much consequence as a fortress, although its proximity to the city would give it importance, if properly armed and garrisoned. From hasty observation, we find that there are about fifteen guns mounted on the parapet; the majority of them are eighteen and twenty-four pounders. Some " Columbiads" are, however, within

the walls. There are also supplies of powder, shot,

and shell. At present there is no garrison at the post; the only residents are one or two watchmen, who have charge of the harbor light. Some thirty or forty day laborers are employed repairing the cisterns, and putting the place generally in order."

The arsenal in Charleston was already lost to the Government by direct orders of Secretary Floyd-having been, early in December, turned over to the Governor's care, under plea of keeping it safe from mob seizure. Why were not the arms transported, in October, to Fort Moultrie? Why had the Secretary placed,

kets to be assigned to several Southern States? It will be found only one of many acts evidencing direct complicity with the revolutionists on the part of Mr. Floyd, from an early stage of the conspiracy, that 70,000 stand of arms were placed in that arsenal and turned over for safe keeping to the revolutionists themselves. Whatever justification the secession leaders may urge for their refusal to obey the laws, it will be found impossible to justify the duplicity and treason practiced by Cabinet officers who used their high positions and sworn authority to betray their confiding constituents. If Mr. Floyd, or Mr. Cobb, or Mr. Thompson, even thought secession, they had no right, as honorable and just men, to remain a single day in the Cabinet. That they did remain, to scheme and plot against the Government which was paying them their salaries, which they had sworn solemnly to uphold and defend, from which they had received all their honors and political position, cannot fail to attach a stigma to their names which no historian may efface, let the result of the revolution be what it may. Benedict Arnold's treason was not more odious to mankind because of its failure—its success would have equally rendered his name a synonym of moral turpitude.

Secretary Thompson's Complicity.

Secretary Thompson paid a hurried visit to North Carolina (December 18th), to induce the State Legislature to act on the question of a cooperation of States in the Secession movement. The Secretary was understood to be entirely committed to the plans of the Seceders in disrupting the Union; but, like most of the Conservatives be cooperation among the States, thus to in the Gulf States, preferred that there should render the safety of the act more assured, and the formation of a Slave Confederacy more expeditious. The Secretary acted as the Commissioner of Mississippi to North Carolina. The Crisis Committee of Thirty-three, on Monday, (December 17th,) received from Mr. Rust, of Arkansas, a proposition which he assumed was the ultimatum of the South. It was, in substance, the extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific,

The Crisis Committee. Second week.

with recognition and protection of Slavery | ultimatum proposition; but no definite action south of it. Consultations were constantly was taken. The Republicans expressed their being held by the different Congressional del- opposition to an actual protection to the inegations, to consider the several schemes pro-stitution south of the line named. It would posed, and the action proper and necessary for their representative on the Committee. This representative, therefore, became the exponent of the ideas and feelings of his State.

Tuesday, Mr. Winter Davis' proposition was adopted unanimously. It was as follows: "Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives, That several States be respectfully requested to cause their statutes to be revised, with a view to ascertain if any of them are in conflict with, or tend to embarrass or hinder the execution of the laws of the United States, made in pursuance of the 2d section of the IVth Article of the Constitution of the United States for the delivery up of persons held to labor by the laws of any State and escaping therefrom; and the Senate and House of Representatives

involve the recognition of the right of Slavery to Congressional protection—a right they were, under any circumstances, unwilling to concede.

Thursday's proceedings were devoted to the further discussion of the Rust proposition. Mr. Adams, of Massachusetts, in a very able and elaborate speech, took the position that the Republican party could not consent to any proposition looking to a protection of Slavery in Territories, or to amendments to the Constitution, looking to a recognition of Slavery by that instrument.

The proceedings of Friday were confined to the Rust propositions. It was decided,

earnestly request that all enactments having such finally, to adjourn the vote, on their acceptance or rejection, to Thursday, December 29th. After adjournment the Republican Members of the Committee remained in close conference for some time.

tendency be forthwith repealed, as required by a just sense of constitutional obligations, and by a due regard for the peace of the Republic. And the President of the United States is requested to communi

cate these resolutions to the Governors of the several States, with the request that they will lay the same before the Legislatures thereof respectively."

The Senate Committee of Thirteen.

The Senate Committee of Thirteen also held a session on Friday. Mr. Wade, of Ohio, repeated the substance of his previous declarations. He stated that 66 no compromise could be made, as the Republicans had done nothing unconstitutionally, not having been in power to do so. Mr. Lincoln, having been elected according to the Constitution of the United States, he ought to have the same chance as others had before him to develop his policy, which would be perfectly consistent with their constitutional rights. The assumption that the Republicans, nothing having been brought against them of any practical character, were going to do some wrong, was an insult, and came with bad grace from a party that had wrought mischief to the country."

This resolution, apparently, gave the assurance that the Republicans were solicitous in regard to constitutional obligations. The discussion which grew out of its introduction elicited the confession from Southern members that the Republicans had been misrepresented on the question of the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law, while the several "Liberty Bills" of Northern States, which underwent a searching analysis, were shown to be in strict concordance with the Constitution, and comparatively harmless in their reputed opposition to an enforcement of the Fugitive Law. The day's work was, therefore, highly satisfactory, as it won from the Southerners themselves acknowledgments of their hitherto misapprehensions and This brought out Mr. Douglas, who, in a misinterpretations of the Anti-Slavery oppo- spirit of great candor and earnestness, desition of the North. A sub-committee, con-clared that "he was ready now to unite in sisting of Messrs. Davis, Dunn, Millson, Bris- recommending such amendments to the Contow, and Kellogg, was appointed, to consider stitution as will take the Slavery question out the amendments proposed by Southern mem- of Congress. In view of the dangers which bers to the Fugitive Slave Law. threaten the Republic with disunion, revolution, and civil war, he was prepared to act upon the matters in controversy without any

Wednesday's session of the Committee was directed to the consideration of Mr. Rust's





regard to his previous action, and as if he had never made a speech or given a vote on the subject."

Mr. Crittenden expressed a like spirit, and gave utterance to the hope that nothing might at least result from the acts of the Committee which would, in any degree, savor of a disinclination to adjust differences, and thus to court the calamities of disunion.

Gov. Hicks' Union


We may add to our chapter of the week's features a reference to the reception, by Gov. Hicks, of Maryland, of the Commissioner from Mississippi, Judge H. K. Handy. Their correspondence, as published, Saturday, Dec. 22d, in the Baltimore papers, showed that, under the executive hand of Gov. Hicks, Maryland could not be thrown into the secession movement. The gist of the correspondence may thus be given:

Judge Handy inquires whether the Governor will convene the Legislature for the purpose of cooperating with Mississippi in measures necessary to defend the rights of the South and to form a new confederacy. The Governor replies at some length. He says that Maryland is identified with the Southern States in feeling, institutions, and habits; but she is also conservative and devoted to the union of the States under the Constitution, and her people will use all honorable means to preserve and perpetuate these. He declares that the sentiments of the people are almost unanimous in favor of upholding and maintaining their rights under the Constitution. They believe that their rights will yet be admitted and secured, and not until it is certain they will be respected no longer not until every honorable, constitutional, and lawful effort to secure them is exhausted-will they consent to any efforts for a dissolution of the Union. The people of Maryland are anxious that time should be given and opportunity afforded for a fair and honorable adjustment of the difficulties and grievances of which they, more than the people of any other State, have a right to complain.

He believes that a large majority of the people of the Union desire an adjustment, and he thinks it will be promptly effected. Until the effort is found vain, he cannot consent to any precipitate revolutionary action

to aid in the dismemberment of the Union, When he is satisfied that there is no hope of adjustment, and not until then, will he exercise any power with which he is vested to afford even an opportunity for such a proceeding. Whatever powers he may have he will use only after full consultation with the other Border States, since we and they, in the event of any dismemberment of the Union, will suffer more than all the others combined. He states that he is now in correspondence with the Governors of these States, and awaits with much solicitude the indications of the course to be pursued by them. When this is made known, he will be prepared to take such steps as duty and the interests of the State demand. He is, consequently, unable to say whether, or when, the Legislature will be called.

The Hon. W. S. Featherstone, Commissioner from the same State to Kentucky, had an interview with Gov. Magoffin, of Kentucky, Dec. 21st., but the result was not definitively made known until a later day. December 21st, Caleb Cushing arrived in Charleston as a messenger from Mission to Charleston. the President to the Con

Caleb Cushing's

vention. His mission was understood to be to prevail upon the Convention to respect the status quo of the Federal laws during Mr. Buchanan's administration, giving guarantees of a non-reinforcement of Major Anderson. He remained 'but five hours in the city, and returned immediately to Washington to report that the Convention would make no promises whatever-that it must act as circumstances might dictate-leaving all negotiations to special commissioners. A Cabinet. meeting was called (Dec. 22nd,) upon his return, when a stormy and anxious session is reported to have been held.

The Committee's Saturday's session, was one of earnest consideration. Mr. Crittenden's Compromise Resolutions were brought forward and acted upon. The entire plan was supported by Messrs. Bigler and Douglas, as well as by Mr. Crittenden himself, with remarkable power and zeal. Mr. Douglas reiterated his expressed determination to consider the question for the preservation of the country, as though he had never cast a vote

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