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Marque and reprisal, letters of.
to be officered by the States........
secured..... Money shall be drawn from the treas
ury only by appropriation laws...... Congress to coin and regulate value
2 1 1
States cannot coin......
1 8 Duties, further provision respecting 1 9 can not be lefied by the States.
1 10 ob exp rts prohibited..
1 9 On esports may be authorized by
to thirds vote.........
States, shall enure to the treasury
tres sball be prescribed by the
1 4 qualifications and returns of mem
bers of Congress to be determined
1 5 Electors of President and Vice President, bow chusen, and their duties
1 altered (see 12th amendment) to vote
the same day throughout the Unj.
ted (or Confederate) States..... 2 1 Do Senator, or Representative, or
public officer shall serve as .......... 2 1 EnuDuration every ten years............
2 first within three years... Executire porcer vested in a President, (see President,)...........
2 1 Esports, not to be taxed.....
9 may be, by two-thirds vote Ez pos! facto law, not to be passed........ 1 9 prohibited to States.....
1 10 F. Fines, excessive, prohibited........
8 Am'd. Fugitires, from justice, to be delivered up....
2 from service, to be delivered up......... 4 2
suspended in cases of rebellion or
1 9 Hrise of Representalires-(see Repre
allowed to have seats in either
2 tried by the Senate.........
3 judgment on........
1 3 all civil oficers liable to....
2 any judicial or other federal oficers
resideat and acting solely in any
of legislature thereof.......... Impattalion of Slaves, not prohibited ul 1808
1 9 probibited....... Iniernal Improrenents, Congress shall
not have power to appropriate
3 1 their compensation ...
1 Judiciary, tribunals inferior to the Su
preme Court may be erected... 1 8 Judicial Pover vested in a Sopreme
Court (or Superior Court) and in-
3 1 powers of the judiciary......
3 rest: ictions as to suits against a State 11 A m'd. Judicial Proceedings of cach Slate are entitled w credit in all........
4 1 Jury trial secured, and sball be held
in tbe Suate where the crime shall
Officers of tho House of Representa
tives to be chosen by the House..... of the Senate to be chosen by the
Sepate civil, may be removed by impeach
ment........ Order of one house requiring the con
currence of the other.... Oath of the President
of the public oflicers......
P. Pardons, President may grant....... 2 2 Palents to be granted to inventors...... 1 8 Petition, right of......
1 Am'd. Persons held to service or labor, their
importation or migration into the
1 9 escaping from one State into another shall be delivered up
4 2 or lawfully carried from one State
to another... Piracy, Congress to prescribe punishment for...
1 8 Post offices and post roads (and routes,) establishing of.......
1 8 Post office Department to be self-sustain
ing after 1st of March 1863.. Powers not delegated to Congress nor
prohibited to the States aro
10 Am'd. legislative,(sco Congress ;) executive, (sce President;) judicial, (see Judi
cial.). Presents from foreign powers to public ofllcers prohibited
1 9 Prees, freedom of secured.
1 Am'd. President of the United States and of
the Confederato States vested with
2 1 sha l be chosen for four years...........
2 1 sball be chosen for six years......... how elected................
2 1 same
12 Am'. qualifications for
President, not re-eligible........
who shall act in case of vacancy......
may be removed by impeachment....
heads of departments..........
the recess of the Senate....
and recommend measures...
greement ..... .....
without just compensation.....
or denying the right of, in slaves...
Representatives and direct taxes, appor-
tioned according to numbers..... 1 2
in, supplied until a new election by
the concurrence of both Houses, to
undergo the formalities of bills...... 1 7
reported by the President to the
Senate, with his reasons therefor...
ileges of citizens of the several
3 A m'u.
crime, unless on presentment or
5 A m'd.
property without due process of
speedy trial by jury, with all the
means necessary for his defence..... 6 A m'd.
shall only be re-examined accord.
excessive tines imposed, nor cruel
and unusual punislaments indicted... 8 Ain'd.
opera:e against reserved rights...... 9 A m'a.
Receipts and expenditures, accounts of,
to be published......
chosen every second year..........
qualification of its members.
pel the attendance of absentees......
cept parts requiring secrecy.
days, nor to any other place, with-
out the consent of the Senate...
for speech or debate in the House...
and qualidcations of its members... 1 5
pel attendance of absentees............ 1 5
same, except parts requiring se-
days, nor to any other place, with.
out the consent of the other house.. 1 5
cess may be filled temporarily by
2 2 Vacancies in representation in Congress, how filled ..........
1 2 Veto of the President, effect of and proceedings on .....
1 7 Vice-President to be President of the Senate......
1 3 how elected......
2 also, Amendment..
12 shall in certain cases discharge tho duties of President....
1 may be removed by impeachment...... Vote of one house requiring the concurrence of the other.............
1 7 W. War, Congress to declare.....
8 Warrants for searches and seizures,
whon and how they shall issue....... 4 A m'a. Witness in criminal cases, no one com
pelled to be against himself......... 5 Am'd. Weights and Measures, standard of........ 1 8
Y. Yeas and Nays entered on journal, and published.....
1 10 1 | 10 1 10
Seraton hall not be elector...
2 1 Senators and Representatives, election of, how prescribed.
1 4 Slabes, their importation may be prohibited after 1808.....
1 9 their importation prohibited, no law
to be passed impairing right of property in. right of transit and sojourn with, in
aus State, guarantied... introduction of, from any State not a
member of tho Confederacy, may
be probibited by Congress. Soldiers not to be quartered on citizens 3 Am'd. Speaker, how chosen
1 2 Speech, freedom of.............................
1Am'd. States prohibited from entering into treaty, alliance, or confederation .....
1 10 granting letters of marque............. 1 10 enining money
1 10 emitting bills of credit..
1 10 making anything a tender but gold and silver
1 10 passing bills of attainder, ez post facto
laws, or laws impairing contracts... 1 10 granting titles of nobility..
1 | 10 laying duties on imports and exports 1 | 10 laying duties on tonnage....
1 | 10 may lay tonnage duty on sea-going
Fessels for the improvement of riv
ers, &C..... keeping troops or ships of war in time of peace
1 entering into any agreement or com
pact with another State or foreign
1 10 may enter into compact for improve
ment of certain rivers............. engaging in war .....
1 | 10 States, new, may be admitted into the Union (or Confederacy)..
4 3 new, may be admitted upon two
thirds sote of both Houses, the Sen
ste voting by States.. may be formed within the jurisdiction of others, or by the junction of two or more, with the consent of Congress and the Legislatures of the states concerned.........
3 State judges bound to consider treaties.
the Constitution, and the laws
6 1 State, every, guarantied a republican
form of government, protected by
the United (or Confederate) States 4 4 Supreme Court(See Court and Judi
ciary.) Suits at Common Law, proceedings in... 7 Aw'd.
THEIR CONSTITUTION AS INTERPRETED BY THE
"CONFEDERATE” VICE PRESIDENT. 1861, March 21, ALEX. H. STEPHENS delivered a speech at Savannah, in explanation and vindication of the Constitution, from which this is a well known extract:
“The new Constitution has put at rest forever all the agitating questions relating to our peculiar institutionsAfrican slavery as it exists
proper status of the negro in our form of civilization. This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution. Jefferson, in his forecast, had anticipated this as the “rocke upon which the old Union would split. He was right. What was conjecture with him, is now a realized fact. But whether he fully comprehended the great truth upon which that rock stood and stands, may be doubted. The prevailing ideas entertained by him and most of the leading statesmen at the time of the formation of the old Constitution, were that the enslavement of the African was in violation of the laws of nature: that it was wrong in principle, socially, morally, and politically. It was an evil they knew not well how to deal with, but the general opinion of the men of that day was, that somehow or other, in the order of Providence, the institution would be evanescent and pass away. This idea, though not incorporated in the Constitution, was the prevailing idea at the time. The Constitution, it is true, secured every essential guarantee to the institution while it should last, and hence no argument can be justly used against the constitutional guarantees thus secured, because of the common sentiment of the day. Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error. It was a sandy foundation, and the idea of a government built upon it; when the storm came and the wind blew, it fell.'
“Our new Government is founded upon exactly the 01posite idea; its foundations are laid, its corner stone rests upon tho great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man. That slavery—subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition. This, our new Government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical and moral truth. This truth has been slow in the process of its development, like all other truths in the various departments of science. It has been 80 even amongst us. Many who hear me, perhaps, can recollect well, that this truth was not generally admitted, even within their day. The errors of the past generation still clung to many as late as twenty years ago. Those at the North who stili cling to these errors, with a zeal above knowledge, we justly denominate fanatics.
"In the conflict thus far, success has been, on our side, complete throughout the length and breadth of the Confederato States. It is upon this, as I have stated, our actual fabric is firmly planted; and I cannot permit myself to doubt the ultimate success of a full recognition of this principle throughout the civilized and enlightened world.
Tas, direct, according to representa
tion..... shall be laid only in proportion to
census. on exports prohibited.... except by vote of two-thirds of both
Hogses...... Tender, what shall be a legal.. Territory, or public property, Congress
may make rules concerning.... Tex, religious, shall not be required...... Tities, (see Nobility.) Tule from foreign state prohibited..... Freason, defined......... two witnesses, or confession, neces
sary for conviction.......... punishment of, may be prescribed by
Congress.... Treasury, money drawn from only by
appropriation.... Treaties, how made..........................
the supremne law......................... States cannot make
V. reconcis happening during the rem
“ As I have stated, the truth of this principle may be slow the granite; then comes the brick or the marble. The subin development, as all truths are, and ever have been, in stratum of our society is minde of the materit:) fitted by nathe various branches of science. It was so with the prin- ture for it, and by experience we know that it is best, not ciplos announced by Galileo-it was so with Adam Smith only for the superior, but for the inferior race that it should and his principles of political economy-it was so with bo so. It is, indeed, in conformity with the ordinance of Harvey and his thoory of tho circulation of tho blood. It the Creator. It is not for us to inquiro into the wisdom of is stated that not a single one of tho m-dical profession, His ordinances, or to question them. For His owo purliving at the timo of the announcement of tho truths made posos H* has made one race to differ from another, as He by him, admitted them. Now they are universally ac- has mado 'one star to differ from another star in glory.' knowledged. May wo not, therefore, look with confidence “ Tho great objects of humanity are best attained when to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths conformed to llis laws and decrees, in the formation of goyupon which our system rests. It is tho first governmont ernments, as well as in all things else. Our Confederacy is ever institutod upon principlos of strict conformity to na- founded upon principles in strict conformity with these ture, and tho ordination of Providonco, in furnishing the laws. This stone which was first rejected ly the first builders matorials of human society. Many governments have been is becomo the chief stone of the corner'in our new edifice. founded upon the principle of certain classes; but the “The progress of disintegration in the old ('nion may be classes thus enslaved, were of the samo race, and in viola- expected to go on with almost alsolute certainty. We are tion of the laws of nature. Our system commits no such now the nucleus of a growing power, which, if we are true violation of nature's laws. Thio negro, by nature, or by the to ourselves, our destiny, and high mission, will become curso against Canaan, is fitted for that condition which he the controlling power on this continent. To what extent occupies in our system. The architect, in tho construction accessions will go on in the process of time, or where it will of buildings, lays the foundation with the proper materials, I end, the future will determine."
ADMINISTRATION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
Abraham Lincoln's Inaugural Ad-consistently with the Constitution and the laws, dress, March 4, 1861,
can be given, will be cheerfully given to all the
States when lawfully demanded, for whatever Fellow-citizens of the United States: In com-cause — as cheerfully to one section as to pliance with a custom as old as the Govern- another. ment itself, I appear before you to address you There is much controversy about the deliverbriefly, and to take in your presence the oath ing up of fugitives from service or labor. The prescribed by the Constitution of the United clause I now read is as plainly written in the States to be taken by the President“ before he Constitution as any other of its provisions : enters on the execution of his office."
“No person held to service or labor in one State, under I do not consider it necessary at present for the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall
, in conseme to discuss those matters of administration quence of any law or regulation therein, bo discharged about which there is no special anxiety or ex
from such service or labor but shall be delivered up on
claim of the party to whom such servico or labor may be citement.
Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession was intended by those who made it for the re
It is scarcely questioned that this provision of a Republican Administration their property claiming of what we call fugitive slaves; and and their peace and personal security are to be the intention of the law-giver is the law. All endangered. There bas never been any reason-members of Congress swear their support to able cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the the whole Constitution to this provision as most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspec- that slaves, whose cases come within the terms
much as any other. To the proposition, then, tion. It is found in nearly all the published of this clause, “ shall be delivered up,” their speeches of him who now addresses you. I do loaths are unanimous. Now, if they would but quote from one of those speeches when I make the effort in good temper, could they not, declare that "I have no purpose, directly or with nearly equal unanimity, frame and pass a indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe law by means of which to keep good that
unanimous oath ? I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.” Those who nominated this clause should be enforced by national or
There is some difference of opinion whether and elected me did so with full knowledge that I bad made this and many similar declarations, is not a very material one.
by State authority; but surely that difference
If the slave is to and had never recanted them. And more than be surrendered, it can be of but little consethis, they placed in the platform for my acceptance, and as a law to themselves and to me, the quence to him, or to others, by which authority
it is done. And should any one, in any case, clear and emphatic resolution which I now be content that bis oath shall goʻunkept, on a read:
merely unsubstantial controversy as to how it * Readired, That the maintonance inviolate of the rights shall be kept ? of the States, and especially the right of each Stato to order
Again, in any law upon this subject, ought al control its own domestic institutions according to its 570 judgment exclusively, is essential to the balance of not all the safeguards of liberty known in civiPor on which the perfection and enduranco of our polit- lized and humane jurisprudence to be introWullore depend, and wo denounce the lawless invasion | duced, so that a free man be not, in any case, by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no mattis under what pretext, as among the gravest of, surrendered as a slave? And might it not be crines."
well at the same time to provide by law for the I now reiterate these sentiments; and, in do enforcement of that clause in the Constitution ing so, I only press upon the public attention which guaranties that “the citizens of each the most conclusive evidence of which the case State shall be entitled to all privileges and imis siisceptible that the property, peace, and munities of citizens in the several States ?”' security of no section are to be in anywise I take the official oath to-day with no mental endangered by the now incoming Administra- reservations, and with no purpose to construe tion. I add, too, that all the protection which, I the Constitution or laws by any hypercritical