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peaceable intercourse with the Indians, and to promote their con. version to Catholicism.
16. To provide what may be necessary for the prosperity of the country, for the advancement and welfare of all the provinces, and for the progress of enlightenment, forming plans of general and university education, and promoting industry, immigration, the construction of railroads and navigable canals, the colonization of lands belonging to the nation, the introduction and establishment of new occupations, the importation of foreign capital, and the exploration of the internal rivers, by protecting laws for these purposes, and by the temporary concession of privileges, and encouraging rewards.
17. To establish tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court of Justice, to create and suppress places, to settle their attributions, to grant pensions, to decree honours, and to concede general amnesties.
18. To admit or reject the reasons for the resignation of the President or Vice-President of the Republic, and to declare the case of proceeding to a new election, to perform the scrutiny, and make the rectification thereof.
19. To approve or reject the Treaties with other nations, and the Concordats with the Apostolic See, and to regulate the exercise of the patronage throughout the nation.
20. To admit into the territory of the Confederation other religious orders besides those already existing.
21. To authorize the Executive Power to declare war or to conclude peace.
22. To grant letters of marque and reprisal, and to establish regulations for the prizes.
23. To determine the force of the army and navy of the line in time of peace and war, and to draw up regulations and orders for the government of those forces.
24. To authorize the union of the militia of all the provinces, or of part of them, when required for the execution of the laws of the nation, or when it is necessary for the repression of insurrection or the repulse of invasion. To direct the organization, armament, and discipline of that militia, and the administration and government of the part of it that may be employed in the service of the nation, leaving to the provinces the appointment of the necessary chiefs and officers, and the care of establishing in their respective militias the discipline prescribed by the Congress.
25. To allow the introduction of foreign troops into the territory of the nation, and the departure of the national forces from it.
26. To declare one or more parts of the nation in a state of
siege, in case of internal commotion, and to approve or suspend the state of siege declared during its recess by the Executive Power.
27. To exercise an exclusive legislation in the whole of the territory of the capital of the nation, and over the other localities acquired by purchase or cession in any of the provinces, for the erection of fortresses, arsenals, magazines, or other establishments of national utility.
28. To make all the laws and regulations which may be fitting for the operation of the foregoing Powers, and all others granted by the present Constitution to the Government of the Argentine nation.
Chap. V. Of the Formation and Sanction of the Laws.
LXVIII. The laws may have their beginning in either of the Chambers of Congress, by means of projects submitted by their members, or by the Executive Power, excepting those relating to the matters mentioned in Article XLIV.
LXIX. When a project of law has been approved by the Chamber wherein it originated, it passes to the other Chamber for discussion. When it has been approved by both Chambers, it passes to the Executive Power of the nation for his examination, and if it also meets with his approbation, he promulgates it as law.
LXX. Every project is considered as approved by the Executive Power, if it be not returned within the term of 10 available days.
LXXI. No project of law that has been totally rejected by one of the Chambers can be reintroduced during the sessions of that year. But if it have only been added to, or corrected by the revising Chamber, it is to return to that wherein it originated; and if the additions or corrections be approved therein by absolute majority, it is to pass to the Executive Power of the nation. If the additions or corrections be rejected, the project shall return a second time to the revising Chamber, and if the additions or alterations be again sanctioned by a majority of two-thirds of its members, the project shall pass to the other Chamber, and it shall not be understood that this latter rejects the said additions or corrections, unless it agrees to do so by the vote of two-thirds of its members present.
LXXII. When a project of law has been rejected wholly or in part by the Executive Power, it returns with his objections to the Chamber of its origin, by which it is again discussed, and if it be confirmed by a majority of two-thirds of the votes, it passes a second time to the Chamber of revision. If both Chambers sanction it by a like majority, the project becomes law, and passes to the Executive Power for its promulgation. The voting in both Chambers shall, in this case, be nominal, by Yes or No; and the names and grounds of
the voters, as well as the objections of the Executive Power, shall be immediately published by the press. If the Chambers differ about the objections, the project cannot be re-introduced during the sessions of that year.
LXXIII. In sanctioning the laws, this formula shall be used: "The Senate and Chamber of Deputies of the Argentine nation, assembled in Congress, and, decree, or sanction, with force of law:"
Sect. 2. Of the Executive Power.
Chap. I. Of its nature and duration.
LXXIV. The Executive Power of the nation shall be exercised by a citizen with the title of "President of the Argentine nation."
LXXV. In case of the sickness, absence from the capital, death, resignation, or deprivation of the President, the Executive Power shall be exercised by the Vice-President of the nation. In case of the dereliction, death, deprivation, or incapacity of the President and Vice-President of the nation, the Congress shall determine what public functionary shall perform the duties of the Presidency until the cause of inability shall have ceased, or a new President shall have been elected.
LXXVI. To be elected President or Vice-President of the nation it is requisite to have been born in the Argentine territory, or to be the son of a native citizen if born in a foreign country, to belong to the Apostolic Roman Catholic communion, and to possess the other qualifications required to be elected a Senator.
LXXVII. The President and Vice-President of the nation continue in their offices for the term of 6 years, and they cannot be re-elected until after the interval of a period.
LXXVIII. The President of the nation retires from power on the very day on which his period of 6 years expires, and no event that may have interrupted it can be a cause for his completing it later.
LXXIX. The President and Vice-President shall enjoy a salary paid by the Treasury of the nation, which cannot be altered during the period of their appointments. During that period they cannot hold any other office, nor receive any other emolument from the nation or from any province.
LXXX. On taking possession of their office, the President and Vice-President shall take oath at the hands of the President of the Senate (the first time at the hands of the President of the Constituent Congress) before the assembled Congress, in the following terms: "I, N.N., swear by God our Lord, and these Holy Gospels, to discharge with loyalty and patriotism the office of President (or Vice-President) of the nation, to observe faithfully, and to cause to be faithfully observed, the Constitution of the Argentine
nation. If I should not do so, let God and the nation call me to account."
Chap. II. Of the form and time of the Election of the President and Vice-President of the Nation.
LXXXI. The election of the President and Vice-President of the nation shall be effected in the following manner: The capital and each of the provinces shall appoint by vote a committee of electors, equal to twice the total number of the Deputies and Senators whom they send to Congress, with the same qualifications, and with observance of the same forms as are prescribed for the election of the Deputies.
The Deputies, the Senators, and persons in the pay of the Federal Government cannot be electors,
The electors assembled in the capital of the nation, and in those of the respective provinces, 4 months before the conclusion of the retiring President's term, shall proceed to the election of a President and Vice-President of the nation by signed papers, mentioning in one of them the person for whom they vote as President, and in another separate paper the person whom they elect for VicePresident.
Two lists shall be made of all the persons selected for President, and two others of those nominated for Vice-President, with the number of votes which each has obtained. These lists shall be signed by the electors, and two of them (one of each kind) shall be remitted closed and sealed to the President of the Provincial Legislature, and in the capital to the President of the Municipality, in whose archives they shall be kept closed and deposited, and the other two shall be sent to the President of the Senate (the first time to the President of the Constituent Congress).
LXXXII. The President of the Senate (the first time the President of the Constituent Congress) having collected all the lists, shall open them in presence of both Chambers. Four members of the Congress, chosen by lot, being associated with the Secretaries, they shall proceed to make the scrutiny and to declare the number of suffrages given in favour of each candidate for the Presidency and Vice-Presidency of the nation. Those who unite in both cases the absolute majority of all the votes, shall be immediately proclaimed President and Vice-President.
LXXXIII. In case that from the division of the votes, there be no absolute majority, the Congress shall elect between the two persons who shall have obtained the greatest number of suffrages. If the first majority should have fallen upon more than two persons, the Congress shall elect from among all of them. If the first majority should have fallen upon one person only, and the second upon
two or more, the Congress shall choose among all the have obtained the first and second majority.
LXXXIV. This election shall be by absolute plurality of suffrages, and by nominal voting. If the first voting should not result in an absolute majority, there shall be a second, limiting the voting to the two persons who shall have obtained the greatest number of suffrages in the first. In case of equality the voting shall be repeated, and if the result be again an equality the President of the Senate (the President of the Constituent Congress the first time) shall decide. Neither the scrutiny nor the rectification of these elections can take place unless three-fourths of the whole number of the Members of Congress be present.
LXXXV. The election of the President and Vice-President of the nation must be concluded in one single sitting of the Congress, and the result is to be immediately published with the electoral proceedings by the press.
Chap. III.-Attributions of the Executive Power.
LXXXVI. The President of the nation has the following attri
1. He is the Supreme Chief of the Nation, and is charged with the general administration of the country.
2. He issues the instructions and regulations which are necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, taking care not to infringe their spirit by regulationary exceptions.
3. He is the immediate and local Chief of the capital of the nation.
4. He participates in the enactment of the laws in accordance with the constitution, he sanctions and promulgates them.
5. He appoints the magistrates of the Supreme Court, and of the other inferior federal tribunals, with the concurrence of the Senate.
6. He can remit or commute the penalties for crimes subject to the federal jurisdiction, on a previous report from the competent tribunal, except in cases of accusation by the Chamber of Deputies.
7. He grants superannuations, retirements, licences, and permission to keep monts-de-piété, in conformity with the laws of the nation.
8. He exercises the rights of the national patronage in the presentation of bishops for the cathedral churches, on the proposition of 3 names by the Senate.
9. He allows the introduction of, or withholds the decrees of the councils, the bulls, briefs, and rescripts of the Supreme Pontiff of Rome, in concert with the Supreme Court; a law being required when they contain general and permanent arrangments.
10. He appoints and removes the Ministers Plenipotentiary, and