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steamship United States and in other mari- ception of the Division of Legislative Refer- too many or too elaborate projects, by all time matters. By the Merchant Marine Act ence, the one that least deserves to be means let the President trim them. Clearly, of 1936, as amended by Reorganization Plan there.
too, the President needs a subordinate to No. 21 of 1950, Government responsibility That the recommendation in respect of assist him in this task, someone who can for the administration of merchant-marine this Bureau may be understood, it is neces- familiarize himself with the various projects subsidy contracts is confided to the Secre- sary to review briefly both past and present and advise the President. tary of Commerce. Nevertheless Admiral practice in the handling of appropriations On the other hand, it is as a practical Dennison saw fit to interest himself in the and also the factors of expense for which matter impossible for the President, or any contract for the steamship United States. appropriations are made.
outsider, to form an intelligent opinion as to He held meetings on the subject to which the It is not disputed that only Congress may the number of personnel needed to adminDepartment of Commerce was not invited. make appropriations. The Constitution ex- ister a given project or function. Only the Letters appeared over the signature of the pressly so provides.10 The problem relates chief administrators can do so, and, as everyPresident of which the Department had no rather to the proceedings leading up to their one ever connected with a large organizaadvance notice. It should be emphasized enactment. As has long been recognized, tion knows from experience, the best they that in this instance, unlike the labor illus- Congress requires proposals known as esti- can do in advance that is, by way of estitration, the Secretary of Commerce was ac- mates, from the executive branch. Prior to mate—is to make a good guess. tively handling the matter, and doing so the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921,11 de- When the departmental estimates go to with the knowledge and consent of the Presi- partment heads sent their estimates to Con- the Bureau a group of examiners attempts dent. Admiral Dennison also concerned gress through the Secretary of the Treasury to appraise them as to both substance and himself with maritime-tax policy, a subject who did not attempt to revise them. The administrative efficiency. The latter subject long under consideration by the Depart- act of 1921 directed the President to submit comes down in effect to the question of the ments of Commerce and Treasury. In the to Congress at the beginning of each regular number and rank of the personnel to be latter part of 1952, the President suddenly session a budget setting forth, among other engaged in administration. If the Bureau asked for elaborate reports of their positions, things, “Estimates of the expenditures and reduces the estimates to more than a nomipresumably at the instigation of Admiral appropriations necessary in his judgment for nal extent the departments are resentful. Dennison. At that time the views of the in- the support of the Government for the en- They think that they best know their own cumbent Secretaries had become supremely suing fiscal year.” To enable the President business. The departments particularly disunimportant, and it was hard to believe that to comply with this direction, the act created like reductions by such lowly figures in the the President was then taking personal in- the Bureau of the Budget as a unit of the Government hierarchy as Bureau examiners. terest in the problem. There was no statu- Treasury Department and required each "de- The reaction of the departments to the work tory basis for Admiral Dennison's activity, partment and establishment” to submit its of the Bureau is well illustrated by several but the magic words “White House" com- estimates to the Bureau not later than Sep- passages in The Forrestal Diaries. manded attention. No particular harm re- tember 15 in each year.
At page 237, Secretary Forrestal, writing of sulted from Admiral Dennison's officiousness By Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1939,13
a Cabinet meeting, says that the Secretary except that the time of high officers of the President Roosevelt transferred the Bureau of the Interior made “a protest against the Government was unnecessarily occupied. to his own office. He said in his explanatory methods by which the people down the line
It may be thought that these forebodings message to Congress that he was thereby in the budget not much above the status of are a result of experience in the so-called "keeping the tools of American democracy clerks make allocations within departments messy Truman administration, that in fu
date.” 13 Unfortunately President between various bureaus and offices of that ture administrations the caliber of personnel Roosevelt had a tendency to confuse democ- Department." Secretary Forrestal continues: will be so high that such evils will be avoid- racy with his own personal power.
"With reference to the people in the budget, ed. Perhaps. It is not only in the Truman Now there are two basic factors represented in my talk with the President yesterday I administration, however, but universally in every estimate: (1) projects and func- said that we had been quite uneasy under that men are prone to self-confidence, to tions, and (2) administrative cost. The Harold Smith's administration of the Bureau, think that they can handle problems better cost of projects and functions may be about the fact that a young man recently a than those who have the responsibility for reduced by modification or elimination; the seaman second class in the Navy, who had them, to enjoy getting in on the act, and to administrative cost may be reduced by been a student of administration at the make use of a ready hearing by the boss. greater efficiency. Insofar as the total budget University of Colorado, * * had been makNor are these failings, if they are to be is concerned, the number and importance ing up our figures" (i. e., the budget figures called that, confined to incompetents. Ad- of the projects and functions is all-impor- of the Department of the Navy). At page miral Dennison was a man of ability; the tant; the efficiency with which they are ad- 429 et seq. is depicted a controversy between President's military aide enjoyed a higher ministered makes relatively little difference.14 Mr. Forrestal, who had meanwhile become reputation as an amusing companion than Undoubtedly efficient administration can Secretary of Defense, and the Bureau of the as a serious student of military affairs. Yet · save large sums expressed in absolute terms, Budget, over the 1948–49 budget. The edithere were times when the problems of the but substantial saving to the taxpayer must tor of the Diaries, Mr. Walter Millis, commerchant marine would have been far sim- be in respect of projects and functions.15 ments on a reduction proposed by the Bupler if the naval aide had also been an officer That is to say, what causes high taxes are reau as follows, at page 430: "Suddenly it of that type.
armament, foreign aid, pensions to veterans, appeared that it was Mr. Webb (then the A remedy already proposed is regulations agricultural and other subsidies, dams, and Director of the Bureau), who was in control specifying the duties of the President's as- the like, as distinguished from inefficiency of American military policy rather than the sistants in some detail. Insofar as such in the administration of such programs, Secretary of Defense." duties relate to matters within the juris- not that every effort should not be made to
DIRECTOR IS NOT IN GOOD POSITION TO OVERRULE diction of an executive department, the secure the greatest efficiency.
DEPARTMENT HEAD regulations should be worked out with the Now there is every reason for the President collaboration of the department head. Also, to review the projects proposed by his de
The picture of a seaman second class, who the regulations should be published in the partment heads. Generally such projects takes a college course in administration and Federal Register.
can be readily understood. If the President is assigned the duty of reyising the appropriUnderlying all remedies must be the atti- thinks his department head has proposed ation proposals made by the highest officers tude of the President. He must be con
of the Navy, will strike a familiar note with scious of the difficulties of overlapping juris- 9 The criticisms of this paper do not apply making process as at present conducted.16
anyone who has participated in the budgetdictions, of the vast power which he grants to the Bureau of the Budget's Division of merely by intimate association, of the ex- Legislative Reference, which supervises the
But even the director himself is not in a traordinary need for self-restraint. When
good position to overrule a department head; expression of departmental comment on the President concludes that a department pending legislation.
the director is of lower rank and without
This Division has been head is not equal to the responsibilities of his
responsibility for the subject. well-run and should remain at the White office, as apparently happened in the case of House.
In consequence, the net result of the Secretary Tobin, the President should dis- 10 Art. 1, sec. 9 reads in part: "No money
bureau activity is "sound and fury, signifying miss him, painful as the episode may be to shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in
nothing.” Whenever a substantial cut is all concerned. If the fault of the depart
made, it is the President himself who makes consequence of appropriations made by law.” ment head is in no way a lack of earnestness 11 42 Stat. 20 (title 31, U. S. C., sec. 1, et
it. Obviously the President can act only or loyalty, the President can and undoubt
with respect to good round numbers—he seq.). edly would make the departure a graceful 12 53 Stat. 1423 (title 5, U. S. C., sec. 133t).
cannot spend time deciding how many grade one. And the President should avoid the 13 Title 5, U. S. C., sec. 133t supp.
12 scientists there should be in the Bureau appointment of assistants who might be,
of Standards. And there should be better
14 A number of high officials of the Eisenor appear to be, or might try to become, hower administration have learned this
ways both of getting these major questions rivals of department heads. fact-and other things—the hard way.
to the President for decision and of reviewing 2. The Bureau of the Budget should be 15 The worst feature of excessive personnel transferred to the Treasury Department or in program administration is the increased 16 This is an extreme example. The point to Congress, or partly to each.
pressure thereby created to keep the pro- is that the budget examiners have neither The Bureau is the largest unit of the gram in effect after it has outlived its the rank nor the experience of the departOffice of the President, and, with the ex- usefulness.
ment officials who prepare the estimates.
the department estimates from the stand- An example of a parallel organization in is one of checks and balances. The Senate point of efficiency.
the Office of the President is the Council of has consistently shown itself willing to conIn the writer's opinion, the Bureau of the Economic Advisers. Probably the Depart- firm in the absence of clear, affirmative disBudget should be transferred back to the ment of Commerce is best qualified to advise qualification.18 It is true that the President Department of the Treasury and confined to the President on economic trends. The Office is held responsible for administration, but review of major projects and functions. If of Business Economics of that Department he must play the game according to the the Secretary of the Treasury tells a depart- has long made economic studies with such rules. ment head that the Government cannot af- success that it enjoys a high reputation. Why Presidents and rulers generally do ford a given proposal, that advice would The same Department's Bureau of the Cen- better to rely upon the advice of heads of probably be effective; it certainly would be sus has been engaged in statistical work departments and ministries than upon that taken with better grace and more serious- since the creation of the Federal Government of personal staffs is a fascinating speculaness than a ruling of the Bureau of the and is also highly regarded. On the other tion. Generally speaking the former are Budget. But if the department head was hand, the agricultural interests and the labor men who have already achieved distinction insistent, the President could decide between unions would, not without reason, resent and perspective; they are not so dependent him and the Secretary of the Treasury. As having a department primarily concerned upon the chief of state for the advancement is evident from the Forrestal diaries, a de- with the welfare of the business community of careers. They have more dealings with partment head would be far more willing to as sole economic adviser to the President. the public and legislative bodies, and therebe overruled in favor of the Secretary of the Also the Bureau of Agricultural Economics fore better understand public and legislaTreasury than in favor of the Bureau of the of the Department of Agriculture and the tive opinion. The personal aide, subconBudget.
Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Depart- sciously perhaps, sees his own fortunes tied An argument not without force could be ment of Labor are expert in their respective up with the aggrandizement of the chief of made for transferring the Bureau to Con- fields. Yet under the Truman administra- state and tends to develop a fanatical amgress or the General Accounting Office. Con- tion none of these departments was repre- bition for him. These generalizations do gress is the appropriating authority. The sented in the formulation of economic advice not always apply. In the Roosevelt admindepartment heads are the President's ap- to the President except insofar as the Council istration two department heads, Messrs. pointees in their respective areas of respon- used their statistical studies.
Morgenthau and Hopkins, functioned like sibility; they are his men, and not the repre- The problem of economic advice to the personal aides. Both had no stature apart sentatives of a foreign power or even of an- President would more properly be handled from the favor of the President and no caother branch of the Federal Government. by an interdepartmental committee of these pacity to deal with the problems of their One would think that they could carry out departments and also the Department of the respective departments, Treasury and Comhis financial policies without the necessilty Treasury.17 In order to avoid an appearance
Both continually invaded other of a special screening officer, and that the
of preferring any department or, what is areas of responsibility. The famous Morscreening should be done by the appropria
perhaps more important, the economic in- genthau plan, for instance, whatever its tion authority. A precedent is the transfer
terest represented by any department, there merits, was a typical palace maneuver. That of the audit of expenditures from the De
might be a single economic adviser from the is, its proponent made use of his ready access partment of the Treasury to the General
Office of the President to act as Chairman. to the chief of state to urge a radical policy Accounting Office effected by the Budget and
Such organization would reduce the per- concerning a subject for which he had no Accounting Act, 1921. The General Acsonnel of the Office of the President, assure
responsibility. Appointments like those of counting Office functions as an arm of Con
recognition of the departments with special Morgenthau and Hopkins to head departgress. Limitations of space forbid discusresponsibilities in the field of economics,
ments are, however, unusual; such men are sion of possible objections to this proposal. and tend to prevent the proposal to the
more frequently appointed to the personal As for the detailed examination of such President of extreme advice or fanciful
staff. On the other hand, able and confeatures of departmental estimates as relate schemes, carrying with them possibilities of
scientious public servants are constantly apto efficiency of administration, number of the most dangerous consequences.
pointed to the personal staff; unfortunately personnel and the like, this question can
An existing organization which should be
the palace atmosphere subjects them to unprobably best be dealt with by strengthen
wholesome pressures. ing the authority of the departmental
a model for the handling of this type of
In Great Britain, it was determined at a budget officers—in other words, by more orThis committee includes representatives of
cost of two revolutions that the chief of ganizational emphasis on economy within the departments having responsibilities in
state must accept the advice of the legislathe departments. The departmental budget the field of aviation. The chairman is a
ture. Recognizing the difference between officer should have more power to cut down departmental officer appointed by the Presi
a hereditary monarch and an elective Presiadministrative costs and should be less con
dent, the framers of the Constitution cerned with shepherding the department
dent; the staff consists largely of employees
adopted a far less stringent control over the estimate through the Bureau of the Budget concern themselves with the work of the
appointments of our chief of state, reand Congress with the least possible damage. The conscientious departmental budget ofcommittee only when necessary. The small
quiring merely the consent of the Senate.
Any suggestion that the Constitution under ficer, such as the one at the Department of full-time staff is appointed by the entire
the inferior officers provision contemplated Commerce when the writer served there, committee, carried on the rolls of the De
exemption from this requirement for the could be more effective without the present partment of Commerce, but paid with money
immediate staff of the President cannot be contributed by all departments represented reviewing process than he is with it.
entertained for a moment. The framers on the committee. In this way there is no 3. When a project or problem cuts across duplication of personnel; all agencies have
were entirely familiar with the evils of palace departmental lines the President should es
government, much more so than the edutablish an interdepartmental coordinating a hearing; the President has available to
cated men of the present day. They were committee, and not a parallel organization him a single officer who is familiar with the
well aware that thosn who had easy access within his own office. combined thought of those in Government
to the chief of state were not inferior to It frequently happens that a given probresponsible for the subject.
village postmasters and sanitary engineers. lem may come within the jurisdiction of two THE SUBJECT DESERVES MORE ATTENTION
Needed reforms should not be explored in or more departments. Unfortunately the so
The preceding discussion is, of course, not
any spirit of hostility to the President. Both lution frequently adopted has been to create a complete catalog of the difficulties and
Messrs. Eisenhower and Truman inherited a large organization, or series of organizadangers of the present organization nor of
this apparatus; they did not create it, and tions, within the Office of the President-orthe possible solutions of the problem. The
probably none of the considerations adganizations sometimes called coordinating subject is complex and deserves more at
vanced in this paper has even occurred to agencies which in fact parallel, duplicate, or tention than could be given here.
them. It should be frankly recognized that supersede the departments supposedly coor
the enormous accretions of power to the
Possible objections to the point of view dinated. An example of this evil was the which has been expressed are these: The
President which have taken place in the last Office of Defense Mobilization, a unit of the President has responsibility for the execu
few years have created new problems which Office of the President, and subordinate
deserve careful study if constitutional govtive branch; should he not be allowed to agencies as they existed in 1950–53. Another
ernment is to be preserved. run it to suit himself? What reason is there organizational monstrosity, run from the White House, although only in small part in
to think that the department heads whom
a President appoints will be better men than the Office of the President, was the Economic
THE FARM ISSUE those whom he has in his immediate office? Cooperation Administration, later known as the Mutual Security Administration, through
The answers to these questions are several. Mr. BUTLER. Mr. President, what which the United States had a double set of
The President must rule according to law; has been referred to as the "farm issue" embassies throughout a large part of the
the alternative is dictatorship. The matter world, and foreign aid was divorced from the
18 Insofar as service in Washington is connegotiation of American objectives. In Paris 17 Since this paper was originally written, cerned. The Senate has been jealous of apthere were four ambassadors. Because of the a step has been taken in the suggested di- pointments to service in particular States. harmonious personal relations between rection by the creation of an advisory board, 19 Which is the reason why Mr. Morgenthau Messrs. Acheson and Harriman, the results including representatives of the depart- was such an easy mark for Soviet Agent were not so bad as might have been expected. ments.
Harry Dexter White.
is of vast importance to our national will best serve the long time interests of There being no objection, the telegrams economy. This very issue has been de- farmers and consumers alike.
were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, bated throughout this session of Con
This, of course, is only one part of a sound
as follows: farm program, which must also include the gress and we must soon make our desupervision of diverted acres, along with a
AUSTIN, TEX., July 7, 1954. cision. I have previously indicated, by sound plan for conserving and building our
Hon. LYNDON B. JOHNSON, means of my weekly newsletter to my land and water resources. We believe this is
United States Senator: constituents in Maryland, that I whole- well provided for in the soil fertility bank
I have just wired the Secretary of Agri
culture as follows: heartedly support the President and plan. There are many other important
“A number of counties in central Texas are Secretary Benson on their farm pro- aspects of this problem which space does not
more seriously affected just now by drought gram. For this reason, and because I permit covering.
The most thoughtful farmers whom I
than at any other time in the past several am firmly convinced that the interest know are fully convinced that every means
years. In my judgment, it is vital and urgent of our farm citizens will be best served should be used to encourage farmers to exer
that some steps be taken to provide relief by that program, I was gratified to recise self-discipline in meeting this problem
either by the extension of the emergency feed ceive a letter from the president of the rather than to continue to perpetuate evils
program or by the inauguration now of new Maryland Farm Bureau which supports we have created under the program of the
program that would give the assistance so past few years.
desperately needed. I respectfully urge and my conclusion. Mr. President, I rec
recommend that steps be taken by the United
Sincerely, ommend this letter to my colleagues and
WILSON A. HEAPS,
States Department of Agriculture to give as. ask unanimous consent that it be printed
President, Maryland Farm Bureau,
sistance to this emergency. High regards." in the body of the RECORD.
I know you will be glad to take appropriate There being no objection, the letter
steps to encourage action by the United was ordered to be printed in the RECORD,
States Department of Agriculture which will as follows:
DROUGHT CONDITIONS IN TEXAS provide relief in this emergency situation.
Governor of Texas. Hon. JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER,
matic story of the disastrous floods along Senate Office Building,
the Rio Grande has diverted attention Washington, D. C.
AUSTIN, TEX., July 8, 1954. from the fact that some areas of Texas Hon. LYNDON B. JOHNSON, DEAR SENATOR BUTLER: I am glad for the
are more seriously affected by drought United States Senator, privilege-as suggested in your letter of June 22, to comment further regarding my conditions now than at any time in the
Washington, D. C.: observation of the reaction of Maryland past several years. That appraisal is Appreciate so much your message regarding farmers whenever they are actually brought the statement of the Governor of Texas
drought conditions and your efforts in bringface to face with control programs on their in a telegram sent to me yesterday.
ing matter to attention of USDA officials. farming operations.
The affected counties now advise me that
Texas Agriculture Commissioner John Probably nowhere else do farmers practice
their most serious need is for protein feed and C. White is in Washington this week to they earnestly hope that program can be congreater diversification on their crop program than in our small State of Maryland.
confer with Department of Agriculture tinued or reopened after July 15. Kind reAs one with 35 years' experience, I am re
officials about the possibility of aid for gards. minded as I look back through the past farmers and cattlemen in these drought
ALLAN SHIVERS, years that my present crop schedule is en- stricken areas. Commissioner White
Governor of Texas. tirely different than during that earlier pe- has reported to me that conditions are riod. Freedom to choose and decide what very serious in a number of central Texas
GOLDTHWAITE, TEX., July 7, 1954. seemed best to undertake for the year ahead counties.
Hon. LYNDON JOHNSON, without any regard whatsoever for the op
United States Senate, Range conditions are the worst in the eration of the years past provided the great
Washington, D. C.: est incentive for progress during my expe
history of the cattle industry in this Drought conditions extremely serious; rience. Whatever success I have achieved area.
crops ruined; ranges dry. Help needed to in farming derives from that basic principle. There is practically no grass left. restore county to emergency drought relief.
Control programs must necessarily curtail Cattlemen already have had to begin COMMISSIONERS COURT OF MILLS COUNTY, that privilege. History of past years' pro- supplemental feeding of livestock.
JOHN L. PATTERSON, County Judge. duction becomes the limitations beyond
The harvest of oats and other small which farmers cannot go, even though factors in their particular situation would norgrain was very scant. In most cases,
GATESVILLE, TEX., July 7, 1954. mally assure the plan to be according to
Hon. LYNDON JOHNSON, the grain harvested was not enough to good business management. Our farmers pay the expenses of making the crop.
Senator, United States Senate,
Washington, D. C.: have never been forced to deal with situa- The corn crop is virtually a total loss.
We urge your support in extending the tions in the past comparable to those we Water supplies are dangerously low at national drought emergency program and face at the present time. Unforeseen circumstances came along at the opportune
several points in these central Texas request that Coryell County be included on counties.
the active list for Federal aid for drought time to permit the waiving of some of the regulatory features of our previous programs
relief. Letter will follow. The cattlemen in these counties ur
E. PRICE BAUMAN, and I feel that this is giving some farmers gently need protein supplements and
President, Gatesville Chamber of our present day the false hope that the roughage or hay to sustain their breed
of Commerce, control features of a high rigid program can ing herds. If these cattle breeders are somehow be avoided again.
forced to sell their foundation stock, it Even today with the limited regulations
GATESVILLE, TEX., July 7, 1954. will represent economic waste of the most Hon. LYNDON JOHNSON, in our corn program we are hearing numerous expressions of dissatisfaction such as flagrant kind.
Washington, D. C.: evidenced by Mr. Ingwalson's letter which I
The present cutoff date for the nation- Please extend drought emergency feed proenclosed in my letter of recent date.
al drought relief protein feed program is gram and include Coryell County, Tex. We must bear in mind, however, that a July 15—Thursday of next week. That Foundation herds are having to be sold. very large majority of our farmers express date can be extended by administrative
Breeding herds lost. Pastures are 15 percent their disapproval of a high rigid support
of normal condition. Heavy grasshopper decision. program at every opportunity. They fore
damage. Grain crop way below normal.
It either should be extended, or a sepsee the handicaps involved in the controls
CORYELL COUNTY FARM BUREAU, necessary to meet present-day situations. arate program should be set up for the
R. A. HEMPEL, President. They also very well understand that as at
assistance of these counties, which after tractive as prices may be, it represents only 4 years of drought conditions are in a
SAN SABA, TEX., July 7, 1954. one factor in the determination of net critical and even desperate situation.
Hon. LYNDON JOHNSON: income.
Such action is vitally necessary.
As 1 of the 9 livestock and farming counThe necessary limitations on the right to
I have received telegrams from offi- ties in compact area in central Texas comproduce will bring about a greater loss in net income in most instances than would
cials in several of these counties, setting pletely missed by recent and earlier rains result in a lesser price as possible under the forth the conditions that exist. I ask where pastures were burned to crisp and feed
crops completely destroyed, we urge you use flexible program.
unanimous consent that the text of these every reasonable means to prevent national Without question the flexible support pro telegrams be appended to my remarks in drought relief protein feed program being gram as recommended by the administration the RECORD.
closed July 15 or have separate program set up for these counties after 4 years drought When the junior Senator from Mon- but that the French weakness was too condition now more desperate and critical tana claims we have too many voices great to be bolstered even by the maxiin these 9 counties than at any time. Stock saying things about foreign relations, mum potential of American diplomacy. feeding resumed this week.
perhaps he is confused, but I have the M. W. TRUSSELL,
The fundamental blunder with respect San Saba County Judge.
utmost confidence that the American to Indochina was made after 1945, when A. B. FORD,
people are not confused. I have more the French, as the colonial power in County Agricultural Agent. confidence in them and their ability to Indochina, had been ousted by the JapJ. E. McCOURY,
judge situations, no matter how compli- anese. The question then was whether Chairman, San Saba County cated, than apparently he has.
or not the United States as a victor over Drought Committee.
I have read the Mansfield speech. It Japan would use its power to put the L. P. COBERN, Secretary, County Chamber of Commerce.
merce seems to me a pretty fuzzy expression. French back into Indochina. Original
Just what he wanted to accomplish ly, President Roosevelt was against this
is not so clear-unless it is only to on the ground that France did not have GEORGETOWN, TEX., July 7, 1954.
criticize. Senator LYNDON B. JOHNSON:
a good record as a colonial power and The executive committee of the William
The Senator complains because va- its return would not be accepted by the son County Livestock Association has met rious Senators have spoken about for- people.
people. Nevertheless, our Government and discussed the drought situation here in eign policy which he says is confusing allowed itself to be persuaded in this this county. It is the opinion of this group to the people. He says:
matter by the French and the British that the county is in need of drought relief and if any counties are designated, William
Presumably the President has a Secretary and we acted to restore France's colonial
of State to assist him in matters of foreign position in Indochina. The French poson County should be included. The live
policy. If that is the case, then the only sition was maintained only in the face stock operator is especially up against it.
official voices we should hear in these matAny number are feeding, others are just ters ought to be the voice of the President posed the French which started the co
of bloody massacres by those who opselling their livestock. The rainfall for this
and the voice of the Secretary of State. year will average about 5 inches which is
lonial war, of which the Communists about one-third of normal, and fell in such I cannot follow him on this. I recog- subsequently took control, and the result small amounts each time that very little nize and respect his right to speak on has been a bleeding of France and the benefit was derived from what did fall.
the foreign policy of the United States. giving to the Communists of a popular We would appreciate anything that can be
The only explanation for his speaking issue against which the French were undone in designating this county for drought relief and especially in the way of feed for
able to prevail. would be that Republican Senators are livestock.
"officials" and Democrats are not "of- It was in 1945 that our Government WILLIAMSON COUNTY LIVESTOCK
ficials." This seems rather thin since cooperated in the reestablishment of ASSOCIATION,
the Senate is a coordinate branch of French colonialism in Indochina. It ANDREW P. PRUDE, President. Government in relation to many aspects was not until July 3, 1953, that the
of foreign policy and all of its members French gave assurance of independence are “officials.”
to the associated states. This proCONSTRUCTION AT MILITARY AND
Senator MANSFIELD suggests that the nouncement came as a result of strong NAVAL INSTALLATIONS
collapse of the French position in Indo- representations by Secretary Dulles. He The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Up- china is because the United States went prevailed upon the French to make TON in the chair). Is there any further along with the French demand that it such assurances within 6 months after morning business? If not, the Chair lays should have a peace conference at Ge- this administration took office. Remembefore the Senate the unfinished busi- neva. It is absurd to attribute French ber that the civil war had then been in ness, which the Secretary will state. weakness, its loss of the will to fight, progress for about 6 years.
The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. A bill (H. R. the loss of Dien Bien Phu, and so forth, The Senator from Montana says, 9242) to authorize certain construction to the Geneva Conference. The French "Geneva was a mistake; and the result at military and naval installations and were determined to talk of peace and was a failure of American policy. It for the Alaska communications system, would have done so whether or not we is a profoundly
a profoundly humiliating result." and for other purposes. consented.
Geneva may have been a mistake, but, Mr. FLANDERS obtained the floor.
American diplomacy is, of course, a if so, it was not a United States mistake. Mr. FERGUSON. Mr. President, I potent force. But it is not sufficiently The United States has not the power, ask unanimous consent that the sen- potent to overcome the consequences of and, if it had, it could not wisely exercise ator from Vermont may yield to me for growing French weakness and the fact the power to force France to go on fight10 minutes without his losing the floor. that as a result of two world wars ing after its will and power to fight had
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there France has been weakened to a point gone. We might ourselves have stepped objection? The Chair hears none, and where its overall commitments in the in and taken over the fighting but that the Senator from Michigan may pro
world are beyond its capability. The apparently is not what the Senator from ceed.
United States could, of course, push in Montana wanted us to do. Certainly it
to fill the vacuum created by the de- is not what the American people wanted AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
cline of French power. This would, us to do. There is not the slightest rea
however, have involved us, in the case of son why the United States should feel Mr. FERGUSON. Mr. President, very
Mr. President, very Indochina, in fighting the French for humiliated as a result of what is hapseldom do I find it necessary to take the privilege of getting in to fight the
the privilege of getting in to fight the pening at Geneva. It has taken throughissue with a colleague on the floor of Viet Minh. I do not understand that the out a clear, strong and honorable posithe United States Senate. Unfortu- Senator from Montana advocates this tion. If our position, for understandnately, I would be remiss in my duties course. This administration was alert able reasons, is not shared by others, as a member of the Senate and a mem- to try to fill the vacuum to the maxi- that may be a reflection upon them, but ber of our Foreign Relations Committee mum possible extent. We agreed in sub- surely it is not a reflection upon the if I did not make reply to the foreign stance to pay the entire cost of the war. United States. policy views recently expressed by the We agreed to supply the French and The Secretary of State, speaking at junior Senator from Montana. To me the Vietnam forces with military equip- Seattle on June 10, 1954, pointed out there is great importance in differences ment, and we agreed that we would share that while the United States does have of views regarding our foreign affairs in an “internationalizing" of the war if
a large measure of responsibility in the deliberately debated, with decisions ar- the French were willing to put it on an
world “that is far short of saying that rived at after full and fair debate and international basis with the backing of then supported with the greatest pos- the United Nations and with conditions
the United States has responsibility for sible degree of bipartisanship. Little is for the independence of the associated
all that takes place throughout the accomplished in behalf of the American states which would make it sure that
world. We do not accept the view that people if we establish as a rule of oper- it was not a colonial power. In these
whenever there is trouble anywhere it is ations self-imposed and unnecessary lim respects we went to the limit. If this
the fault of the United States and we itations on what can and what cannot was not enough, and it was not enough, must quickly fix it. The United States be said in our dealings with other na- the reason was not that the United does not believe that it can alone solve tions.
States could properly have done more problems everywhere. The possibilities
of solution lie primarily with the peo- agreement to hold a conference after the pines to intervene in the Indochina war proples directly concerned." Berlin Conference.
vided Congress and our allies agreed. But It is a grave disservice to the United So far as the second objective of the
the British would not agree and the plans
fell through. States to assume the contrary view and Communists is concerned, namely, the
The Eisenhower administration set a that it is a failure of the United States breakup of EDC, it appears to me that
tentative date for an air strike to aid the if anywhere in the world others fail. that objective is well on the way to
then besieged fortress of Dien Bien Phu. Uncle Sam is not a worldwide “Mr. Fixit.” achievement. As I stated yesterday, I The date was April 28, 2 days after the open
Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, will feel so forlorn about the possibilities of ing of the Geneva Conference. the Senator from Vermont yield, to per- EDC that I think the United States President Eisenhower was prepared to go mit me to reply to the Senator from should look for an alternative; and that
to Congress Monday, April 26, to ask for Michigan? alternative should be to bring about the
passage of a joint resolution to permit Amer
ican intervention. Mr. FLANDERS. I yield for that pur- inclusion of both West Germany and
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and pose. Spain in the North Atlantic Treaty
Adm. Arthur W. Radford, Chairman of the Mr. MANSFIELD. I have listened Alliance.
Joint Chiefs of Staff, first broached the with interest to the remarks made by the The Senator from Michigan says that idea at a secret meeting April 3 of the bidistinguished senior Senator from Mich- the administration went the limit. Well, partisan leaders of Congress. igan. In my opinion, the American peo- it tried to go the limit, because Admiral In neither instance was the use of Ameriple are just as confused as ever on the Radford discussed with responsible con
can ground troops contemplated. basis of the explanation made by ad- gressional leaders—and perhaps the Sen- Now, if I may turn to April 3— ministration spokesmen, ator from Michigan was among them
Mr. FERGUSON. Just a moment. There is much in what the Senator has the idea of using American naval and air Mr. MANSFIELD. I am attempting said with which I could agree.
support at the time of the battle of Dien to answer the Senator's question. matter of fact, I believe I recognized Bien Phu.
Mr. FERGUSON. I do not know some of the phrases I used in my speech Furthermore, as the Senator from
where the statement came from about yesterday, or at least they were para- Michigan must know, the administration which Mr. Roberts has written. phrases. I think the Senator from asked a group of responsible congres
Mr. MANSFIELD. I now have the inMichigan should be reminded that Presi- sional leaders what they thought of the
formation, if I may give it. I must say dent Roosevelt recognized that an ex- idea of having a resolution passed, which
that I get my information only from plosive situation would occur in Indo- would give to the President of the
the newspapers, because I do not have china if the French returned, and that United States the discretion to use au
access to the confidential information he should be commended for his efforts thority as he saw fit in the southeast Asia
of the Department. to bring about an end of colonialism in area. Those proposals are a matter of
Mr. FERGUSON. But is not the Senthat area. record.
ator a member of the Committee on ForAfter the war was concluded, the Brit- Mr. FERGUSON. Mr. President, will
eign Relations? ish occupied the southeast part of Indo- the Senator from Vermont yield?
Mr. MANSFIELD. Oh, yes. china, and the Chinese Nationalists, un- Mr. FLANDERS. I yield to the Sen
Mr. FERGUSON. Did not the Senader Chiang Kai-shek, occupied the ator from Michigan.
tor attend the conferences of the Comnorthern part. The British left very Mr. FERGUSON. Will the Senator
mittee on Foreign Relations on the very shortly, and turned the southern area from Montana state who was asked for
issue of Indochina, about which he is over to the French. But a great deal in a resolution to authorize the sending of
now speaking? the way of negotiations was required be- troops into Indochina ?
Mr. MANSFIELD. I may say to the fore the French and the Nationalist Gov- Mr. MANSFIELD. I was going to
Senator from Michigan that I get more ernment of China, under Chiang Kai
raise a technical point about the question information from the press than I get shek, could get together on terms upon asked, because I said that American
from my attendance at the executive which the Chinese Nationalists would naval and air support had been proposed.
sessions of the Committee on Foreign evacuate.
Mr. FERGUSON. No; that was not
Relations. I read further from the Finally, an arrangement was made by my question.
article by Mr. Roberts: means of which the Chinese Nationalists Mr. MANSFIELD. Yes; that is what were given railroad and seaport rights in the Senator asked about. It is the same
Saturday, April 3: Dulles and Radford met Vietnam, and the French took over.
in secret session at the State Department thing, because if one goes into Indochina
with eight congressional leaders representSo far as I have been able to study the on an airplane he is just as much a
ing both parties and with the then Under Berlin Conference, it was, in my opinion, trooper as if he is on the ground.
Secretary of Defense Roger Kyes and the a 100-percent failure, because the Rus- Mr. FERGUSON. But will the Sena- then Navy Secretary Robert B. Anderson. sians won everything they wanted at tor state who was asked for a resolution? Congressional leaders present were Senators that Conference. What they wanted Mr. MANSFIELD. Responsible con
KNOWLAND, MILLIKIN, LYNDON JOHNSON, comprised two objectives. One was to gressional leaders. I was not present,
RUSSELL, and CLEMENTS, and Representatives achieve some degree of recognition of because I am not one of the responsible
MARTIN, McCORMACK, and PRIEST.
Dulles said the President had asked him Communist China; the other was to leaders.
to call the meeting. He said he felt that it bring about a breakup of the European Mr. FERGUSON. I think I have at
was indispensable at this juncture that the Defense Community.
tended all the meetings, and I have leaders of Congress feel as the administraSo far as the recognition of Commu- never heard of any such request.
tion did on the Indochina crisis. nist China is concerned-and much has Mr. MANSFIELD. If the Senator Radford said the administration was con
cerned with the rapidly deteriorating sitbeen heard about that in this country from Michigan will bear with me, and
uation. during the past week—in my opinion, the if the Senator from Vermont will be
Dulles said that the President wanted him mere fact that the United States agreed kind enough to yield further
to take up with the congressional leaders with France, Great Britain, and other Mr. FLANDERS. I yield further.
action by Congress, but action short of a nations, to attend the general conference Mr. MANSFIELD. I shall be glad to declaration of war or the use of ground at Geneva, Switzerland, to which com- look up the item for the Senator.
troops. Dulles said that if Congress would munist China was invited as an inter- I have before me an article entitled
permit the President to use air and naval ested state, indicates that a degree of “United States Twice Proposed Indo
power, then a way could be found to prevent recognition was achieved. china Air Strike," written by Chalmers
broadening of the conflict. What has happened to China through M. Roberts, and published in the Wash- I repeat the last sentence: the person of Chou En-lai since the Ge- ington Post and Times Herald of June 7, Dulles said that if Congress would permit neva Conference got under way? He has 1954. I understand that Mr. Roberts is the President to use air and naval power, been wined and dined while visiting the a quite reliable writer, and I believe the then a way could be found to prevent broadheads of state in Burma, India, and else- Senator from Michigan must have seen
ening of the conflict. He said it was felt where. China now is really a far greater the article. Let me read the leading
that the necessary air and naval power was power than she was before the Geneva paragraph:
already in the area and that Congress should Conference. This is due, in some small
shoulder its responsibility in the crisis.
The United States twice during April propart, at least, to the fact that the United posed using American Navy carrier planes
Radford suggested that if Congress passed
a joint resolution giving the President genStates was a party to the particular and Air Force planes based in the Philip- eral power to act, it would be possible to